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Archaeological & Natural Hi^ory 


Published under the Direction of the Society 
Formed in that County A.D. 1853. 

Edited by Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A., Red Gables; 
NuRSTEED Road, Devizes. 

Nos. 162—166. June, 1935— June, 1937. 

C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 

June, 1937. 


Salisbury and Archdeacon of Wilts, 1674. Sheriff's 
Javelin Men and their Javelins. Miniature of Jane 
Seymour by Wenceslaus Hollar. Potterne 1850 — 1900, 
by T. Smith, copied from the original notes by Mr. Smith 
with illustrations by W. R. Smith. The Cartulary of 
Lewes Priory. Calstone Church. Oyster Shells used 
in Masonry of the 13th Century in Salisbury Cathedral. 
The Preservation of Avebury and its Surroundings. 
Early Telephones of Wiltshire make. The Arms of Mrs. 
Anne Earle, of Harpenden, Merts. Bronze Dagger, 
Ash ton Keynes. The Straw Plaiting Industry in 
Wiltshire. Avebury Church, Roodloft. Highway 
Church. Aldbourne Church Bells. Stonehenge. Iron 
Sword from Battlesbury. La Tene I Fibula from 
Salisbury. Heraldry of Wiltshire. Interments at 
Bradenstoke Abbey. Cricklade Drainage. The Roman 
Road on Hinton Down S.E. of Wanborough Plain Farm. 
Earth Circle at Sudden Farm, Burbage. The Meux 
Excavation at Avebury. An Early Oil Painting of 

■ Salisbury in the Museum.... 265—292 

Wilts Obituary 293—298 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 299—310 

Additions to Museum and Library 311 — 312 

No. CLXIV. June, 1936. 

The Eighty-Second General Meeting of the Wiltshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society held at 
Hungerford, July 31st, August 1st and 2nd, 1935 313—320 

An Old Malmesbury Minute Book : By Sir Richard H. Luce 321—326 

A Grant by the Abbess of Wilton Dated 7 May, 28 Henry 

VIII, 1536 : By The Rev. A. W. Stote-Blandy 327-329 

A Mediaeval Dispute as to Right of Presentation to the 

Rectory of Somerford Magna : By Canon F. H. Manley 330-334 

Additional Notes with regard to Farmer, Wermere, Ashmore, 
and Tollard Royal Ponds : By the late Rev. W. 
Goodchild 335—339 

A Rate made this 19th Day of August anno Dom. 1695, for 
& towards the Repair of the P.ish Church of Calne, Etc., 
being Two Poor Rates : Transcribed by C. R. Everett 340 — 344 

Box Parish Records — Sidelights on Life in a Wiltshire 

Village in the Past : By A. Shaw Mellor 345—357 

The Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts : By Frank Stevens, 

O.B.E., F.S.A 358—378 

Notes on the Prebendal Mansion of Sherborne Monastery, 
commonly known as the King's House, in the Close of 
Sarum. 1220—1850 : By C. R. Everett, F S.G 379—405 


An Unrecorded Group of Barrows and other Earthworks at 

Ford, Laverstock : By J. F. S. Stone, D.Phil 406—411 

Two Egyptian Limestone Scarabs found in Wiltshire : By 

the late G. H. Engleheart, F.S.A 412—415 

Two Egyptian Limestone Scarabs found in Wiltshire : By 

P. L. Collignon, Ph.D 416—419 

W^all Paintings formerly in High worth Church : By Mrs. 

M. E. Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A Scot 420—421 

Wilts Obituary 422—430 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 431 — 440 

Additions to Museum and Library 441 — 442 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1935 443 — 446 

No. GLXV. December, 1986. 

The Tomb of Lord Walter Hungerford, K.G., in Salisbury 

Cathedral: By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F.R.Hist.S... 447—456 

The Monument of Robert, Lord Hungerford : by Canon 

J. M. J. Fletcher, F.R.Hist.S 457—465 

An Enclosure on Boscombe Down East : By J. F. S. Stone, 

B.A., D. Phil 466—489 

The Eighty-third General Meeting of the Wiltshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society held at 
Swindon, August 11th, 12th, and 13th, 1936 490—495 

Pond Barrows : By G. M. Young 496 — 498 

Ornamental Impressed Bricksat Bodorgan House, Ramsbury : 

By Vice-Admiral E. Hyde-Parker 499 

Lord Halifax and the Malmesbury Election in 1701 : 
Transcribed by the Rev. A. L. Browne from Letters in 
the Bodlein Library 500—503 

Notes on Bury Wood Camp, Colerne, Wilts : By A. Shaw 

Mellor 504—512 

The Portway at Newton Tony: By R. P. Wright 513 — 516 

Liddington : By J. Lee Osborn, F.R.Hist.S 517—520 

Notes on the Courts Leet and Baron in Amesbury, Wilts : 

By G. W. G. Hughes 521—525 

Notes. — The Amesbury Watch Bill in Salisbury Museum. 
Inglesham Church Wall-Paintings. An Earthen Circle 
at Stratton St. Margarets. Stonehenge, Human 
Markings of Ancient Origin. The Preservation of the 
Amenities of Old Sarum. Malmesbury Abbey, Roof 
Restoration Plans, by Sir H. Brakspear. Machine- 
breaking Riots at Pythouse Farm, Tisbury. A Painted " 
W^ooden Mace Stand at Salisbury. Polished Axe of 
Greenish-brown Stone. Straw Plaiting Industry in 
Wiltshire. The Roman Villa at Netheravon. Cloud 


Bursts and Earthworks. The Mere Alabaster Tablet. 
Early Tobacco Pipe Maker. The Museum Library. 
Wiltshire Cuttings and Scraps. Overton and Fyfield 
Field Names. Bells preserved at Devizes Fire Station. 
Marlborough Castle. The end of the Courts Leet and 

Baron of the Manor of Great Sherston 526— 545 

Wilts Obituary 546 — 552 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 553 — 568 

Additions to Museum and Library 569 — 57 1 

List of Members 572 — 582 

No. CLXVL June, 1937 
Horns of Urus said to have been found in a Barrow at 

Cherhill : By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A. Scot. 583—586 

River Captures near Devizes : By Lt.-Col. R. H. Cunnington 587 — 591 

Salisbury and the Navigation of the Avon : By T. S. Willan 592 — 594 
Notes on Churches : By the late Sir Harold Brakspear, 

K.C.V.O., F.S.A 595—607 

The Old Belfry in the Close of the Canons of Salisbury : 

By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.Hist.S 608—616 

Presidential Address at the Swindon Meeting of the Wilts 

Archaeological Society, August 11th, 1936 : By F. 

Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A 617—631 

Wall Paintings in Oaksey Church : By Canon E. H. Goddard, 

F.S.A , 632—636 

Search for Arms in Wiltshire in 1612 : B}^ B. Howard 

Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot 637—639 

A Late Bronze Age Habitation Site on Thorny Down, 

Winterbourne Gunner, S.Wilts : By J . F. S. Stone, D. Phil. 640—660 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 661 — 665 

Additions to Museum and Library 666 — 668 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1936 669—672 

Index to Vol. XLVII 673—747 


The Saxon Arch in the N. Wall of the Nave of Britford Church, 5. 
Chiselbury Camp from the Air, 20. Woodland accredited to the 
Domesday Manors, 29 ; Geology Simplified and Position of the Chief 
"Forests," 30; Parish Boundaries and Woodland in the Vale of 
Pewsey, 32. Grey Friars of Salisbury — Plan and Plates I — V, 40. 
Plan of Ratfyn Area, Stone Axe Hammers, 56 ; Millmead, Ratfyn, 
Amesbury, Figs. 4, 5, and 6, 59 ; Figs. 7 — 13, 63. Easton Down, 
Winterslow, Plate I, Figs. 1—6, 69 ; Plate II, Plan of Dwelhng Pits 
and Sections of Ashpit and Ditch on Easton Down, 73 ; Plate HI, 
Implements from Beaker Dwelling Pits, Easton Down, 75 ; Plate IV, 
Skeleton of Dog from Ash Pit C, Easton Down, 76. Map of the 
Highworth district showing circles in the parishes of Latton, Blunsdon, 


Highworth, Inglesham and Lechlade, 114. Section across bank and 
ditch of Circle No 16, 117. Plate I, Common Farm, Highworth ; 
Plate II, North Leaze Farm, Highworth ; Plate III, Ashmead Brake, 
Blunsdon St. Andrews ; Plate IV, The Sevenhampton Group of 
Circles, 120. Plan of Excavation at Totney Hill, Box, 170. Straw 
Splitter, 282. Iron Sword from Battlesbury, 285. La Tene I Fibula 
from Salisbury, 285. Section of Roman Road . and Lynchets 
S.E. of Wanborough Plain Farm, 287. Flint Saw and "Petit 
Tranchet ' ' arrowhead from the original surface under the bank at 
Avebury, 288. An Early Oil Painting of Salisbury, 290. Hannington 
Manor, 307. Hannington Hall, 308. Tile Stamp in Winchester 
Museum, 359. Inlaid Paving of Wilts, Fig. 2, 362 ; Figs. 3 and 4, 
363 ; Fig. 5, 366 ; Plates I— VII, 368—374. King's House, 15th 
century ; King's House, 20th century ; East View of the King's House 
before the alterations ; South-west View of the King's House before 
the alterations ; East View of the King's House since the alterations ; 
King's House, Diocesan Training College, The Close, Salisbury, East 
Front, April, 1936, 384—385. Ford, La verstock— Plate I, General 
Plan of Earthworks ; Plate II, Aerial Photograph of Ende Burgh 
(Hand Barrows) and surrounding Earthworks ; Plate III, Vessel from 
Cist 1, 408 — 409 Limestone Egyptian Scarab found at Ludgershall, 
414 ; Limestone Egyptian Scarab found near Stonehenge, 415 ; Mural 
Painting formerly in Highworth Church ; Mural Painting of an Angel 
formerly in Highworth Church : Mural Inscription formerly in High- 
worth Church, 420 — 421 . Plate I, Iron Grille of the Hungerford Chapel; 
Plate II, Tomb of Lord Walter Hungerford and his first wife ; Plate 
HI, Interior of the Chantry Chapel of Lord Robert Hungerford * 
Plate IV, Mural Paintings in the Chantry Chapel of Lord Robert 
Hungerford before its destruction. Plate V, (a) Exterior of the 
Chantry Chapel of Lord Robert Hungerford ; (b) Arms, &c., 
on Canopy ; (c) Effigy of Lord Robert Hungerford, 456 — 457. 
BoscombeDown East, Plate I, 467 ; Plate II. 471 ; Plate HI, 476 ; Plate 
IV, 479 ; Plate V, 481 ; Plate VI, 483. Ornamental Bricks from 
Bodorgan House. Rams bury, 499 ; Plan of Bury Wood Camp, 
Colerne, 505. The Portway at Newton Tony, Figs. I and II, Plates 
I — III, 514 — 515. Inscription on Amesbury Watch Bill, 526. 
Amesbury Watch Bill, 527. Painted Wooden Mace Stand at Salisbury, 
536, Polished Axe of " Foreign " Stone from Hilcot, 537. Enghsh 
Alabaster Tablet found near the site of Mere Castle, 540. Horn cores 
with part of skull of Urus {Bos primigenius) from Cherhill, 584. 
Pottery found with skull of Urus at Cherhill, 586. Perspective view 
from the N.E., of the Cathedral and Close of Salisbury showing the 
old Belfry, 609. Ground Plan of the Old Detached Belfry at 
Salisbury, 612. Vine pattern on the wall of the S. Aisle, Oaksey 
Church, 632. Figure of Lord and the Trades, on the wall of the S. 
Aisle of Oaksey Church, 634. A Late Bronze Age Habitation Site on 
Thorny Down, Plate I, 641 ; Plate II, 642 ; Plate HI, 645 ; Plate IV, 
649 ; Plate V, 651 ; Plate VI, 655 ! Plate VII, 657. 

^ R nfT 1^^| 



JUNE, 1935. 

Vol. XLVII. 



Archaeological & Natural History 


Published under the Direction of the 

A.D. 185 3. 

edited by 
CANON E. H. GODDARD, F.SA., Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

[The authors of the papers printed in this " Magazine" are alone responsible for all 
statements made therein.] 


Printed for the Society by C. H. Woodward, 
Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 

Price 8s. 

Members, Gratis, 


TAKE NOTICE that a copious Index for the preceding eight 
volumes of the Magazine will be found at the end of Vols, 
viii., xvi., xxiv., and xxxii. The subsequent Volumes are 
each fully indexed separately. 

The annual subscription is 15s. Qd., the entrance fee for new 
Members is 10s. 6<i. Life Membership £15 15s. 

Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society /or 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mr. R. D. Owen, Bank Chambers, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed. 

The Numbers of tliis Magazine will be delivered gratis, as issued, 
to Members who are not in arrear of their Annual Subscrip- 
tions, but in accordance with Byelaw No. 8 " The Financial 
Secretary shall give notice to Members in arrear, and the 
Society's publications will not be forwarded to Members whose 
Subscriptions shall remain unpaid after such notice." 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
tary: Canon E. H. Goddaud, F.S.A., Red Gables, Nursteed 
Road, Devizes. 


To be obtained of Mr, B. D. OWEK", Bank Chambers, Devizes. 

WILTSHIRE DOWNS, by the Rev. A. C. Sniifcb,M.A, One Volume, Atlas 
4to., 248 pp., 17 large Maps, and 110 Woodcuts, Extra Cloth. One copy 
offered to each Member of the Society at kl Is. Od. A few copies only. 

504 pp., with Map, Cloth. By the Rev. T. A. Preston, M. A. Price to the 
Public 1 6s. ; but one copy offered to every Member of the Society at half-price. 

IN THE SOCIETY'S MUSEUM, with 175 Illustrations. Part I. Price Is. 6d. 

Part II. 2nd Edition, 1935. Illustrated. 2s. 6d. By post 3s. 

Price Is. APPENDIX No. L, II., and IIL, 3d. each. 

LIBRARY at the MUSEUM. Price Is. 6d. 

COLLECTION. Price 6d. 

BACK NUMBERS of the MAGAZINE. Price to the Public, 8s., 5s. 6d., 
and 3s. 6d. (except in the case of a few numbers, the price of which is raised). 
Members are allowed a reduction of 25 per cent, from tbese prices. 


Archaeological & Natural History 


No. Ct.XTI. 

JUNE, 1935. 

Vol. XLVII. 

Contents. PAGE. 

The Eighty-First General Meeting of the Wiltshire 

Arch^ological and Natural History Society held 

AT Salisbury, July 31st, August 1st and 2nd, 1934... 1 — 6 
Edington Monastery : By the late Sir Harold Brakspear, 

K.C.V.O., F.S.A 7— 19 

Chiselbury Camp : By R. C. C. Clay, F.S.A 20— 24 

Woodland in Wiltshire at the Time of the Domesday 

Book : By F. W. Morgan 25— 33 

Museum Maintenance Fund Appeal, 1934 34 — 35 

Grey Friars of Salisbury : By A. G. Little 36 — 54 

Some Discoveries at Ratfyn, Amesbury, and their 

Bearing on the Date of Woodhenge : By J. F. S. 

Stone, B.A., D.Phil 55— 67 

Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1933 — 1934 : 

By J. F. S. Stone 68— 80 

Troubles over Imber Brook in the Reign of King 

Charles 2nd : By B. Howard Cunnington, F.S.A., 

Scot 81— 84 

Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934 : Edited 

by C. M. R. Pitman, 39, Rampart Road, Sahsbury 85—113 

Earthen Circles near Highworth : By Major G. W. G. 

Allen and A. D. Passmore 114 — 122 

Wilts Obituary 123—135 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 136 — 160 

Additions to Museum and Library 161 — 164 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1934 165 — ^168 

The Saxon Arch in the N. Wall of the Nave of Britford 

Church 5 

Chiselbury Camp from the Air 20 

Woodland accredited to the Domesday Manors 29 

Geology Simplified and Position of the Chief " Forests " 30 

Parish Boundaries and Woodland in the Vale of Pewsey 32 

Grey Friars of Salisbury — Plan and Plates I — V 40 

Plan of Ratfyn Area. Ston e Axe Hammers 56 

Millmead, Ratfyn, Amesbury, Figs. 4, 5, and 6 59 

Figs. 7— 13 63 

Easton Down, Winterslow, Plate I, Figs. I — 6 69 

Plate II, Plan of Dwelling Pits and Sections of Ashpit 

and Ditch on Easton Down 73 

Plate III, Implements from Beaker Dwelhng Pits, 

Easton Down 75 

Plate IV, Skeleton of Dog from Ash Pit C, Easton 

Down, Winterslow 76 

Map of the Highworth district showing circles in the parishes 
of Latton, Blunsdon, Highworth, Inglesham and 

Lechlade 114 

Section across bank and ditch of Circle No. 16 117 

Plate I, Common Farm, Highworth ; Plate II, North 
Leaze Farm, Highworth ; Plate III, Ashmead Brake, 
Blunsdon St. Andrews ; Plate IV, The Seven- 
hampton Group of Circles 120 

Devizes : — C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 




NO. CLXii. June, 1935. Vol. xlvii. 





July 31st, August 1st, and 2nd, 1984.1 


This was the eighth meeting held by the Society at Salisbury, the last 
having been ten years previously. The proceedings began with the 
Annual General Meeting held in the Lecture Room of the Museum, by 
kind permission of the Committee and the Controller, Sir Harold 
Brakspear, K.C.V.O., F.S.A., the President of the Society, being in the 
chair. After the reading of the previous year's minutes, the President 
called on the Hon. Secretary to read the report. 

THE REPORT, 1933—34. 

" Membership. — On June 1st, 1934, the number of members was : 
One honorary member, 18 life members, and 403 annual members, 422 
in all ; one less than in 1933 and 20 less than in 1931. 

Finance. — The General Fund began 1933 with a balance of 
^453 19s. Id. and ended the year with one of ^493 16s., which, however, 
included a debt from the Museum Maintenance Fund of ^40, so that in 
fact the year almost exactly paid its own expenses . The heaviest item 
was, of course, as usual, the publication of the two numbers of the 
Magazine, which cost ;^250 4s. lOd. 

^ The fullest account of the meeting was given in the Wiltshire Gazette, 
Aug. 2nd, 9th, and 16th, 1934, and Salisbury Journal, Aug. 3rd. 


2 The Eighty-first General Meeting. 

The sale of Magazines, etc., during the year brought in ^18 3s. 6d., 
and the balance on the annual and single day excursions amounted to 
/16 Is. 9d. 

The Museum Maintenance Fund beginning the year with a balance 
of ;/;il 12s., lOd. ended it with a debt of £^2 16s. 7d., being obliged to 
borrow from the General Fund in order to pay its way. The heaviest 
expense was the provision of the new card catalogue of the Library. 
This cost £j,\ 2s. 6d., of which ^32 was paid for the services of a pro- 
fessional cataloguer. There was also a heavy item of £\q 4s. lOd. for 
necessary repairs. 

The subscriptions for the year amounted to ^29 4s., and the payments 
for admission to the Museum were £1 13s. 7d. 

The Museum Enlargement Fund increased during 1933 from 
/410 17s. 4d. to ;^444 9s. 2d. This increase included one donation of 
^10 and the rent of the caretaker's house, and interest. 

The Museum Purchases Fund increased from ;^128 lis. to ;^132 2s. 

The Life Membership Fund, from which one-tenth is annually paid 
to the General Fund, decreased from ^89 5s. Id. to ^82 7s. 

The small funds, for the printing of Bishop Simon of Ghent's Register, 
£Q 17s. 6d., and the Wansdyke Fund, £4: 8s. 9d., remained as before. 

The Bradford Barn Account, beginning with a balance of ^41 17s., 
increased to ^53 5s. 4d. at the end of the year. The whole of this sum 
will probably be spent in repairs during the current year. 

The Museum. — The new edition of Part II of the Catalogue of 
Antiquities is now in the printer's hands, and will be issued it is hoped, 
in the near future. The chief event connected with the Museum during 
the past year has been the disastrous robbery which has deprived the 
Society's collections of a number of valuable bronze implements. 
Although suspicion pointed in the direction of a former depredator, it 
proved impossible to bring home the crime, or to recover the lost objects- 
As a consequence of this theft, the Museum has been put to a heavy 
expense in re-placing the existing locks by thief -proof fastenings for all 

The Committee regrets that Mrs. Springford, the caretaker at the 
Museum for the last 15 years, finds it necessary to resign the post. 
They wish to express their entire satisfaction with the work she has 
done for the Museum during the whole of that period. 

The Library. — Amongst many gifts during the past year, the most 
important were the results of Captain Cunnington's examination of the 
contents of Messrs. Jackson's "lumber room," and the consequent 
addition to the Library of some hundreds of old Wiltshire deeds, as well 
as several valuable Court Rolls and Manor Accounts, which but for the 
kindness of Messrs. Jackson and the patient industry of Captain 
Cunnington would have been destroyed. The number of Books of 
General Reference, too, has been increased by the purchase of the Great. 
Dictionary of National Biography, with a grant from the General Fund 

The Eighty-first General Meeting. 3 

The Magazine. — The two half-yearly numbers have been issued 
punctually, and again the Society has to thank several writers of papers 
for donations towards the cost of the illustrations. 

Excavations. — Dr. Stone has excavated dwelling pits of Neolithic Age, 
an Early Iron Age ditch stockaded on both sides at Winterbourne 
Dauntsey, described in the Magazine, and a remarkable barrow contain- 
ing only a skull, the account of which will appear in the December 
number. Mr. A. D. Passmore excavated and described in the Magazine 
the Giant's Caves Long Barrow at Luckington. Mr. Alexander Keiller 
has been engaged on an elaborate excavation of the course of the 
Kennet Avenue at Avebury, the results of which so far as they had been 
carried, were shown to members attending the single day's excursion in 
June. In the south of the county Dr. Borenius had been carrying out 
extensive diggings on the site of the Palace of Clarendon. 

The annual m.eeting at Winchester, though not attended by quite so 
many members as have sometimes been present at meetings within the 
county, was very successful and much enjoyed by those who were 

The single day's excursion on June 6th, 1934, was a great success, 
over a hundred members and friends being present. Proceedings began 
on the site of the excavations now being carried out along the line of the 
Kennet Avenue at Avebury, by Mr. Alexander Keiller, who gave a very 
full account of the work already accomplished, including the finding of 
a buried stone, and of what remained to be done in the future. His 
statement that he proposed to re-erect the fallen stones of the Kennet 
Avenue, and afterwards to examine the course of the supposed 
Beckhampton Avenue was warmly applauded by all present. From 
Avebury the cars drove through Marlborough and over the Common to 
Rockley, following the down track from that point to the foot of 
Barbury Castle, where after a picnic lunch, Mr. H. C. Brentnall gave a 
most interesting address on Barbury, followed by Dr. Williams Freeman 
on the history of the great hill forts. Tea at Avebury, to which the cars 
returned via Wroughton, brought an instructive and enjoyable day to a 

The Council for the Preservation of Rural England. — The Wiltshire 
Branch of the C.P.R.E., which was formed some time ago, is now in full 
working order, and at the quarterly meetings of the committee much 
excellent work has been done towards the preservation of the amenities 
of Old Sarum, the war against litter and ill-placed advertisements, the 
advancement of town and country planning, the preservation of the 
scarcer plants of the county, the arrangement of electric power lines, 
etc. Our own Society is affiliated to the Council but it is most desirable 
that the Council should be supported by the largest possible body of 
public opinion in the county. At present there are about 200 members, 
but this number should be largely increased. Will anyone who is 
interested in the many sided work of the C.P.R.E. and is not already a 
member, send a sum of not less than 2s. 6d. to the treasurer, Colonel 

B 2 

4 The Eighty-first General Meeting. 

R. W. Awdry, Little Cheverell, Devizes, and ask to be enrolled as a 
subscribing member of the Council ?" 

The Report having been adopted, the President proposed the election 
of Mr. Frank Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A., as President for the next year. 
This was carried unanimously. Mr. Stevens, whilst thanking the 
Society, took the opportunity of impressing on the meeting the fact 
that the County of Wilts has no arms of its own, whilst many other 
counties have. He felt that it was most desirable that the County 
Council should be approached as to this, and that it was fitting that the 
Society should be the body to move in the matter. He went on to say 
that he thought it was quite time that Wiltshire antiquities were 
reported on by the Royal Commission. Other counties with less claim 
to interest than Wiltshire had been reported on, and the bulk of the 
necessary work for the purpose was already to hand in the volumes of 
the Magazine, and the Bibliography of Wilts. Mr. Stevens then pro- 
posed the re-election of the officers of the Society en bloc. This was 
carried unanimously, together with the election of two new members. 
The proposal that the county should obtain a grant of arms was remitted 
for consideration to the Committee of the Society. At the conclusion 
of the business meeting, members went over the Museum, greatly 
enlarged of late, and were entertained at tea by Mr. and Mrs. Stevens 
in a tent in the Museum grounds. After tea, members and their friends 
divided into two parties, who were conducted over several of the most 
interesting houses in the Close by Mr. H. Messenger, Mr. Jacobs, and 
others. Mompesson House, the Garden of the North Canonry, and the 
Jacobs' House, were amongst those visited. 

The annual dinner was held at the White Hart at 7 p.m., after which 
a public reception of the Society by the Mayor (Mr. E. J. Case) and 
Mayoress took place at the Guildhall. The Mayor referred to the 
photographs of all the old buildings of the city which had been taken 
by the Ancient Buildings Committee. 

The President of the Society, in thanking the Mayor, suggested that 
a large scale ordnance map, with the exact position of all these ancient 
buildings marked upon it, would add much to their interest, and be a 
valuable record for the future. 

Sir Harold Brakspear then read his paper on Edington Monastery, 
dealing especially with the site of the monastic buildings, which he con- 
tended were not in contact with the N. wall of the Church. This 
concluded the day's proceedings. 

The long string of motor cars left the Market Place at 9.30, the first 
stop being at Bishopstone Church, where the Rector, the Rev. W. 
Williams, pointed out the chief features. He was followed by Sir 
Harold Brakspear, who spoke of the Church as one of the most beautiful 
in the county, comparable with Edington in North Wilts, to which it 
bore a considerable resemblance. He regarded the very curious arched 
and groined annexe at the end of the transept, as a founder's tomb. 

m ^r-.. 

^ -I 

< I 

03 O 

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The Eighty-first General Meeting. 5 

From this point the cars proceeded to Broad Chalke Church, where the 
Vicar, the Rev. J. F. Fuller, gave an interesting address on the Church 
and the history of the parish. Here also Sir Harold Brakspear spoke 
on the chief features of the Church. 

Leaving the Church the party walked to the grounds of the Old 
Rectory close by, where the remarkable gardens, laid out originally by 
the late Mr. Maurice Hewlett, the novelist, were thrown open by the 
present owner. Formed out of an old w^ater meadow into a series of 
terraced gardens, with streams, and pools and miniature falls, the whole 
effect is perhaps unique — it certainly is in Wiltshire — with the added 
interest of unusual plants, especially TropcBolum speciosum ramping 
•over the high yew hedges round one of the lily ponds. 

From this point the cars went on to the head of the Chalke Valley, 
where at Norrington Manor House, the large party were most kindly 
received by Mr. and Mrs. Parham who threw the whole house open to 
them from the coal cellars to the bedrooms. This was really the great 
attraction of the first day's excursion. Few of the members had seen 
it, for the house lies far off the main road — at the head of the valley. 
It is a most picturesque and interesting building retaining many of' its 
features uninjured and unmodernised. From 1377, when John Gawen 
bought the property and built the earlier portion of the house, the porch, 
the hall, and the groined cellar under it, until the reign of Elizabeth it 
remained in that family. Later it passed into the hands of the 
Wyndhams. Sir Harold Brakspear spoke on the most interesting 
architectural features of the house. From this point the cars went on 
to Berwick St. John, where lunch was ready in the Village Hall. 

After lunch the long string of cars proceeded to Chiselbury Camp, 
where Dr. R. C. C. Clay, F.S.A., gave an excellent address on the 
general characteristics and life of the Early Iron Age in general, and of 
this earthwork which belongs to that age in particular. 

Leaving the Camp at 4.15, the party stopped for tea at Broad Chalke 
and then went home to Salisbury. 

The evening meeting was held at 8 p.m. in the Lecture Hall of the 
Museum, where the Hon. Lady Hulse, President of the Museum 
Committee, received the members, and Dr. Tancred Borenius, Ph. D., 
D. Litt., gave an address illustrated by lantern slides on " Recent 
Excavations in Clarendon Park." The weather had been threatening 
during the late afternoon, but it was not until the evening that steady 
rain set in. This was the only occasion during the meeting that the 
weather interfered at all with the proceedings. 

The motors and charabancs again left the Market Place at 9.30, and 
made their first stop at Britford Church, where the Vicar (the Rev. 
J. B. Jackson) first described the building and was followed by Sir 
Harold Brakspear, who spoke on the remarkable Saxon work here. He 
was inclined rather to doubt whether the present inner south door is 
really of Saxon date as it has generally been supposed to be. 

6 The Eighty-first General Meeting. 

Downton Church was the next stopping place. Here again the Vicar 
(the Rev. John Robinson) acted as guide, and the President supple- 
mented his address. From here the cars went on to Fordingbridge 
Church where Sir H. Brakspear again spoke on the features of the 
Church, especially the remarkable roof and woodwork of the north 
aisle of the chancel. 

After seeing the Church, members inade their way to the Greyhound 
Hotel where lunch was ready for them at 1 o'clock. 

Leaving at 2 o'clock, the cars went on to Breamore House and 
Church, which though over the Hampshire border are in the diocese of 
Salisbury. This was one of the chief attractions of this day's excursion. 
The house was most kindly thrown open to members by the Hon. Lady 
Hulse, who showed members round herself, assisted by Sir Westrow 
Hulse, Bt., who spoke on the history of the house and more particularly 
showed and described the very interesting collection of family plate. 
The pictures, the miniatures, and the large assemblage of oriental 
porcelain were also of great interest to members. 

The Church of Breamore, one of the most complete examples of a 
Saxon Church in the south of England, was described by the Rector, 
Canon H. W. Allen. 

At Longford Castle, which was the last item on the programme, 
though Lord and Lady Radnor were away from home, they had most 
hospitably provided tea in a tent in the grounds for members, who were 
taken over the Castle in small parties at the same time by various 
members of the household staff, so that all the many treasures of the 
house could be seen comfortably without crowding. So ended a very 
good day's excursion and a very pleasant and successful meeting, in 
which a larger number of members (112 tickets were taken) and their 
friends took part, than has been the case for some years, and a sub- 
stantial balance was carried to the Society's General Account. The 
large number of cars present made the problem of parking and of keep- 
ing the programme time even more difficult than usual, but so excellent 
were the meeting secretary's arrangements that the whole proceedings 
were carried through almost to the minute. 


By the late Sir Harold Brakspear, K.C.V.O., F.S.A. 

[Presidential address at the Salisbury Meeting of the Society, 

July 31st, 1934.] 

The history of the IMonastery of Edington by Canon Jackson was 
printed in the XXth volume of the Magazine and is so exhaustive that 
it would seem impossible to say anything further about this curious 

The whole of the manor of Edington, with that of Ashton, was given 
by King Edgar to his newly founded nunnery of Romsey in 968. At 
Domesday these manors contained some 70 hides of land, of which 15 
hides and 3 virgates, in the time of King Edward the Confessor could 
not be separated from the Church.^ Among holders of this latter land 
were the progenitors of the family that took its name from the place, 
and from whom descended the famous Bishop of Winchester, William 
of Edyndon. 

The Bishop, doubtless for the love he bore his native place, deSired 
to found a chantry of secular priests in the parish Church of Edington ; 
which was allocated to one of the four prebends of the Abbey of Romsey. 
Such an object at this period was not an easy matter to perform owing 
to the Statute of Mortmain which had become law in 1279 and forbade 
any gift of land to the Church, as in it's hands land was no longer 
liable to feudal dues. So whenever any land was proposed to be given 
for a religious object it could only be done with the direct licence of the 
King, and to obtain such licence an inquisition had to be held. Such 
inquisitions were generally taken by the escheator of the county, before 
a jury, to enquire what damage, if any, it would be to the King or any 
other for the gift to be made. These inquisitions upon land to be given 
to Edington, and various licences in the patent rolls in connexion 
therewith, throw a fresh light upon the foundation of the Bishop, they 
even suggest the position of the lodging of the priests and afterwards 
of the monastic buildings. 

The writ for the first inquisition was dated on the 18th November, 
1351, and addressed to Thomas de la Ryvere, the King's escheator in 
the county of Wilts, to enquire if it would be any damage to the King 
or any other to permit John of Edyndon^ to assign to the wardens and 
Chaplains of a chantry to be founded in the prebendal Church of 
Edyndon by William of Edyndon, Bishop of Winchester, for daily 
celebrations for the health and the souls of the King and the said 
Bishop, two messuages, two mills, one dovecote and certain land in 
Edyndon, Cotterige and Suthwyke.'^ 

1 Dom. Wilts, 52. 

" This John of Edyndon, who is called the elder in other places, was 
apparently the brother of the Bishop and father of John of Edyndon, 
Canon of Salisbury and prebendary of Edington. 

•^ Chan. Inq., a.q.d. f. 303, 1. 

8 Edington Monastery. 

This land was the original endowment of the chantry, and the words 
" to be founded " shew that the chantry was then intended though not 
in actual being. Formal approval was obtained from the Bishop of 
Salisbury, with the consent of the Abbey of Romsey, to appropriate 
the advowson of the prebend of Edyndon, with the Chapel of North 
Bradley to it appended with a messuage and 2 acres, to the new chantry, 
and this was confirmed later by the King.^ 

The chantry was founded for three priests, of whom one was to be 
warden, and he was to continue to hold the rank of Romsey. Three 
other priests were to be added when the revenues of Edington Church 
should be obtained, and three others when the returns of Buckland 
Church, near Faringdon, should allow. ^ The priests were directed to 
be housed in two buildings, the warden and two chaplains in one, and 
the rest in the other, but all were to be within the same dwelling-house, 
and they were to eat together. -"^ 

The size of the old Church and the churchyard could not have been 
very great. On the north side was the land and the manor house of 
the Abbess of Romsey, part of whose garden was to the west of the 
Church and her land was also on the east, while the south side was 
occupied by the highway. It was therefore difficult to procure the 
necessary accommodation for housing the priests immediately adjacent 
to the Church but part of the first endowment seems to have included 
this accommodation at no great distance. 

As the projected chancel for the accommodation of the chantry 
extended up to, if not beyond, the original eastern boundary of the 
churchyard, the founder obtained from the Abbess, in July of 1352, one 
half -acre and 10 perches of arable contiguous to the Church of Edyndon, 
and three half-acres and 24 perches of meadow contiguous to the 
dwelling-house or close of the warden for its enlargement.' 

It is recorded by Leland, from a Latin book in the Monastery, that 
" bishop William of Hedington laid the first stone of the house or 
monastery of Hedington on the 3 July, 1352." ^ As the Monastery was 
not then even thought of it is obvious that this foundation was that of 
the chantry or rather of the new chancel to accommodate the chantry. 
The work was obviously set out in the usual way to the east of the old 
Church so that the services could be conducted in the remaining part of 
the Church until the new building was ready for use. There is no 
evidence that the Bishop at this time intended to build anything but 
the chancel and there is no record when the chancel was finished. It is 
probable however that it and the lodgings of the priests were com- 
pleted within five years or less ; so that when the Black Prince came 

^ Rot. Pat., 32 E. Ill, o. 2, m. 34. "^ Wilts Arch. Mag., xx, 247. 

2 Ibid., 248. 

^ Wilts Arch. Mag., xx, 250, from a deed in Madox's Formulare, 165. 
^ Lei. Itin., vi, 48. 

By the late Sir Harold Brakspear, K.C.V.O., F.S.A. 9 

home in 1357 the college was in full operation with twelve priests under 
the wardenship of William Scarlett. 
Leland says that : — 

" Prince Edward called the Blak Prince had a great favor to 
the Bones Homes beyond seas. Whereupon cumming home he 
heartily besought Bishop Hedington to chaunge the ministers of 
his college into Bones Homes." ^ 
If this story is correct the idea seems to have concurred with that of 
the Bishop, who armed with the influence of the Prince immediately 
set about to make the change, though the college was not as yet inter- 
fered with. In fact Scarlett had resigned and William of Sevenhampton 
was appointed his successor, by the Bishop after this date, and most of 
the land to enable the change to be made was given to the warden and 

A difficulty that confronted the founder w^as that the Church as 
already stated was surrounded by land belonging to the Abbey of 
Romsey so that without acquiring this the buildings required for 
the Monastery could not be built in the normal manner adjoining the 
Church. There seems to have been an insuperable difficulty in securing 
land in this position, so, incredible as it may seem, the Bishop appears 
to have decided to build the Monastery on the site of the existing houses 
of the priests which, as later evidence will show, were some 100 yards 
away from the Church. 

Even then it was necessary to acquire additional land and make 
alterations in order to allow the Monastery to be erected. To 
which end on the 23rd February, 1358, it was found, by enquiry at New 
Sarum, that it would be no damage to allow John of Edyndon the 
elder to grant to Romeseye Abbey a messuage and one acre of land in 
Edyndon, in exchange for a plot of land belonging to the Abbey garden 
in that vill on the west side of the Church, 7 2 perches long by 2 perches 
broad, and another piece on the east side of the Church 19 perches 
long by 4 perches broad, which said two parcels the said John would 
assign to the warden and Chaplains of the chantry in the prebendal 
Church of Edyndon, newly founded by William of Edyndon, Bishop of 
Winchester to hold, &c. Also to allow the said John to grant to the 
said wardens and chaplains a messuage and 1 acre 10 perches of land 
in the said vill, contiguous to the churchyard, for the enlargement 
thereof. And to allow the said wardens and Chaplains to enclose and 
build over a certain piece of land, belonging to the highway there, con- 
tiguous to their dwelling-house, containing 16 perches 6ft. in length and 
10ft. in breadth, for the enlargement of the same, provided that they 
assign another way of the same length and breadth on their ground 
there sufficient for passers by on the south side of their dwelling-house." 
This transaction was licenced by the King, in which licence the parcel 
next the west end of the Church is described as " with a watercourse 
from the head of the stank called le Horspol " ; the parcel at the east 

1 Lei. Itm., vi, 48. 2 ckan. Inq., a.q.d., f. 330, 2. 

10 Edington Monastery. 

end of the Church is described as half-an-acre ; and there is an 
additional parcel of land not included in the inquisition " between the 
rectory and the churchyard 16 perches long by lift, wide." The 
messuage to be assigned by John of Edyndon is described as some time 
of Walter Michel and was given for the enlargement of the dwelling- 
house and the churchyard.^ 

On the 29th March, 1358, the Bishop of Sahsbury gave formal licence 
for the foundation of the Monastery, which states that : — 

"Whereas some years ago the reverend Father in Christ William 
by the grace of God, bishop of Winchester, . . . founded in 
the parish church of Edyndon, in the diocese of Salisbury, the vill 
whence he derived his birth, a perpetual chantry of certain secular 
chaplains for the health of his own soul, those of his parents and 
others of the faith, for the praise and worship of God and in honour 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, St. Katharine and All Saints, under 
which title the said parish church had been dedicated, and did 
further endow the same sufficiently for the maintenance of the said 
chaplains and other things necessary for the said chantry. But 
. . . he has long since desired and still earnestly desires that the 
chantry and secular church united with it may be elevated into a 
religious house wherein may be settled, as it is hoped, for the per- 
petual service of God and his most blessed Virgin Mother brethren 
of the order of St. Augustine commonly called Boni Homines 
• . We therefore approving this pious intention, with the con- 
sent of our chapter of Salisbury and all concerned decree that the 
said chantry and secular church shall be elevated into a house of 
religious." ^ 
Leland recites that the Bishop to carry out the desire of the Black 
Prince " entreated his collegians to take that ardre (the Bonhomme) 
and so they did all, saving the Deane. Hedington sent for ij of the 
Bones Homes of Asscherugge to rule the other xij of his college. The 
elder of the ij that came from Asscherugge was callid John Ailesbyri 
and he was the first rector at Hedington." -^ 

This Aylesbury obtained licence to become Rector of Edington from 
the Bishop of Lincoln in December, 1357, he was instituted to Edington 
by the deed of Robert Wyvil, Bishop of Salisbury, the 12th April, and 
was inducted on the 14th April, 1358. "^ 

On the 27th June, 1358, an inquisition was taken, at Edyndon, when 
it was found that it would be no damage to the King to allow the 
Abbey of Romeseye to assign to the Rector and brethren of the chantry 
in the prebendal Church of Edyndon. a certain way on their soil in 
Edyndon, between the Church there and the site of the Rectory, 42 
perches in length and 1 perch 32ft. in breadth, and another plot of 
ground in the garden of Richard le Nyweman there, 4 perches in length 
and 1 perch in breadth, both contiguous to the dwelling-house of the said 

^ Rot. Pat., 32 E. Ill, p. 1, m. 24. '^ Mon. Aug., vi, 536. 

•' Lei. Itin. iv, 25. ^ Wilts Arch. Mag., xx, 253. 

By the late Sir Harold Brakspear, K.C.V.O., F.S.A. 11 

Rector and brethren to hold, &c., in exchange for a piece of land under 
the Chapel of St. Ethelfleada in that vill 30 perches long by 20ft. wide 
and 1 acre of land there, to be given to the Abbey by John of Edyndon 
the elder. ^ And licence for the same was given by the King on the 4th 

On the 16th July the King confirmed all the gifts that had been made 
both to the chantry and Monastery stating that : Whereas William of 
Edyndon, Bishop of Winchester, with the King's licence lately founded 
a chantry of certain chaplains in the prebendal Church of Edyndon, 
the King confirmed grants by the Bishop to the warden and chap- 
lains of the chantry, of lands in Edyndon in the county of Wilts and 
the advowson of the said prebendal Church and of the Chapel of Bradley 
annexed thereto in the conventual Church of Romeseye, of the advowson 
of the Church of Bokeland, one acre of land in Steepallavington and the 
advowson of the Church there. And by John of Edyndon, the elder, of 
two messuages and two virgates of land in Edyndon ; of a messuage, two 
mills and land in Edyndon, late of William of Sweltenham, wdth the 
suit of the mills and other appurtenances ; of a messuage, a dovecot, 
lands, and lOd. and lib. of cummin of rent in Coterugge, late of John 
of Cheyny ; with reversion of other land in Coterugge and Suthwyk- 
And of a messuage and land in Edyndon purchased of W^alter, son of 
Roger Michel, of Edyndon, common of pasture for eight oxen in 
Edyndon and Tinhide which he had of the grant of Isabel, Abbess of 
Romeseye and the convent there beyond the like of common which he 
had of the grant of Joan late Abbess and convent of the same place. 
And by the Abbess and convent of land in Edyndon for the enlargement 
of their dwelling-house, to hold in free alms as by his letters patent is 
more fully contained. 

The Bishop has now made supplication that inasmuch as with all 
necessary consents the chantry is erected and there are put there a 
Rector and brethren of the order of St. Augustine commonly called 
Bonhommes, the King will confirm this with all grants previously made 
to the warden and Chaplains of the chantry as well as a grant made 
before this of the advowson of the Church of Colleshulle which with the 
Churches named above were all in the tenure of such wardens and 
Chaplains as appropriated to the said Monastery. And also grants made 
with the King's licence by the Abbess and convent, of a plot of land out 
of their garden with a watercourse running from the head of the stank 
called le Horspol,-* one half acre of land in Edyndon, and another plot 
of land between the Rectory and churchyard for the enlargement of the 
dwelling-house of the Rector and brethen. By the said John of Edyndon 
to the warden and Chaplains aforesaid a messuage and land sometime 
of Walter Michel for the enlargement of the said dwelling-house and 
churchyard. By the Abbess and convent to the said Rector and 
brethren of a way in Edyndon between the Church and Rectory, and 

' Chan. Inq., a.q.d. f. 329, 14. - Rot. Pat., 32 E. Ill, p. 2, m. 34. 

•* Stancum, a pond or tank. 

12 Edington Monastery. 

another plot of land out of the garden of Richard le Nyweman for the 
enlargement of their dwelling-house. And the King for the security 
of the rector and brethren confirms their estate in the Church of 
Edyndon with all the Chapel annexed, the churches of Bokeland, ^ 
Stepellavington and Coleshull and all the said grants to possess the 
same in free alms, whether the same could be said to be held of him 
either by part of a barony or by knights service, grand or petty 
serjeantry, or he might have any other title to them.^ 

And so the Monastery was confirmed in all its lands and possessions 
that had been given to the chantry as well as to the brethren direct. 

A word may be said here about the nature of the order of Bonhommes. 
The editors of The Monasticon say that by some they have been con 
sidered mystics, but that Tanner speaks of them as friars. Ashridge, 
apparently the only other house of the order in England, was founded 
by Edmund, the son and heir of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, in honour 
of the blood of the Holy Jesus. He had bought this relic in Germany 
and gave one third to his father's Abbey of Hayles, in Gloucestershire, 
and two thirds to Ashridge. Ashridge was called a college, was richly 
endowed for the maintenance of twenty clerks of whom thirteen were to 
be priests, and was governed by a Rector.-^ 

Dr. Rose Graham disclaims any relationship between the Bonhommes 
of Grandmont and those of Ashridge and Edington,'* though there is a 
certain similarity. The former like the latter were always called 
brethren and never monks or Canons : they wore " sackcloth next their 
skins, that is clothing made of very coarse flax or hemp, and over that 
a brown tunic, a scapula or short cloak with a round hood, woollen 
gaiters and leather shoes." ^ Edington is once described as of the order 
of Grandmont in a Papal Register, but no case occurs of it or Ashridge 
being found in conjunction with the three English Grandmontine houses 
of Grosmont, Creswell and Alderbury. These three houses were regular 
cells of Grandmont whereas neither Ashridge or Edington were ever 
treated as alien. 

The Bonhommes of Edington are never once referred to in the various 
Edington documents as Canons but always as brethren and sometimes 
as " brethren of the house of the order of St. Augustine of Edyndon." 
In the Edington cartulary is a document giving the full scheme of the 
foundation and in this the brethren were ordered to wear " grey tunics 
with scapulars of the same shorter than the tunics and with hoods of 
competent size. Also to have cloaks of the same colour down to their 
feet. The rector and brethren to have decent large round capes of 
grey when they go abroad and to wear linen next the body except on 
the nether limbs. All were to sleep in garments of wool or hemp." •"* 

This does not sound like the costume of an Austin Canon whose 

^ Buckland, Berks. ^ j^^^ p^^^ 32 e. Ill, p. 2, m. 32. 

•^ Mon. Aug., vi. "* ArchcBologia. 

^ Ihid. '■' Wilts Arch. Mag., xx, 256. 

By the late Sir Harold Brakspear, K.C.V.O., F.S.A. 13 

" habit was a long black cassock with a white rochet over it and over 
that a black cloak and hood," and while monks were shaved, Canons 
wore beards and caps on their heads. ^ In the south transept of the 
Church of Edington is an efhgy of one of the brethren wearing the gar- 
ments as specified in the orders, the long tunic down to the feet, the 
scapular hanging down in front and the long cloak, with the hood, 
fastened with cords at the neck, the face is shaved and the head is 
tonsured. Mr. Kite described this efhgy in 1902,-^ and remarked upon 
the dress being similar to that of a friar rather than a Canon, but as it 
had been usually described as that of a Canon of St. Augustine he seems 
to have been timid of pronouncing it as that of a friar. 

Thomas Fuller, however, says " The Bonshommes or Good men, being 
also Eremites, were brought over to England by Richard, earl of 
Cornwall, in the reign of King Henry III his brother ; so styled (not 
exclusively of other orders) but eminently because of their signal good- 
ness. . . . These Bonhommes tho' begging Fryars (the poorest of 
orders) and eremites the most sequestered of begging Fryars had two 
(and I believe no more) convents in England, absolutely the richest in 
all the land (monks only excepted) the one at Ashridge in Bucks. . . . 
It was valued at the Dissolution at ^447 8s. 6^d. The other at 
Edington in Wiltshire . . . valued when dissolved at ^521 12s. Od."^ 

From this it is obvious that Fuller had no doubt of the brethren of 
Edington being Austin friars, though he may have been led astray by 
reading fratres as friars and not as brethren. One point must not be 
ignored, which is, that Paul Bush " about 1530 became a student at 
Oxford and five years after took the degree of B.A. He became a 
brother of the order of Bonhommes and after studying among the friars 
of St. Austin (now Wadham college) was elected rector of his order at 
Edington,"'* from which it would seem that there was a distinct 
relationship between the Bonhommes and the Austin friars. 

There are however difficulties in accepting the view that the brethren 
of Edington were friars, for the house of Edington was richly endowed, 
which friars' houses were not ; the brethren appear to have led a 
secluded life in their Monastery and not to have travelled from place to 
place as Austin friars ; and the house was not included in the visitation 
of the other friars' houses in Wiltshire. 

From the fact that the original brethren at Edington were all priests, 
and at the foundation of Ashridge there were to be twenty clerks of 
which thirteen were to be priests, it would appear that the Bonhommes 
might have a claim to be called Canons regular in the same way as was 
done in later days by the Trinitarians. 

If some information could be obtained as to where the Bonhommes 
originated and were met with in France by Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, 
in the first place, and by the Black Prince a hundred years later, it 

Mon. Aug., vi. " Wilts N. S^ Q. 

Church His., vi, sec. 1, 24, 25. ^ Wilts Arch. Mag., xx, 279. 

14 Edington Monastery. 

might be possible to state more definitely the class of religious to which 
they belonged. Until such information can be found it is safer to call 
the Bonhommes of Edington by the title they receive in some of the 
charters, namely, brethren of the order of St. Augustine of Edyndon, 
rather than risk an inaccuracy by calling them either Canons or friars. 
Leland stated, again on the authority of the Latin book already 
mentioned, that " on the 16 September, 1358, was the first tonsure of 
the brethren," ^ meaning that the secular priests then took upon them- 
selves the three monastic vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, were 
tonsured in token thereof, and so became regular religious. It is 
doubtful if this date is correct, as the rector was inducted on the 14th 
April, land was given to the rector and brethren on the 27th July and 
the general confirmation charter to the founder stating that a rector 
and brethren of the order of St. Augustine, commonly called Bonhommes, 
were installed was dated on the 27th June. 

The Bishop had before this proceeded with the rebui Iding of the entire 
Church, but it was not yet completed. He had also been erecting the 
new buildings of the Monastery, contiguous to the former dwelling- 
house of the warden of the chantry, and had surrounded the same with 
an embattled wall without the licence of the King. How William of 
Edington, Chancellor of England, could have been guilty of this infringe- 
ment of the King's rights is not easy to understand, but apparently his 
excuses were acceptable, for on the 9th October, 1359, the King issued 
letters patent stating that : — 

" We of our especial grace, and at the request of the venerable 
father William of Edyndon bishop of Winchester, have pardoned 
the said bishop and our beloved in Christ the rector and brethren 
of the house of the order of St. Augustine of Edyndon newly 
founded by the said bishop their trespass in fortifying and 
crenellating the dwelling-house of the same rector and brethren 
there with a wall of stone and lime without having our licence for 
that purpose, and we grant for us and our heirs as much as in us is 
to the same rector and brethren that they may hold their dwelling- 
place aforesaid thus fortified and crenellated to them and their 
successors for ever without let or hinderance from us or our heirs, 
our justices, escheators, sheriffs or other bailiffs or officers whom- 
soever." ^ 
On the same day was given the formal licence to fortify and crenellate 
that dwelling-house there with a wall of stone and lime and hold the 
same in the same words as the pardon.-^ 

Leland, again on the authority of the Latin book, said that the Church 

' Lei. Itin., vi, 48. - Rot. Pat., 33 E. Ill, p. 3, m. 20. 

•* Ibid., m. 15. Canon Jackson in the article already quoted (p. 257) 
implies that the licence to crenellate included the separate licence to 
enlarge the dwelling-house and to have a way between the house and 
the Church. 

By the late Sir Harold Brakspear, K.C.V.O., F.S.A. 15 

was finished in 1361, and dedicated by Robert Wyvil, Bishop of Salisbury, 
in honour of St. James the Apostil, St. Katharine and All Saints. ^ 

The building of the Church may therefore be divided into two sections 
or schemes, the chancel begun in 1351 and completed for the priests of 
the college, and the remainder begun in 1358 and completed in 1361 for 
the Monastery and the parish Church. 

On the 6th May, 1362, the King gave another licence this time not 
to the Bishop but to " our beloved in Christ the rector and brethren of 
the house or Monastery of Edyndon that they may convey the 
water flowing from a spring on land in Edyndon belonging to our 
beloved in Christ the abbess and convent of Romeseye by a sub- 
terranean conduit to the said house or Monastery, and have and 
hold the water thus conveyed to them and their successors for ever. 
We of our special grace have granted and given licence for us and 
our heirs, as much as in us is, to the said Rector and brethren that 
they may convey the water of the said stream through the said 
town of Edyndon by a subterranean conduit to the said house or 
Monastery, and have and hold the water thus conveyed to them 
and their successors for ever without challenge or hindrance from 
us or our heirs, our justices, escheators, sheriffs or other bailiffs or 
officials whosoever, notwithstanding the statute of Mortmain. - 
This completes the evidence that can be obtained from grants in 
connexion with the actual foundation of the Monastery. 

The Church as built by Bishop Edington remains complete and con- 
sists of a chancel of three bays, 53ft. by 24ft., a transept, 72ft. from 
north to south by 22ft. wide, a tower over the crossing, a nave of six 
bays with aisles, 74ft. by 53ft., and a south porch. 

The architecture of the Church has been fully described by the late 
Mr. Pouting, but little or nothing was said in this description of its 
monastic arrangements.'^ 

The chance] being built for the accommodation of a secular college 
of twelve priests required little alteration to accommodate the same 
number of brethren. There was originally an ornamental stone seat, 
in the middle of the west bay on the north side, that may possibly have 
been intended for the founder when he was present, and this was done 
away with to accommodate the quire of the Monastery. The stalls of 
the brethren would be arranged against the blank walls under the 
windows of the west bay. There is a small doorway in the middle of 
the middle bay on the south side that opens outwards, and on the 
exterior of the two eastern bays was a long and very narrow building 
which must have been a vestry. Another vestry was afterwards built 

^ Lei. Itin., vi, 48. The dedication to St. James was obviously a 
blunder for Our Lady, as evidenced by contemporary documents of 
which one has already been quoted. 

2 Rot. Pat. (Chancery), 36 E. Ill, p. 1, m. 13. 

^ Arch. Jour., xlv, 4:3. 

16 Edington Monastery. 

on the east side of the north transept, after which the earUer and 
inconvenient chamber was taken down. 

Projecting into the crossing is the pulpitum, of timber work, of that 
type formed by two screens supporting the gallery, the latter being 
reached by a stair between the screens. On the east side of the 
pulpitum would be the return stalls of the quire, and on the west side 
would be the usual pair of altars on either side of the quire door. 

The transepts, in spite of their length, only had one altar in each as 
is shown by the piscinas which remain. The north transept was claimed 
by Mr. Ponting to have been the Lady Chapel, but, as the high altar 
was hallowed in honour of our Lady, it is unlikely that the second most 
important altar in the Church was of the same dedication. Against the 
south wall of the south transept is the canopied altar tomb already 
referred to bearing the effigy of one of the brethren. It has the rebus 
of t.b. and a tun with a three branched tree growing out of it, which 
has been said to indicate Bainton, but no one of that name had anything 
to do with Edington at this time. Canon Jackson correctly ascribed 
the monument to Thomas Bulkington,' the rebus being Boc-in-tun, the 
word boc signifying a beech tree. Thomas Bukynton had an obit at 
Edington, and was possibly the donor of the Manor and tithes of 
Bulkington before he joined the convent. He was a witness to the 
transfer of the Church of Keevil to the Monastery in 1393 and is included 
by Leland in his note of benefactors. 

The nave was used by the parish and there were two priests appointed 
to minister there to the parishioners. The nave altar would be under 
the western arch of the crossing, where it now is, with a screen behind 
it having a door on either side for the return of the Sunday procession. 
Over this screen on a beam would probably be the great Rood. At the 
first pair of piers was apparently a fence screen across the Church, and 
to the west were two flanking chapels, of which the foundations of the 
screens were found and are marked in the present flooring. In connexion 
with the southern of these chapels under the arcade, is a fine canopied 
tomb of a member of the Cheney family, possibly the donor of the 
messuage and rents in Cotteridge. In the easternmost bay of the north 
aisle is the procession doorway to the Church for the use of the brethren. 
The aisle windows on this side are placed high up in the wall to 
accommodate a passage on the outside of the wall, which has been stated 
to have been one of the alleys of a square cloister : but the weathering 
of the roof does not return along the transept wall as it would have done 
in this case, and at the north-west angle of the transept are indications 
of the abuttment of the parapet and outer wall of the passage, from 
which it is obvious that it was the passage from the Monastery and not 
part of a square cloister. 

Over the south porch is a living room, with a fireplace, probably 

^ Wilts Arch. Mag., 1, 188, note. Later he corrects himself under the 
error that the initials were i.b. [Wilts Arch. Mag.,, xx, 300). 

By the late Sir Harold Brakspeav, K.C.V.O., F.S.A. 17 

rendered necessar}^ for a caretaker in consequence of the Church being 
so far away from the Monastery. 

Up to the present the site of the monastic buildings has not been 
located, but the passage just described never having been part of a 
square cloister, there never having been a high building adjoining the 
north transept, and there being no record of any conveyance of land on 
the north side of the Church to the Monastery, it is evident that they 
could not have been in the usual position adjoining the nave of the 

The object of this paper being to see if the various documents now 
quoted do not throw some, if not a certain, light on this question, the 
evidence may now be summed up. 

The land given by John of Edyndon as the first endowment of the 
chantry cannot be identified, save that one or both of the messuages 
were made into the dwelling-house of the priests, and there was 
certainly land included in the grant further to the south of the dwelling- 

The first grant of land by Romsey Abbey contained i acre 10 perches 
of arable next the Church and 1| acres of meadow next the dwelling- 
house for its enlargement. The former was allowed in 1358 as part of 
the endowment of the chantry and is included in the confirmation of 
the property of the Monastery. The latter however does not occur 
either in the licence or confirmation but in its place is mentioned a plot 
of land 16 perches by lift, between the churchyard and the rectory for 
the enlargement of the latter. These lands were all that had been con- 
veyed to the chantry and were obtained obviously for the accommodation 
of the priests, to allow the Church to be enlarged, and to procure a 
direct way for the priests between the Church and their dwelling. 

The important grant of 1358, when the Monastery had been deter- 
mined upon, was evidently to afford the extra accommodation that was 
required for building the Monastery. It consisted of 7^ perches by 2 
perches belonging to the Abbey garden on the west side of the Church, 
19 perches by 4 perches on the east side of the Church, a messuage, 1 
acre and 10 perches next the churchyard for its enlargement, and 16 
perches by 10ft. out of the highway next the dwelling-house for its 
enlargement, provided that a similar highway be made on their own 
ground to the south. The licence to allow this transaction has already 
been quoted. 

The half -acre of the original grant is apparently the same as the 19 
perches by 4 perches of the inquisition, but it is questionable if the exact 
size of this half acre was as stated in the inquiry. 

The plot of ground with the water course must have been to the west 
of the old Church and procured in order to enable the present nave to 
be built. The 16 perches by lift, stated to have been between the 
rectory and the churchyard must have extended from the last plot to 
the dwelling-house as a direct access from the Monastery to the Church, 
and during the late drought the foundations of a wall, on one side of 
it, extending to 200ft. from the Church were qurtc clear by the burnt turf. 


18 Edington Monastery. 

The enclosure of the highway is accounted for by the fact that the 
road on the south side of the churchyard must originally have continued 
in a straight line to the west, and on its north side appear to have been 
the messuage and land of Walter Michel and to the west the messuage 
or messuages that had been converted into the dwelling-house of the 
Chaplains. It is distinctly stated that Michel's ground was given for 
the enlargement of the rectory and the churchyard, and unless it was in 
the position suggested it could not have served the double purpose. As 
it was for this double purpose it definitely places the dwelling of the 
priests to the west next the present road. The permission to move the 
old road, for the enlargement of the dwelling-house, was necessitated 
by the contracted area available for the new buildings of the Monastery, 
and the road was removed sufficiently to the south to give a more or 
less square area of about three acres for the monastic precinct. The 
position to which the road was moved is presumably now marked by 
the present road. 

The land thus secured enabled the Bishop to set out his monastic 
buildings on a suitable scale. Nothing is yet known of their arrange- 
ment but there is documentary evidence that there was a cloister, a 
chapter-house, a frater, a dorter, and an infirmary, so that presumably 
they were more or less on a normal plan, except for the position of the 
Church. The dwelling-house of the Chaplains was apparently converted 
into the house for the rector of the Monastery, and would contain 
accommodation for the entertainment of superior guests, apparently in 
the usual position on the west side of the cloister. The whole precinct 
was surrounded by an embattled wall and would have had a gatehouse 
of entrance. 

The land for a way 42 perches in length on the ground of the Abbey, 
together with the further 4 perches in the garden of Richard le Nyweman 
is stated to have been next the dwelling-house of the rector and 
brethren and was obviously on the north side of the Monastery and 
churchyard. Its purpose may have been to obtain access to the outside 
of the buildings for necessary repairs or to form a sort of no-mans-land 
between the property of the brethren and that of the Abbey. Before the 
other plots of land had been located the writer supposed that the whole 
of this way was actually that between the Church and the Monastery, but 
its length would have forced the latter to have been on the west side of 
the present lane which seems to have been an old road, and the land of 
Michel would have had to be ignored. 

The grant of the springs and the permission to take the water by an 
underground conduit is helpful to establish the site of the Monastery. 
The springs are some 400 yards to the southwest of the Church, they 
are collected into a conduit chamber, which still remains, of the date of 
the grant. This chamber is square on plan with a small doorway of 
entrance and covered over with a stone vault supported by two cross 
ribs. The water now finds its way by open ditches to the north, but, 
as recorded, it was originally taken by an underground conduit to the 
Monastery through the vill of Edyndon. If the Monastery had been on 


By the late Sir Harold Brakspear, K.C.V.O., F.S.A. 19 

Ih^ north side of the Church, the water could not have got there by 
gravitation, as that in the ditch to the west of the Church runs in the 
opposite direction. 

Considerable further matter remains respecting the endowment of the 
Monastery, together with other documents respecting the suppression, 
but time this evening will not allow it to be considered. 

In conclusion it must be stated that these suggestions upon the site 
of the Monastery are based entirely upon documentary evidence, there- 
fore until the matter can be proved by excavation they must be taken 
for what they are worth, and in no sense as claiming that the site of the 
Monastery of Edington is definitely settled. 



By R. C. C. Clay, F.S.A. 

Chiselbury looks young for its age ; for its single vallum and ditch 
show few traces of the wear and tear of the 20 odd centuries of storm 
and sunshine through which it has passed. There has not been much 
silting into the ditch. 

A single vallum and ditch enclose ten acres of the high shoulder of 
chalk down overlooking the village of Fovant. There is one entrance 
— on the south-east — consisting of two separate gateways protected by 
a semi-circular outwork pierced by three causeways. Unfortunately, 
the land right up to the ditch of the camp has been ploughed in former 
years and the outwork rendered less distinct. A " cattleway " running 
due north enters the main ditch at its junction with the southern end 
of the outwork. On the north side of the camp another " cattleway " 
runs due north to the edge of the escarpment, where, as the manner of 
" Cattleways " is, it ceases. Two banks with intervening ditch run 
from the old turnpike road to end at the edge of the ditch at the most 
southerly point of the camp. The interior of the camp was under 
cultivation until about 15 years ago, and its surface is consequently 
flat with the exception of four pits from which chalk has been dug to 
dress the arable fields. 

Chiselbury was built as a place of refuge and defence, and was never 
used for habitation. The air-photograph shows no signs of pits or deep 
disturbances of the soil, and the peoples of the Early Iron Age, to which 
we hope later to prove Chiselbury to belong, dwelt in clusters of pit 
dwellings. Colt-Hoare in his excursions visited Chiselbury and dug 
there, but found none of the usual " indicia " of habitation. In 1923 I 
dug a trench from east to west through the centre of the camp, but dis- 
covered no pits, trenches, pottery or prehistoric objects of any kind. 
Chiselbury is one of a long chain of camps — Pentridge, Wuduburh, 
Chiselbury, Wick Ball Camp, Hanging Langford Camp, Bilbury, 
Yarnbury — linked up by a road, still traceable, which takes a more or 
less northerly direction until it bears eastward after Yarnbury to lose 
itself on the Berkshire downs. These camps, some by excavation and 
some by analogy, can all be ascribed io the Early Iron Age. The 
peoples of that period landed on the south coast, chiefly at Christchurch 
and Weymouth, and moved inwards, protecting themselves as they 
advanced. The old hill-top roads which run along the chalk ridges in 
an east to west direction were not in use in the Early Iron Age in this 
part of the country. The fact that lynchets which are of Early Iron 
Age date cross the tracks is proof of this. They can be seen on the 
ground, and air-photographs makes this point very clear. In the photo- 
graph of Chiselbury the southern " cattleway " can be seen crossing 
the old turnpike road. 








Ghiselbury Camp. 21 

The " cattleway " which enters the ditch of Chiselbury on the south- 
east can be traced to the edge of the combe on the south of the camp. 
It stops on the edge of the steep slope, a few feet beyond the lowest 
line of lynchets, but is continued on, first as a worn hollow path, then 
along the foot of the western side of the combe to take on the character 
of a double-lynchet way, and so to cross the shoulder of down towards 
Broadchalk. The cattleway is therefore part and parcel of the system 
of lynchets in this locality, and the lynchets can be proved by their 
plan and limitations to be contemporary with the rectangular 
earthworks and the pit-village of Fifield Bavant half a mile away to 
the south-west, which belonged to the early part of the Early Iron Age. 
I have dug trenches through several of the cattleways on this stretch of 
downs between here and Ansty Down, and they all conform to a single 
type. They run from combe to combe across the intervening knife- 
ridges of down. They consist of a ditch between two banks and these 
banks also form the positive lynchets bounding rectangular fields of the 
Celtic system. The cattleways invariably stop a few yards beyond the 
last line of lynchets on the edges of combes. In section they are in 
their lower half narrow and straight-sided with a hard puddled floor as 
if many cattle had walked along them in damp weather. I think there 
is no doubt whatever that their purpose was to act as tracks through 
which cattle could be driven from combe to combe, that is to say 
from grazing ground to grazing ground, without the cattle straying into 
the rectangular cultivated fields covering the top of the downs, and so 
damaging the crops. Mr. Sayce told me that he had seen the same 
device adopted by natives in Africa. The modern farmer with the 
help of posts and wire occasionally follows in his ancestor's footsteps. 
Cattle will follow a leader and will keep on moving forward so long as 
they are prevented from turning round ; and there was not sufficient 
space for them to do so in a cattleway. These cattleways I am speaking 
of must not be confused with the mile-long earthworks, probably 
boundary ditches, found in other parts of the south of England, which 
have no connection with combes. 

Cattle could, in times of danger from the south, and it was from the 
south that danger was to be expected, be driven up the cattleway to 
the main ditch of Chiselbury, along the western arc of the ditch, into 
the cattle way which leaves Chiselbury on the north to the escarpment, 
then down to the old track at the foot of the downs to the end of 
Sandy Lane, along this lane across and over the greensand terrace to 
Catherine Ford on the River Nadder at Dinton, and straight on along 
the old road up through the passage in the sandstone cliffs ahead to 
Wick Ball Camp. The cattle would be out of sight during this 
manoeuvre, and the inhabitants of Fifield Bavant village, having 
evacuated their pit dwellings and seen their cattle safely sent ahead, 
could take refuge inside the vallum of Chiselbury and prepare to resist 
their enemies. The Early Iron Age inhabitants of Swallowcliffe pit 
village had Castle Ditches as a second line of defence : those of Fifield 
Bavant had Chiselbury. For Chiselbury must be of Early Iron Age date. 

22 Chiselbury Camp. 

Its conformation proclaims it as of that period. It is contemporary 
with cattleways which are of that period, and are moreover part of the 
Celtic lynchet system belonging to Fifield Bavant. This stretch of chalk 
downs from Wilton to Donhead was inhabited during the Early Iron 
Age and during no other period. This may appear to be a sweeping 
statement, but it is nevertheless a true one. The peoples of the 
Neolithic and Bronze Ages were flint users, and they dropped their 
implements and flakes round their habitations. There are some few 
Early and Middle Bronze Age barrows on these downs, but no flakes, 
no implements. There is a long barrow at the top of White Sheet Hill, 
but no flint artefacts near it. Many scores of hours have been spent 
searching the fields along the crest of these downs, and the flint 
implements found there could be put into one pocket. One flint axe 
was picked up 300 yards south-west of Chiselbury. An axe could have 
been lost in any prehistoric wood. Not a single arrowhead has been 
found. Below the line of downs to the north the greensand terrace of 
the Vale of W^ardour overlooks the River Nadder. This terrace is 
amazingly rich in flint implements, especially by the side of the old 
trackways. At least a hundred arrowheads have been picked up and 
as many pieces of polished axes. It seems likely that the peoples of 
the Neolithic and Early Bronze Ages, like some aborigines of Australia, 
buried their chieftains on the crest of the highest land visible from their 
villages. The Romano-British scattered pottery around them like boys 
laying a paper-chase. Perhaps half a dozen scraps of their pottery 
have been found on these downs during the many excavations of ditches, 
villages and barrows. The nearest Romano-British habitation site is 
at Monk's Hole, Ebbesbourne Wake, at the foot of the next range of 
downs to the south. There were a few squatters of that period who 
lived near the ford in the centre of Fovant. There was a single primary 
Saxon burial in a round barrow on Alvediston Down ; but we know 
that the Saxons lived in the river valleys, and in them founded our 
modern villages. There are near Chiselbury two Early Iron Age pit- 
villages amounting to some two hundred pits, and the range of downs 
on which Chiselbury stands is lined with Early Iron Age lynchets and 
cattleways. Taking all things into consideration Chiselbury must be 
of Early Iron Age date. Men have been hung on more slender evidence. 
In a Saxon Charter of A.D. 994 defining the boundaries of Fovant 
which King Aethelred gave to the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, at 
Wilton, Chiselbury is mentioned under the name of Blaedbyrig. The 
eastern boundary of the village came to Sigewine's Dyke (still discernible 
as a hollow-way up the slope of the hill to the north-east of Chiselbury) 
then to a point " 30 rods east of the camp," then to the " place where 
the flowers grow," next to the heathen burial place and so to the high- 
way. The modern boundaries conform very closely with those 
mentioned in the charter, and the present east and south boundaries 
form a right-angled junction close to Chiselbury on the south-east. 
This point is only about 100 yards from the point " 30 rods east of the 
camp," and therefore it might be supposed that the heathen burial 

Bv R. C. C. Clay, F.S.A. 23 

places and the place where the flowers grow would lie on this 100 yards 
of straight boundary. Hoping that this might prove correct I cut 
several trenches along this line but found neither heathens nor their 
burial places. Immediately south of Chiselbury is an area of gorse. 
Between it and the trackway is a large patch of Willowherb, which 
every autumn is very conspicuous, and never varies in size. There are 
in several parts of south Wilts similar unvarying patches of Willowherb 
which must depend on certain localized ingredients in the soil. I believe 
that this patch of Willowherb was the place ' ' where the flowers grow 
mentioned in the charter. The heathen burial places must have been 
the two round barrows shown in Colt Hoare's map of " Fovant Station " 
on the north side of the old turnpike road within a short distance of 
Chiselbury, These barrows are not shown in air-photographs, but the 
most western one of the two was discovered some years ago by Mr. 
Kerley. He and I excavated it. It had been ploughed almost flat, its 
highest point being only four or five inches above the level of the 
surrounding turf. We found a cist cut in the chalk, and in the cist the 
skeleton of a man crouched on his left side, so that his face was turned 
to the west. The remains of a wooden coffin surrounded him, and by 
his side was an antler of red-deer. Undoubtedly he was one of the 
heathens. The other barrow has not yet been discovered. It is 
probable therefore that in Saxon days the boundary of Fovant curved 
round the eastern and southern sides of Chiselbury to meet the track- 
way about 200 yards further west than does the present boundary. 

The old road which runs along the crest of the downs, passing close 
to the south of Chiselbury, was originally an old turnpike road, a section 
of the thoroughfare from Salisbury to Shaftesbury. Although turnpike 
gates were first legally erected in 1663, yet in the map of Cranborne 
Chase, drawn by Richard Harding of Blandford in 1618, a gate is shown 
aci-oss the road opposite the south-western corner of Chiselbury. On 
the south side of the road is a small rectangular excavation, now grass 
covered, but easily recognized both on the ground and in the air- 
photograph. It represents the site of the turnpike-keeper's house. 
From it a bank with ditch on both sides runs to the head of the combe, 
and a similar earthwork can be traced from the opposite side of the 
road to the ditch of Chiselbury. There is no doubt whatever that these 
structures are not of very great age. They were intended to prevent 
travellers making a detour in order to evade payment of the tolls. 
At a date which is not known, the turnpike gate was removed from the 
vicinity of Chiselbury to a site a mile westwards along the road, opposite 
the old inn known as Fovant Hut. The reason for this change may 
have been that the turnpike keeper disliked walking backwards and 
forwards from his lodgings in the inn to the gate near Chiselbury ; for 
the structure on the south of Chiselbury may have been only a shelter 
and not a dwelling house. It is not certain when the new turnpike 
road, the parent of the modern main Salisbury to Shaftesbury road, 
superseded the old one, but it was in all probability about the year 
1750. The old turnpike gate near Chiselbury is shown on the 1773 map 

24 Chiselbury Camp. 

of Wilts by Andrews and Dury, but this is undoubtedly an error — 
copied by the authors from an older map without verification. 

Chiselbury was a favourite haunt of Cunning Dick, the famous high- 
wayman. In Garston Wood, half a mile to the south-west there was a 
few years ago, and it may be there to-day, a tree with a staple in its 
trunk, to which he used to tie his horse. Further along the road to the 
west, near White Sheet Hill, there is a neck of down leading to Gallows 
Hill. Here the original gallows tree remains, with its horizontal limb 
scarred by many a chain, and with notches cut in its trunk so that the 
executioner could climb the tree in order to adjust the rope. It may be 
that Cunning Dick was the last man to hang from that stout horizontal 
limb. I hope he did not. 

It is said that the turret on the top of Fovant Church was used as a 
beacon to guide smugglers who brought kegs of spirits on horseback 
from Southampton to Chiselbury. Here a man, who had ridden from 
North Bradley would meet them and transfer the kegs to his own saddle, 
and then gallop back to his father's cottage. 



By F. W. Morgan. 

The reconstruction of woodland distribution for any given date pro- 
vides a good indication of the progress made in agriculture and settlement, 
and of the particular stage reached in the continually changing face of 
the country. It is of interest to historians also : from Green and Pearson 
onwards they have produced conjectural sketch maps, concentrating 
on the events of the Saxon Conquest in relation to forest, and those of 
the present day add small maps to their Histories of England. More 
recently the Ordnance Survey has produced maps of the Roman and 
Neolithic distributions, on a scale of 15*782 miles to the inch. 

For the earliest times before man had made any serious inroads by 
clearing, we can discover from geology and ecology the approximate 
nature and distribution of vegetation, and indicate bare chalk as fairly 
open and grassy hills, as on its outer margins in Wiltshire, recent beds 
as scrub — and heath — covered, and clay lowlands as forested, with 
marsh near the streams. After that, with the forest retreating from 
advancing agriculture and later industry, any comprehensive evidence 
is meagre. The surveys or " Perambulations " of " Forests " made in 
England in mediaeval times, especially those of 1300, are accurate 
within their limits but afford only indirect evidence. The Domesday 
Book, a statement of the taxable resources of the mediaeval community 
as it was in being after six centuries of Saxon labour, appears to be a 
systematic account. An attempt to utilise its material for one county 
will indicate something of the complications both of Domesday statistics 
(cf . the hide-carucate controversy) and of the general problems of early 

Lying away from the cultivated fields of the mediaeval village, the 
woodland played a very important part in its economy, providing fuel, 
building timber and, most of all, pannage for swine. Often a " vill " 
possessed rights in woods outside its boundaries if it had none of 
its own, and sometimes in addition to its own. Thus Waisel (a vill 
existing then in what is now Wilton Park) having no wood, held the 
right to take each year from Milchet Wood (near the S.E. border) 80 
loads and what was required for repairing houses and fences, and to 
pasture 80 hogs there ; South Newton, accredited with 200 acres, how- 
ever, possessed exactly the same rights in Milchet ; CoUingbourne 
Ducis, though accredited with a large area of wood (I league x 1 league), 
held rights to a third part of " the wood called Cetum " (Chute Forest). 


Woodland in Wiltshire at the time of the Domesday Book. 

In Hampshire several vills possessed merely so many swine " in the 
King's Forest," e.g., Ringwood 189, Breamore 50.i 

Representing definite taxable assets, the woodland was entered pre- 
cisely for each manor. The term "wood" can be taken to mean a 
considerable growth such as beech — or oak — wood, for any inferior 
variation was carefully noted — thus in Wilts occurred sometimes " a 
grove," "thorns," "coppice " or "bramble " and in Somerset 
" underwood." 

There are two systems of enumeration. The first, employed in the 
returns for Berkshire, Hampshire and Essex, for example, is that of the 
number of swine due to the Lord of each manor for the right to pannage 
in the wood. In Berkshire this total was about 2,680, in Hampshire 
over 3,500. The dues thus represented only a fraction of the swine 
supported by the woods of each manor. It has been estimated that 
the Middlesex manors actually possessed 20,000 swine. A map formed 
by plotting the dues gives an idea of the relative distribution of wood- 
land but not actual areas. 

The second is the areal method, as used for Wilts, Somerset, and 
Dorset. Sometimes the amount of wood was reckoned in acres, but as 
a rule by dimensions of length and breadth in miles or furlongs. 
Authorities (except Inman) agree that the Domesday league consisted of 
12 furlongs. Yet we cannot be sure that this is the clear statement it 
appears to be : it is generally held that the amount entered for each 
vill was often exaggerated and that the dimensions were those of the 
greatest length and breadth. C. S. Taylor, ^ however, suggests that the 

^ Rights in some of these forests lasted considerably beyond the 
Middle Ages. John Aubrey notes their survival in Pewsham 
(Chippenham) Forest, where it seems that people had acquired certain 
privileges. In 1670, writing of the Forests of W^iltshire, he says : — 
" Most of those forests were given away by King James the First. 
Pewsham Forest was given to the Duke of Buckingham, who gave it, 
I think, to his brother, the Earle of Anglesey. Upon the disafforesting 
of it the poor people made this rhythme : — 

' When Chipnam stood in Pewsham's wood. 
Before it was destroy'd, 
A cow might have gone for a groat a year. 
But now it is denyed." 
The metre is lamentable ; but the cry of the poor more lamentable. 
I knew several that did remember the going of a cowe for 4d. per 
annum. The order was, how many they could winter they might 
summer : and pigges did cost nothing the going. Now the highwayes 
are encombred with cottages, and the travellers with the beggars that 
dwell in them." Natural History of Wilts, p. 58, edition of 1847. 
^ Analysis of the Gloucestershire Domesday. 

By F. W. Morgan. 27 

system was more accurate and that the dimensions were those of a 
parallelogram that would contain such an extent. 

There appears to be exaggeration because a manor was sometimes 
credited with an area of woodland greater than that of the corresponding 
parish, e.g., Brokenborough with 3 1. X 2 1. (i.e. 4| m. x 3 m.) or 
Tilsheadwith 21. x 1 1. (i.e. 3 m. x 1| m.). But this is bound up with 
other complicating factors which explain much of the apparent exaggera- 
tion. A manor sometimes included vills geographically separate, and 
sometimes woodland similarly placed. Occasionally woodland entered 
must have lain outside the limits of the existing parishes which most 
nearly correspond to the Domesday vills and sometimes at a considerable 
distance from them, where it cannot now be traced. Brokenborough 
included subsidiary vills, and hence their woods, lying in the east 
towards Braden Forest. Amesbury was credited with a wood 6 L x 3 1. 
(i.e., 9 m. X 4|m.), which is probably Bentley Wood near the S.E. border 
of the county — this certainly belonged to Amesbury. Sonning, in E. 
Berkshire, near the Thames, had large woods which actually lay to the 
south along the well-wooded border of the county. This fact of out- 
lying woodlands, since vill and manor were not always geographically 
co-extensive, introduces an unknown degree of inaccuracy. 

There is yet another complication. Domesday Book contains 
occasional references to " the King's Forest." Several manors in 
Hampshire had no wood but so many swine in the King's Forest ; at 
Britford in S. Wilts, the "wood is in thehandsof the King — 40 shillings 
in his own estate " ; while at Milford, near the later Salisbury " \ the 
land is in the King's Forest " (Clarendon), and there are references to 
others such as "the wood called Cetum," Milchet Wood, etc. Being 
exempt frgm geld payment the Royal Forests were omitted from direct 
mention in the record : the chief ones in Wiltshire appear to have been 
Grovely, Chute, Clarendon, Braden, Chippenham, Savernake and 
Selwood. They were areas in which the King's game was protected 
by special laws (there were also private forests such as Cranborne 
Chase), and ccnsisting of waste land, some of it wood, falling partly 
within the bounds of a village and partly without — a great deal more 
being abstracted by the Angevins soon after 1066. " To what extent 
such forests existed before, is one of the vexed questions of English 
history, which the historians of the last century, with their genius for 
selecting the unessential for emphasis, completely ignored." ^ The 
entries for Milford and Britford mentioned above indicate something of 
the process, and it was much more marked in Hampshire. It is 
problematical as to what were the exact boundaries of the Royal 
Forests in 1086 : we cannot assume that they were those of even the 
earliest of the later Perambulations. In Wilts, for example, the royal 

1 O. G. S. Crawford, Empire Survey Review, vol. i. No. 1, July, 1931,, 
p. 9. 

28 Woodland in Wiltshire at the time of the Domesday Book. 

manor of Chippenham was credited with a wood 4 1. x 4 1. (i.e. 6 m. 
X 6 m.), an area so large that it suggests that this included part of the 
Forest of Chippenham ; there is less indication of Braden Forest, but 
there were several well-wooded manors lying near it. As to the amount 
of woodland in the Forests, later mediaeval records of gale havoc, grants 
of oak and beech timber, etc., suggest that this was considerable.^ It 
is reasonable to suppose, then that in 1086 they represented considerable 
areas of woodland. 

In spite of these difficulties a map can be constructed by assigning 
to each manor the literal amount credited to it, and by indicating 
additional vaguer areas of woodland for the known forests. Probably 
the suspected exaggerations are on the same scale over the whole 
country, so that distortion is equally distributed. The difficulty of 
that woodland lying outside the manorial vill cannot be surmounted 
easily, though it was not likely to be any great distance from the manor 
or to occur in a great many instances, and occasionally it is possible to 
make corrections. The resulting map g'ives a fair idea of the amount 
and distribution of woodland in Wiltshire in 1086, more accurate for 
comparison than for actual areas, perhaps. 

It is a map of the woodland resources of the mediaeval community 
in Wiltshire when it was in being, long established and with some 
centuries to run. Several features emerge. The main area of wood- 
land was in the Oxford Clay belt that makes up so much of N. and W. 
Wilts : the valleys of the W^hite Horse, Avon, Frome, and Stour. There 
were large amounts in the vills around Braden — in Purton, Wootton 
Bassett, the Lydiards, Brokenborough and Crudwell ; less in the middle 
of the belt, but a great deal in the rest — Chippenham was credited with 
an immense amount, and there was much in the surrounding villages, 
while Melksham, Westbury, Warminster, and several others as far as 
these had very large areas. A further indication of this is seen in the 
entries for several of the larger manors : in addition to the usual 
inhabitants, swineherds were mentioned specially — thus Warminster 
had also 13 swineherds, Chippenham 28, Bradford 22, and Westbury 
29. Along this belt lay also the Forests of Braden, Chippenham, 
Melksham, Selwood, Gillingham and Blackmore. In the east was a 
second belt of much woodland — the manors of Aldbourne, Ramsbury, 
the Bedwyns, the Collingbournes and Amesbury, as well as Savernake, 
Chute and Clarendon Forests, Milchet and the later Buckholt Woods : 
a belt of Tertiary clay-with -flints and later formations. Along the 
southern border or near it were chiefly forest areas : the New Forest, 
well-wooded N.E. Dorset, Cranborne Chase, Gillingham and Blackmore 

J. C. Cox, The Royal Forests of England. 

By F. IF. Morgan. 


♦ Ciick\ade 



, *w 



MQi1bYo'+ CD ° 






F" .^- +VJa-rroin4fcT 

i-^. ".'■ 




•> O 

Woodland ^ 

.1 a<Te , wlien the 



.. V-lron ^ 

l^ W ^x,;;;, ^ 



/s/oodland accTedited to the Domesday Honors Thcie veie also (oa<,id€Tol)|e mmh 
of Woodlond la the Royal FoTes|-s. 


Woodland in Wiltshire at the time of the Domesday Book. 

By F. W. Morgan. 31 

Forests. Other areas of considerable woodland were the Vale of 
Wardour, where the Kimmeridge Clay and Portland Beds are exposed, 
and the Vale of Pewsey, on the Greensand . 

The distribution there indicated differs considerably from the early 
sketch maps of the historians. One of the earliest, for example, C. H. 
Pearson's Map of Saxon England (1869), indicates small patches for 
Grovely, Great Ridge, Cranborne Chase and Clarendon, a small patch 
near Ludgershall, a broken mass stretching from Melksham south-west- 
wards to Kilmington, and a last area east of Marlborough — nothing else. 

There is a great contrast with the maps usually constructed of the 
prehistoric forest, for in 1086 the face of the country differed almost as 
much from the earlier wildness as from the modern emptiness. In the 
six centuries of Saxon occupation the process of clearing had gone far. 
(In some counties there is evidence of considerable clearing in a much 
shorter time, for the East Anglian Domesday states the amount of 
woodland existing in the time both of King Edward and King William). 
The agricultural conquest of the once-forested clay lowlands, though 
well advanced, was not a steady one. The extreme N.E. is part of the 
Thames Basin : in describing conditions there in pre-Roman times 
Professor Tansley says : " . . the valleys were probably covered 
with oak forest, and over large stretches where the heavy clay lies 
immediately below the surface soil .... passage must have been 
wellnigh impossible. In other parts .... the flat lying clay 
land may have been a marshy swamp before modern local drainage and 
the dredging of the Thames allowed the water from the Downs a more 
rapid outlet." ^ This was probably true for the whole lowland. Even 
to-day a few patches of ground in the Vale of White Horse, visible from 
the railway line, suggest what rough vegetation would soon spread over 
it. Yet the Berkshire Domesday records singularly few swine for the 
manors of the Vale, and the manors in N.E. Wiltshire also had little 
woodland. On the other hand, in the main Wiltshire portion of the 
clay lowland large areas of woodland remained, as well as in the Forests 
of Braden, Chippenham and Melksham. In the Vales of Pewsey and 
Wardour, again, clearing had gone far, but around the borders of the 
county, on the clay-with-flints and Eocene beds, less so. 

A comparison with the modern Ordnance Survey ^" shows that not 
only has much woodland disappeared since 1086 but there has been, 
again, a difference in the rate of its disappearance, depending on factors 
partly geographical, partly historical. The most marked feature is the 
great diminution in the clay vale in the process of its conversion into 
rich pasture land. With the exception of the Braden area, still well- 
wooded, and patches S. of Trowbridge, it is now practically cleared. 
In fact, more remains along the fringes. There are narrow belts along 

1 Quoted by E. T. Leeds, " Early Settlement in the Upper Thames 
Basin," Geography, 1928. 

32 Woodland in Wiltshire at the time of the Domesday Book. 

the valley slopes in the Oolitic belt, on the Corallian hills, where 
Bowood and Spye Parks represent the remnant of Pewsham Forest, and 
have been preserved ; while Selwood has perhaps most remaining, in 
large patches on the Greensand and in Longleat. Great Ridge, Grovely 
and Cranborne Chase, on the less productive chalk and long preserved 
as parks and hunting grounds, are well marked; the E. border, from 
Savernake to Down ton, is similarly still marked by much, though 
broken, woodland. Almost everywhere the upland woods are much 
better preserved than the lowland. 

The map suggests also a related proble n, of boundaries. Remnants of 
the ancient wood, lying away towards the limits of the vill, can be seen 
in the patches of woodlaid through which parish boundaries often run, 
for in the main the modern boundaries are those of the original vill. 

(bated tn'on \\\e Oxinanft Sutxw ', \ + \ oO « -^ 

^^<Jlp With rtit Sonchon oF Ihs • \ .''"^^^>/"-' 

Civil PoTfi&Vl E>Oun<l<nie$ Z'"^-. 

Jj o I 

....--■'<7'Huisli / ^A'^ 



. to ^N 

noYisli Boundqtie* 6 Woodland ia \[\c Vale oV Rew6eY< 

Printed by C II. Woor ward, Devizes. 

And it is not only parish boundaries which pass through woodland : the 
Domesday map reflects what appears in the map of earlier woodland, 
the fact that for the most part the boundaries of the county formerly 
coincided with areas which were well wooded, except in the N.W. 
where they extended beyond the Vale of Chippenham to the dip-slope 
of the Cots wolds. 

Since it had effect in the most obscure period of English history the 
exact nature and significance of this connection is difftcult to see— 

By F. W. Morgan. 33 

whether the forested belts were military barriers, refuges for the British, 
obstacles to progress, or, as is more likely, areas of later and more 
difficult settlement. Grant Allen, for example, thought Wiltshire a 
"curiously artificial county ... a mere watershed," because it 
cannot be defined in terms of a river basin. ^ A writer in the Hampshire 
\"ictoria History also is attracted by the watershed idea for he regards 
Hampshire as separated from Wiltshire by an open watershed (and from 
Berkshire). In fact, however, this watershed is for the greater part a 
low one between parishes, is not followed entirely by the boundary, and 
was very largely wooded ; the Berkshire frontier was equally so. 
Mackinder ^ regards the southern counties "as originated on the open 
high grounds emergent from the forested lowlands," which is nearer the 
truth, but his statement and map are over-simplified. Some of the 
uplands, e.g., those between Wiltshire and Hampshire, carried forest 
on clay-with-flints and Eocene beds, and in Wiltshire the county 
boundary in the N.W. runs right across to the dip-slope of the Cotwolds, 
thus including within itself the considerable " forested lowland " of the 
Bristol Avon and Upper Thames. But at any rate the questions of 
boundaries and forest areas seem to be closely interlinked, even if the 
natural frontier idea cannot be applied unreservedly. 

Domesday Information from : — 

1. Wiltshire Domesday ; trans, and ed. withintrod., by W. H. Jones. 

2. Chapters containing trans, with notes, of the Survey for each 
county in the Victoria County Histories of Berkshire, Hampshire, 
Dorset, Somerset and Middlesex. 

•*• County and Town in England, p. 22 — -3. 
2 Britain and the British Seas : p. 202. 




Last autumn an appeal was made to the members of our society for 
special donations to the above fund owing to extraordinary expenses 
mainly caused through the necessity of putting " thief -proof " locks on 
the cases in the museum owing to the robbery of several bronze imple- 
ments earlier in the year. The appeal met with a generous response 
and the fund is now not only out of debt, but there is a balance in hand 
that will enable the committee to carry out some much needed improve- 
ments in the library. 

The total amount received was ^117 7s. 6d. from which was deducted 
;^3 6s. for postages, printing, etc., thus leaving a balance of £114: 13s. 

The following is a list of subscribers to the appeal : — 

Gough, W. 
Crossfield, Mrs. 
Westlake, Canon 
Goddard, Dr. C. E 
Ewart, W. H. L. 
Pollock, H. R. 
Isaac, C. P. 
Wilhams, P. 
Henderson, Miss A 
Henderson, Miss I. 
Goodchild, W. 
Ketchley, Canon 
Fry, Claude 
Buxton, Major G. 
Buxton, Mrs. 
I>awrence, E. T. 
Engleheart, Rev. G. H 
Calkin, J. B. 
Jennings, R. 
Walker, General 
Tuck, E. N. 
Hankey, Basil H. A. 
Thompson, G. Malcolm 
Goddard, Mrs. E.H. 
Cunnington, B. H. 
Stevens, Frank 
Jackson, Mrs. 
Dominy, Mrs. 
C^ry, Commander H 
Arkell, T. N. 
Morse, W. L. 
Sainsbury, H. J. 
Stote, Rev. A. W. 
Myers, Canon 




Harrison, Mrs. A. H.... 





Harrison, Rev. A. H.... 




Gardner, Mrs. M. L 




Thompson, Mrs. 
Rule, I. T. 






Pugh, Miss 
Pugh, C. W. 
Antrobus, Sir C. G. ... 






Cunnington, Mrs. B. H. 



Dotesio, W. 





Borough, R. J. M. ... 



Coward, E. 




Luce, Sir R. 



Newall, R. S. 



Rawlence, Guy 




Hyde-Parker, Admiral 




Hyde-Parker, Mrs. ... 




Thomas, Mrs. 



Mackness, F. A. 







Phillips, A. J. 
Vesey, D. 
Hamilton, A. D. 








Arkell, W.T. 



Hartnoll, Mrs. 





Bateson, H. S. 



Fitzmaurice, Lord ... 




Wilhams, A. T. 





Jones, Rev. Meyrick F. 
Canning, Col. A. 
Shaw Mellor, A. 






Ghey, S. H. R. 
Pole. Sir F.J. 






Gundry, W. L. D. ... 
Flower, C. T. 


Museum Maintenance Fund Appeal, 1934. 








Galley, Miss 


Bailey, Lady Janet .. 


Thornely, T. H. 


Dartnell, H. W. 


Gwatkin, Major R. G. 


Gimson, H. M. 



Bell, Col. W. Reward 


Manley, Canon F. H... 


Wordsworth, Rev. Can. 


French, Col. C. N. .. 


Heytesbury, Col. Lord 


Sainsbury, H. 


Parsons, Mrs. 


Woodward, C. H. .. 


Mather, Miss L. 


Osborne, J. L. 



Briggs, Admiral C. J.... 


Dotesio, W. C. 



Jackson, Rev. J. B. ... 


Walrond, R. S. 


Slade. W. Goold 



Young, G. M. 



Russell, S. 



Phillips, B. 

Brassey, Col. E. 


Tothill, Lady 


Lansdowne, Lord 


Story Maskelyne, Miss 

Usher, T.C. 



Godwin, Miss J. D. .. 


Mackirdy, Capt. E. M. 


Simpson, A. B. 

Roundway, Rosalind, 

Jeffcoat, Rev. R. 




Sandy, G. 

Deedes, Major J. G. ... 



Manley, Canon F. H.... 

Forester, Egerton 


Powell, J. W\ 


Forester, Mrs. Egerton 


Hobhouse, Rt. Hon 

Wright, Mrs. Fitzherbert 


SirC. E. H. 


Holloway, Miss Stella 


D 2 


By a. G. Little. 

The valuable discoveries, which Mr. and Mrs. Lovibond have made, 
of remains of the Grey Friars buildings in Windover House have 
stimulated interest in the friary, whose history, fragmentary as it is, is 
worth recording. 

On 10th September, 1224, a group of nine Franciscans landed at 
Dover. They consisted of Agnellus of Pisa, who had been appointed 
minister of the new province by St. Francis, three Englishmen who were 
m holy orders, and five laymen who were all foreigners. Before the year 
1224 was out, they had established settlements in Canterbury, London, 
Oxford and Northampton.^ They reached Salisbury between 1225 and 
1228, for the Grey Friars of Salisbury always honoured Bishop Richard 
le Poor as their founder, and he was translated from Salisbury to 
Durham in 1228. Bishop Richard gave them a suitable site,- and here 
apparently they remained for over three hundred years : there is no 
evidence that they ever moved to another site. A glimpse into their 
life in these early days is given by Friar Thomas of Eccleston, the first 
historian of the English province. Eccleston began collecting materials 
for his chronicle soon after 1230, and so it may be regarded as con- 
temporary evidence. After describing how the first friars at Canterbury 
used to sit round a fire at night in the school house after the scholars 
had gone home, and cheerfully pass round a mug of dregs of beer 
diluted with water, he continues : " The like often happened at Salisbury 
where the friars drank their dregs round the fire in the kitchen at the 
evening collation with such lightheartedness and gladness that he counted 
himself lucky who could snatch the mug playfully from another."'* 

Henry III was a great benefactor of the Grey Friars of Salisbury (as of 
other friaries) and for some years our information on the history of the 
house is derived only from the royal grants entered in the public records. 
The first is a grant of five oaks for timber to assist in the building of their 
houses on 22nd March, 1230 ; those oaks are to be felled and carried to 
the friary.^ In 1232 the foresters of Savernak and Chute are ordered to 

^ Tractatus fr. Thomae vulgo dicti de Eccleston De adventu fratrum 
minorum in Angliam, ed. A. G. Little, Paris 1909 (henceforth referred to 
as Eccleston), pp. 3 — 8, 11 — 13. An English translation is included in 
The coming of the Friars Minor to England and Germany, by Miss E. G. 
Salter, Dent,' 1926. 

- Charters, etc., illustrating ihe history of Salisbury, Rolls Ser. 1891 p. 
269. Itinerarium Willelmi de Worcestre, ed. J. Nasmith 1778, pp. 
81 — 2 (extracts from the martyrology of the Grey Friars of Salisbury), 
W. of Worcester gives 1227 as the date of the foundation. 

'•' Eccleston, p. 9. ' C.C.R., i, p. 310 ; C. Lib. R., i, p. 171. 

Grey Friars of Salisbury. 37 

permit any persons possessing woods in those forests, who wish to give 
timber towards the building of the church of the Friars Minor of 
Sahsbury, to take such timber without charge or hindrance.^ In the 
same year the King sent them 20 pairs of rafters from one forest, 30 
from another, and five old oaks to make shingles from another, all for 
the fabric of their church. ^ Next year the church or chapel was 
nearing completion. On 10th September, 1233, the King ordered the 
sheriff of Dorset to fell five good oaks to make shingles for roofing 
the church or chapel, and to have these shingles made and carried to 
Salisbury, while the sheriff of Wiltshire is ordered to have the chapel 
roofed with the shingles.-* In 1234 we have orders for timber to make 
stalls in the church and for more shingles to finish covering the roof."* 

While there are many gifts of wood for fuel in the reign of Henry III,^ 
this is the last grant of timber for building. We may conclude that the 
buildings were finished in 1234. They were evidently wooden structures, 
no doubt with daub filling. This was consonant with the will of St. 
Francis and the practice of the English province, as was also the wooden 
fence with which the friars enclosed their court or area, for which the King 
gave 16 cartloads of pales in Clarendon Forest on 26th December, 1252.** 

It is not known when the Church was consecrated. The city docu- 
ments make reference to a felon who took sanctuary in it in 1260.' 

There were 20 friars in the house in 1243, when the King supplied 
their clothing.^ Building had evidently strained their resources, though 
most of the material and some of the labour was given free. In 1244 
the King gave these friars ten marks for their maintenance from the 
vacant Bishopric of Bath, and 20 marks in 1246 to pay their debts. ^ 
Ten years later the King gave orders that the Friars Preachers of Wilton 
and the Friars Minor of Sarum and a hundred " pauperes " should be 
ied, so that each " pauper " has Id. for the soul of Robert de Mares. ^'' 

William of York, Bishop of Salisbury 1246 — 56, had a Franciscan, 
Fr. H. de Syreford, on his staff to assist him in his episcopal duties and 
was much agitated about 1254 at the prospect of losing his services. ^^ 
Life at a Bishop's court was not considered good for a friar and was 
generally only permitted for short periods. The Dean, Robert of 

1 C.P.R., ii, p. 467. 

'^ C.C.R., ii, pp. 43, 45 ; " XX copulas " — perhaps split tree trunks. 

--' C.C.R., ii, p. 260 ; C. Lib. R., i, p. 230. 

4 C.C.R., ii, pp. 370, 414. 

^ I have noted gifts of fuel to the Friars Minor of Salisbury, in 
Liberate Rolls for 1236, and in Close Rolls for the years 1232, 1236, 
1241, 1258, 1267, 1268, 1269. ^ Close R., 37 Hen. Ill, m. 21. 

^ Information given by Mrs. Lovibond. 
^ Roles Gascons, ed. Michel, i, No. 1969. 

9 Gal. Lib. R., ii, p. 222 ; Lib. R,. 30 Hen. Ill, m. 7. 

^0 Lib. R., 41 Hen. Ill, m. 12. 

^^ Monumenta Franciscana, i, 371 — 2. 

38 Grey Friars of Salisbury. 

Hertford, was also a friend of the friars, and both the Grey Friars of 
Sahsbury and the Black Friars of Wilton received a small annuity 
under his will in 1258.^ Another benefactor among the secular clergy 
was Martin of St. Cross, master of the hospital of Sherburn, near 
Durham, who left the Friars Minor of Salisbury 6s. 8d. in 1259. He 
was a pluralist and held among other benefices the living of Tilshead, 
in Wiltshire.-^ 

Though Sahsbury with twenty friars was not one of the greater houses, 
it was for a short time in the 13th century the head of a custody or 
group of convents.^ Eccleston describes the characteristics of some of 
the custodies before the middle of the century. " In the custody of 
Salisbury, over which brother Stephen presided, the special characteristic 
was the feeling of mutual affection. He himself was of such a sweetness, 
such a geniality, and such an exceeding charity and compassion, that, 
in so far as he could, he would not allow anyone to be made sad. Thus, 
when he came to die and the saving Host was brought to him, he saw 
in the Host [hostia) the door [ostium) through which he must enter, and 
thus singing with a loud voice the Salve regina misericordiae, he passed 
away blissfully at Salisbury." "* The custody of Salisbury was later 
incorporated in that of London, which included the houses of London, 
Salisbury, Canterbury, Winchelsea, Southampton, Lewes, Winchester, 
and Chichester. 

Another distinguished friar, Ralph of Rheims — who in spite of his 
name was an Englishman — ended his long and strenuous life at 
Salisbury about 1257. He had been sent by Gregory IX with Haymo of 
Faversham (later minister general) on an embassy to the Greek 
Emperor, John Vatatzes, in 1233 ; he probably knew St. Francis and 
had certainly been in close touch with the immediate companions of the 
Saint and told the Salisbury friars stories about his life and sayings.^ 

Salisbury does not appear as one of the special places of study in the 
order and no evidence has yet been found that the Franciscans gave 
theological lectures in the Cathedral schools, as they did, e.g., at 

^ St. Osmund's Register (R.S.), i, 392 — 3. The amount depended on 
other variable payments ; in any case it was only a fraction of a mark 
between the two houses. 

2 Durham Wills (Surtees Soc, 1835), i, p. 6—11 ; Cal. Pat. R. Hen. 
Ill (1259), p. 43. 

^ Cf. A. G. Little, Studies in English Franciscan Hist., pp. 235 — 8. 

■* Eccleston, pp. 44 — 45 ; Miss Salter's translation, p. 50 — 51. 

^ Eccleston, pp. 35, 90, 91, 95. Wimborne Minster had a large collection 
of relics : see list in J. Hutchins, Hist, of Dorset (1803), ii, pp. 557 — 8. 
Among relics of the Virgins was " part of the cloth upon which St. 
Clara lay." Among relics of the Confessors were " some of the clothes 
of St. Francis, his hairs and hairshirt." It may be suggested that these 
Franciscan relics came to Wimborne from the Greyfriars of Salisbury 
and that Ralph of Rheims is the most likely person to have brought 
them to Salisbury. 

By A. G. Little. 39 

Canterbury, London and Worcester. But a large proportion of the 
few Salisbury friars whose names we know were men of learning and 
link the convent with the universities. Fr. Simon of Wimborne was a 
friar at Salisbury c. 1250, and it is probable that Fr. W. of Wimborne, 
8th master of the Cambridge friars, also came from the Salisbury house. ^ 

Fr. Henry of Woodstone, as a promising young man, was sent by the 
Salisbury convent as their scholar to Oxford (c. 1250). The learned 
chancellor of the Cathedral, Ralph Hegham, was interested in him and 
lent^y oil sidove's Etymologies, a medieval encyclopaedia and very 
useful to a student. One is glad to know that Fr. Henry returned it : 
it is still in the Cathedral library (MS. 142). At Oxford, Woodstone 
studied and taught and heard confessions (he was already a priest) . 
On 25th July, 1256, a priest, named Ralph, being in mortal sin, was 
celebrating mass for the dead in the Church of St. Mary Magdalene in 
the suburb of Oxford. As he elevated the Host and raised his eyes he 
saw descending from the height, head downwards, a man, who seized 
the Host with one hand and dealt him a severe blow on the jaw with 
the other. Ralph fainted, and, when he recovered, sent his confession 
to a sick priest hard by who instructed him to go to the Bishop's 
penitentiary. " The Bishop's penitentiary at that time was Fr. Henry 
de Wodeston, O.F.M., and the said priest (Ralph) was his scholar. 
The penitent asked him to tell this miracle to all faithful Christians out 
of reverence to the Body of Christ without specifying the sin "■ — and 
accordingly we find it in many collections of exempla. Woodstone does 
not seem to have returned as lecturer to Salisbury. In 1270 he was 
leading a vigorous campaign against the Jews — arguing before the 
council that they should be forbidden to hold manors with the incidents 
of wardship, marriage, advowsons and presentations to livings : he drew 
up a memorandum which was adopted by the brothers Giffard, Arch- 
bishop of York and Bishop of Worcester, and became the basis of 
legislation. His last appearance is in 1285, as an influential member 
of the provincial chapter at Cambridge.^ 

Our next friar also takes us into politics. Fr. Hugh of Brisingham 
was lector to the Franciscans of Oxford ; after taking his D.D. degree 
there about 1265 and fulfilling the duties of regent master, he was sent 
on to Cambridge as regent master and lecturer to the friars. The 
theological faculty at Cambridge was not very secure and it was the 
policy of the Franciscan province to give it prestige and permanence 
by sending a succession of their most distinguished teachers to 
Cambridge, such as William Melton, Thomas of York, Thomas Bungay, 
Roger Marston — all men with European reputations. As Hugh of 
Brisingham comes in the middle of this group, we may conclude that 

■ ^ Eccleston, pp. 72, 122. 

^ See A. G. Little, " Fr. Henry of Woodstone and the Jews " in 
B.S.F.S., Collectanea Franciscana, a, 150 — 156, and "The Franciscan 
School at Oxford " in Arch. Franc. Hist., xix, (1926), pp. 815—16. 

40 Grey Friars of Salisbury. 

his reputation was high, though nothing of his theological work has 
survived.^ He was at Salisbury in 1280, probably aS lecturer, when 
he had to deal with an important matter touching his Convent and 
Order. The Statute of Mortmain was passed on 15th November, 1279 ; 
it forbade the acquisition of landed property by religious persons. The 
friars, like other religious bodies, were naturally agitated, and Hugh of 
Brisingham went to Wells and Bristol to talk to the chancellor, Robert 
Burnel. Then returning to Salisbury he wrote him a long letter- urging 
first that certain friends of the friars at Salisbury should not suffer for 
granting some adjacent land which was urgently needed for the enlarge- 
ment of the house, and secondly that grants to the Franciscans should 
not come under the law, because they could own nothing in this world ; 
they only had the use of things, and could lawfully be turned out at 
any time by the grantors who remained owners of the property. The 
first petition was granted at once ; ^ the second was rightly ignored. 
Edward I. and Robert Burnel were practical men, and knew that the 
right to expel the friars, though good at law, was a dead letter in fact. 
Friar Hugh argued well, but it was a bad case. 

On 10th September, 1302, Simon of Ghent, Bishop of Salisbury, 
commissioned Fr. Richard de Sly keborn, O.F.M., to hear the confession 
" of our beloved daughter in Christ, Mabel Abbess of Shaftesbury." "* As 
Salisbury was the only house of Grey Friars in the diocese to which 
Shaftesbury was easy of access, we may assume that Fr. Richard was 
then resident there. Let us see what the entry in Simon's Register 
meant for the Salisbury friars. 

Mabel Giffard was a great lady ; she belonged to a noble house : one 
brother had been Archbishop of York, another had just died as Bishop 
of Worcester, both men of weight in church and state : she herself was 
now approaching her end, but was still Abbess of the greatest and 
wealthiest Nunnery in England. Richard de Sly keborn was used to the 
ways of great ladies ; some twenty years before this he had been the 
trusted agent of the Lady Devorguila in all affairs relating to the 
foundation of her College of Balliol.^ Fr. Richard had lived a life of 
storm and stress in the custody of Newcastle : the Scottish border was 
in the throes of war and was no place for an elderly friar, and Fr. 
Richard had been sent south to end his days in peace. He was known 
as a collector of stories suitable for the pulpit or the hall. Most 
probably he was the author of the so-called Lanercost Chronicle down 

' Eccleston, pp. 71 — 2. A. G. Little, " The Friars and the foundation 
of the Faculty of Theology at Cambridge," in Melanges Mandonnet 
(1930), ii, pp. 389—401. 

P.R.O. Anc. Corresp., xxii, 131 (printed in E.H.R., October, 1934). 

^ See below, p. 41. 

^ Registrum Simonis de Gandavo (C. and Y. Soc), p. 89. 

^ Oxford Balliol Deeds, ed. Salter, O.H.S., 1913, 279—285, 331—3. 

CarueS Stone beartrx^ 

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Plate I. 

Fig. 1. — Hammer-beam truss over room K. 

Fig. 2. — Roof .timbers over north end of room B. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1. — Outside of north gable-end of room R. 

Fig. 2. — Inside of north gable-end of room R, showing soot from Friars' fires. 

Plate III. 

Fig. ] . — Roof timbers of room R. 

Fig. 2. — Roof timbers of room R showing hole framed for outlet of smoke. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. — Eastern side of hammer-beam truss of roof over room R showing 
upper side of beams of ceihng in Fig. 2. 

Fig. 2. — Ceihng added under roof of room R. 

'•T)^^^^- Plate V. 

Figf; 1. — Water hole found under chimney and fireplace in room B. 

Fig. 2. — Early 17th century timber-framed building covered with tiles, 
in St. Ann's Street, on probable site of chapel, now " Windover House". 

By A. G. Little. 41 

to the year 1297 ; if so, he brought to the quiet house at Salisbury a 
wealth of strange experiences and a fund of entertaining gossip.^ 

More excitement was caused in the Order by the acquisition of another 
elderly recruit. The Register of the London Grey Friars contains a list 
of " persons of importance in the world w^ho entered tha Order of Friars 
Minor in England." Among them is " Fr. John of Winchelsey, D.D. 
and Canon of Salisbury, who entered at Salisbury but died while still 
a novice.""^ He was nephew of Archbishop Winchelsey, fellow of 
Merton, D.D. of Oxford, and held various benefices. He became a friar 
in 1326 and died either in 1326 or 1327. His entry suggests that the 
relations between the Cathedral and the friary were still friendly. 
Indeed- there seem to be no records of quarrels with either the Cathedral 
or the secular clergy or the Dominicans who had established a house at 
Fisherton before 1280. Can this be said of any other friary ? It 
would seem that the sweetness and charity which had characterised the 
first custodian had become a tradition with the Grey Friars of Salisbury. 

When Hugh of Brisingham wrote to the Chancellor in 1280, it is clear 
that preparations had already been made for an increase in the friary 
area. On 27th July, 1280, the King granted licence for the Friars Minor 
of Salisbury to receive in mortmain from any friends, who desire to 
give or demise to them, any houses or places adjoining their house there 
for the enlargement of their place, as the King understands that they 
have no property but use only in donatives.-^ This was sufhcient to 
authorise the grants, so no enquiry was held, sl loss to us a,s an Inquisitio 
ad quod damnum would have given details about the ground now 

Two new facts now call our attention. The first is the increase in 
the number of friars. Thus in 1285 we find the Friars Preachers and 
Minor of Salisbury each receiving 40s. from the King for three days' 
food ; this means that each house contained 40 friars, and this number 
remains pretty constant during the rest of Edward I's reign. Thus in 
November, 1289, the Friars Minor had 40s. for three days " and on the 
fourth day when they came in procession to meet the King when he 
made his offerings in the Cathedral (another) 40s." The number had 
risen to 44 in 1335.^ 

The second fact is the enlargement of the house. In the early build- 
ings, as we have seen, wood was the principal material ; now it is stone. 
In 1290 Edward I allowed the friars to use the fallen stone from the 
broken-down walls within the castle of Old Sarum in aid of the work of 

1 Chronicon de Lanercost, ed. J. Stevenson, 1839. " The Authorship 
of the Lanercost Chronicle," by A. G. Little, Eng. Hist. Rev., xxxi, 
269—279, xxxii, 48—9. 

^ Grey Friars of London, by C. L. Kingsford (B.S.P\S.), 200. 

3 Cal. Pat. 7?., 1272—81, p. 392. 

^ See P.R.O. Exch. Accts., 352/18, 387/9; Chancery Misc., 4/2, 4/4, 
4/6. Brit. Mus. MS. Add., 7965, f. 7 ; Cotton Nero C. viii, f. 201. 

42 Grey Friars of Salisbury. 

their chapel,' and early n-ext year he ordered the sheriff of Wiltshire to 
deliver the stone of the cellar, which was the old treasury of the great 
church in the old castle of Salisbury, to friar Salomon, O.F.M., for the 
profit of the house of the Friars Minor of Salisbury.- Perhaps only the 
church, which was dedicated to St. Mary,'* was built with this stone, and 
the houses which already stood on the new-acquired land may have been 
utilised to accommodate the increased number of friars. The city 
documents record that the King in 1293 gave to Friars Minor " thorns 
and brambles for a fence " "* — presumably to enclose their new area. 
Nicholas Longespee, the aristocratic Bishop of Salisbury, was interested 
in the new buildings and in his will, made in 1295, left to the Friars 
Minor of Salisbury 100 marks for the fabric of their church.-^ 

It was the new stone church which Ralph Monthermer at the end of 
his romantic life chose as his last resting place in 1325.'' In 1290, 
Edward I married his daughter Joanna of Acre to Gilbert de Clare, 
Earl of Gloucester and Hertford and Lord of Glamorgan. It was a 
political match. She was 18 : he was 47. In the Earl's household was 
a young squire, Ralph of Monthermer, whose origin and even legitimacy 
were doubtful. The countess-princess fell in love with him and on her 
husband's death (1295) got her father to knight her lover and then 
secretly married him. When the King tried to marry Joanna to a 
Prince of Savoy, the truth came out and the storm burst. Sir Ralph 
was imprisoned and "'endured great sufferings " for his lady-love, but 
he soon won the confidence of Edward I, stuck to him in dark times, 
served with distinction in the Scottish wars and received the Earldom 
of Athol (which he subsequently sold to make provision for his children), 
and was made warden of Scotland. He was taken prisoner at 
Bannockburn but was chivalrously set free without ransom by Robert 
Bruce who had learnt to know and admire him in earlier fights. His 
wife died in 1307 ; he married again in or before 1319, his second wife 
being also a great lady — Isabella, widow of John Hastings, and sister 
and co-heiress of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke.'' The families 
of Hastings and Pembroke were noted benefactors of the Friars' Minor. 

Monthermer is the only great noble who is recorded to have been 
buried in the Grey Friars Church.^ It was chosen as a burial place 

' Cal. Close R., Ed. I, vol. iii, p. 82. 

^ Chancery Warrants, i, p. 30. 

^ Obituary Roll of William Ebchester, etc., ed. J. Raine, Surtees Soc, 
xxxi (1856), No. 535. ^ Information from Mrs. Lovibond. 

^ Eng. Hist. Review, xv (1906), p. 525. 

^ Itinerarium W. de Worcestre (1778), p. 81. 

' D.N.B. 

^ Monthermer's stepdaughter, the munificent Elizabeth de Burgh 
Lady of Clare, left the Grey Friars of Salisbury 40s. in 1360, but this 
was not in pious memory of her stepfather. She left legacies to over 
fifty friaries : Nichols, Royal and Noble Wills (1780), pp. 22—43. 

By A. G. Utile. 43 

by some of the local gentry and the citizens, but few instances have 
come to light. 

The relations of the friars with the citizens seem to have been cordial. 
In 1335 the city records^ contain a payment of six marks, and also of 
12 pence for felling 10 oaks for fire-wood for the Grey Friars. The Black 
Death seems in this city to have stimulated devotion and charity to the 
friars, for immediately after this visitation we find them building again, 
though the cost of building was now high. 

On 21st January, 1350, Edward III granted protection for two years 
for the carpenters, masons and other workmen hired by the guardian of 
the Friars Minor of Salisbury for the repair of their church and the 
houses of the dwelling-place there. "^ The mention of two years implies 
considerable alterations. Among them might be the enlargement of 
the refectory and the heightening of the hall by the fine hammer- 
beam roof, though this is probably rather later. 

A few years later the friars were endeavouring with the help of some 
friends to enlarge their premises by the acquisition of a messuage (worth 
40s. a year) and a toft (worth 5s. a year) adjoining their house. There 
seems to have been no difficulty about the toft, and some prominent 
citizens, William Randolf, formerly bailiff of Salisbury, Robert de 
Hethelhampton and others had licence to ahenate it in 1357.'' There 
was more difficulty about the messuage, of which the Bishop was lord 
and which paid an annual rent of 2s. 2d. to the Bishop and 40s. to the 
Dean and chapter. Walter atte Bergh, who was a tenant-in-chief, 
and baihff of Sahsbury for life,'' J. P. for Wiltshire and one of the 
justices for keeping the statute of labourers, proposed to give this to the 
friars and provide for the annual payments to the Bishop and Chapter 
out of other tenements in the city,^ and he also had licence to do this. 
The Dean and Chapter were willing, but the Bishop, Robert Wyville, 
refused his consent and held up the proceedings for ten years. The 
ground of his objection was that it was contrary to his oath against the 
alienation of Church property. It was true that he was to get an 
equivalent, and it might be all right, but he was an old man and was 
not going to risk damnation for perjury ; he must have permission from 
the Pope. This was not given till 16th September, 1367, when Urban 
V. instructed the Archbishop of Canterbury to authorise the transaction 
if the facts were as stated." Walter atte Bergh lived to see this happy 
issue ; he died in 1369.'' 

^ Information supplied by Mrs. Lovibond. '^ C.P.R., p. 445. 

'^ Inquisitio ad quod damnum, file 321, No. 13. C.P.R. Edw. Ill, 
1354—8, p. 588 (cf. ibid, pp. 122, 124, 295, 396, 401, 550, 649 for men- 
tion of some of the donors). -• Inq. a.q.d., file, 303, No. 2. 

^ One of these was " illud tenementum angulare quod vocatur la 
Ryole cum shopis celariis et aliis pertinentiis suis." Inq. a.q d 321 
No. 13. -L H . , 

'■' Bullarium Franciscanum, vi, p. 413. Cal. Pap L iv p 64 
' C.P.R. Ed. Ill, 1367—70, p. 359. 

44 Grey Friars of Salisbury. 

The provincial Chapter met at Salisbury August 14th, 15th and 16th, 
1393. It is the first time that we hear of the Chapter meeting in this 
house. But the Chapter was remarkable on other grounds. King 
Richard II was present. " The King," says a chronicler who was in 
close touch with Franciscan affairs,^ " splendidly feasted the Chapter of 
Friars Minor at Salisbury and ate with them there in the refectory, 
having with him the Queen Anne and Bishops and other lords, on the 
feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Mary (15th August), and there 
he wore the regalia and crown." 

This is supported by the daily accounts of the royal household.^ On 
Thursday, 14th August, the King arrived at Salisbury from Downton : 
the sum of the expenditure on that day amounting to ^35 lis. 8|d. 
On Friday, 15th August (the Assumption), " at the Friars Minor 
Salisbury " the sum rose to ;^80 3s. 8|d., the heaviest items being 
buttery £27 10s. 5d. and kitchen £28 13s. 7d. On Saturday and Sunday, 
also at the same place, the household expenses fell to £29 Is. 6-2-d. and 
^33 2s. 9|d. The sum for August 15th seems large, but was sometimes 
greatly exceeded on other Church festivals : e.g., on the previous 
Christmas Day the expenditure was nearly ^200. 

One would naturally expect the King to be staying with the Bishop 
of Salisbury, John Waltham. at this time treasurer, for whom Richard 
II had such an affectionate admiration that when he died two years 
later he insisted on his being buried " among the Kings " in the Chapel 
of Edward the Confessor in Westminster Abbey.-* But the phrase 
" apud Fratres Minores " ^ in the household accounts suggests that 
the King was actually staying at the Grey Friars from 15th — 17th 
August (on Monday, 18th, he returned to Downton). If so, it is a 
puzzle to see what happened to the 30 or 40 friars of the house and to 
the 100 or so friars who came as members of the chapter. On the 
whole it seems more likely that the King with his Queen and some members 
of the court merely dined in the refectory with the friars on the 15th 
August — the feast being supplied by the officers of the royal household. 

The chapter was presided over by the provincial minister, John 
Tyssington, D.D., a violent opponent of Wicliffite doctrines.^ He was 
assisted in the conduct of the meeting by a standing committee of four 
friars. The chapter included the seven custodians, and one or two 
representatives of each convent — often the guardian and the lector. 
Proceedings began with a solemn mass. Reports from the convents 
were received : any guardians and other officials who were found want- 
ing were condemned to penances or to deposition, and others were 
elected to fill the vacant places. One feature in the reports now 

^ Eulogium Historiarum (Rolls. Ser.), iii, 369 (where the year is 
wrongly given as 1392). 

- P.R.O. Excheq. Accts., 402/10 (Keeper's book) . Brit. Mus. MS. Add., 
35115 (Controller's book) . ^ D.N.B. 

"^ This occurs only in the Controller's book, not in the Keeper's. 

•' A. G. Little, Grey Friars in Oxford, O.H.S., p. 251. 

By A. G. Little. 45 

becoming prominent was the increasing number of houses which were 
in debt. Then again Pope Boniface IX was lavishly conferring papal 
chaplaincies on friars, which made the maintenance of discipline more 
difficult, as those papal chaplains claimed to be exempt from obedience to 
their superiors. The provincial minister induced the King to join in 
a vigorous protest to the Pope against this abuse. ^ The painful case of 
Fr. Thomas Wyke probably came up at this chapter ; he was a friar of 
Shrewsbury, priest and D.D., but had became a leper, and his fellow 
friars would not have him in the house. The King was interested in 
the matter- : he wrote to the Pope that the poor man had been expelled 
and was starving, and the friars ought to be made to provide for him. 
The Pope did not consider the friars were in a position to do this, but 
authorised Wyke to take any benefice that was off erred him.-^ But if 
none were offered him ? The case was something of a scandal and not 
creditable to the Order. The friars however did get a patron to help 
them out of their difficulty. On 16th October, 1394, Sir Hugh Burnell 
presented Fr. Thomas Wyke to the Rectory of Sutton-in-Corvedale in 
Shropshire : it seems to have been a small place with few inhabitants.'^ 
A few days before the Pope had given this cold comfort to Thomas 
Wyke, he had authorised another English friar, Fr. Roger of England, 
O.F.M., to enlist a band of 24 missionaries from any provinces in the 
Order and lead them to the far east to convert the Tartars.'^ Roger's 
appeal would naturally come before the Chapter at Salisbury : what 
success it had we do not know. 

These were exceptional matters. In the ordinary routine of the 
chapter would be the grant of letters of fraternity to special bene- 
factors, the ordination of masses for friars and benefactors who had died 
since the last chapter, the election of friars suitable to presentation 
for degrees at Oxford and Cambridge, the appointment of lecturers 
in the convents and the licensing of friars who had been asked to lecture 
in schools outside the Order to accept such offices. It was about this 
year, perhaps in this chapter, that William Woodford, the most learned 
and wisest of the English Franciscans of this period, received license to 
become lecturer in theology in the Cathedral schools of St. Paul's, 
London, an office which he filled for over twenty years." 

^ Bullar. Franc, vii, p. 56. Cal. Pap. L., iv, 508, cf. 275, etc. 

2 Diplomatic Correspondence of Ric. II, ed. Perroy, 1933, p. 99. 

■■* Bullarium Franciscanum, vii, p. 32; Cal. Pap. L., iv, 454 (23rd 
November, 1392). 

' Heref. Epis. Reg : Trefnant, p. 179. On 10th April, 1398, Burnell 
presented John Smyth to Sutton Chapel — which is probably the same 
living : ibid, p. 182. 

^ Bull. Franc, vii, p. 31. Cal. Pap. L., iv, 431. 

^ See the forthcoming book of Fr. Marcellus on W. Woodford (to 
be published by the Capuchin Fathers at Assisi). 

46 Grey Friars of Salisbury. 

Two other friars who must have been present at the chapter may be 
mentioned — the predecessor and successor of John Tyssington in the 
provincialate, both of them known to the King, The first was Thomas 
of Kingsbury ; he was interested in natural science and music and his 
cultured mind and courteous manners attracted Richard II who about 
this time tried to get a bishopric for him. The second was Nicholas 
Fakenham, who had plans for ending the Great Schism and shortly after- 
wards developed these ideas in lectures at Oxford by the King's 

It is curious that Richard does not seem to have shown much favour 
to the Franciscans, many of whom after his deposition preached 
rebellion against the usurpation of Henry IV and suffered death in 
Richard's cause. ^ Richard often commanded friars to preach before 
him. Thus the Household Accounts for the year Sept., 1392 — Sept., 
1393, record 14 sermons by friars (Dominicans, Carmelites and 
Augustinians) but none by Franciscans.'^ No Salisbury friars risked 
their lives for Richard's sake. 

The history of the friary is almost a blank from this time till the 
dissolution. There are signs that the friendly relations with the Cathedral 
and city were maintained. The Cathedral procession book provided 
for visits to the Grey Friars' Church by the Cathedral choir and 
dignitaries, and when Bishop Beauchamp was holding his visitation in 
1475 he was informed that out of twenty sermons preached annually in 
the Cathedral, nine were assigned by old custom to Dominican and 
Franciscan friars.^ 

From 1451 to 1533 meetings of a guild were held in the common 
hall of the Friars Minor. •'^ The number of the friars was probably 
falling throughout the 15th cent, in this as in other houses ; it was 
stated at the end of the century that half the existing houses could 
accommodate all the Franciscans in England.^ So our friars finding 
themselves overhoused with a dwindling income tried to solve the 
problem by letting part of their premises as lodgings. There is, how- 
ever, evidence of a good deal of building at the Salisbury house c. 1485 
— 1509, perhaps rather in the addition of amenities than in enlargement. 
Thus the three chimneys were added or repaired at this time. One of 
them is built on the filled-up well. This implies that the friars must 
have acquired another water supply, though no evidence has come to 

1 The Grey Friars in Oxford, by A. G. Little, 250, 252 — 3 ; Nic. 
Fakenham's Treatise is printed in Arch. Franc. Hist., vol. i. 

^ J. H. Wylie, Hist, of England under Henry IV, vol. i, 271, 280. 

'•' Brit. Mus. MS. Add., 35115. 

■* Ceremonies and Processions of the Cathedral Church of Salisbury, ed. 
Ch. Wordsworth, 1901, pp. 122, 154. 

■' Information supplied by Mrs. Lovibond. A fraternity of St Francis 
at New Sarum is mentioned in the will of John Browne, 1503 ; 
Black Book of Southampton, ed. A. B, W. Chapman, iii, 34. 

^ Tudor Studies presented to A. F. Pollard (1924), p. 40. 

By A. G. Little. 47 

light that they made a conduit, which is a feature of many, perhaps 
most, of the Enghsh Franciscan friaries. 

In August, 1510, another provincial chapter was held here, towards 
the expenses of which Henry VIII contributed ^10.^ 

Apart from these facts all we know at present is confined to a few 
bequests and burials in the Church. Thus in 1462 William Lord 
Botreaux left them 40s., in 1485 Robert Ringbourn, Esq., desired to be 
buried " in the chapel of St. John within the church of the Friars 
Minor of Salisbury," to whom he left 100s. : in 1503 Sir Robert Cheyny 
Knt., and in 1512 Thurston Chaydok were buried in the church.'^ The 
remains recently dug up on the site were those of friars and poor folk 
buried without cofhns. The episcopal registers will no doubt give the 
names of a number of friars ordained and licensed to hear confessions, 
and the Cathedral and city records ought to yield a few new facts. 

The Salisbury friars seem to have taken the oath of supremacy 
without resistance in 1534.-^ 

In February, 1538, Richard Ingworth, Dominican, suffragan Bishop 
of Dover, received the royal commission to visit all the houses of friars 
in England, with power to examine into and correct abuses;^ and in May 
he was further ordered to put the goods of the houses, which he has 
visited or shall visit, into safe custody, and to take inventories.^ He 
had no authority to dissolve houses but he might accept voluntary 
surrenders, and after a short experience of making inventories and 
sequestering seals he writes to Cromwell on 23rd May, 1538, " that I 
think before the year be out there shall be very few houses able to live, 
but shall be glad to give up their houses and provide for themselves 
otherwise, as there they shall have no living."^ In July he made a 
preliminary visit to Salisbury, where he found both houses of friars in 
good order. ^ 

He made an inventory and no doubt took away keys and seals. On 
20th August, 1538, John Lord Fitzwarren wrote to Cromwell asking 
that he might have a lease of the Black Friars with a right of pre- 
emption of their stuff, and begging for a similar favour for " your servant 
Mr. Goodale " (bailiff of Salisbury), with regard to the Grey Friars. He 
" dwelleth next to it " and " taketh so much pains for the common 
weal and in helping and furthering poor men's matters as I knew never 
bailiff to do like in my time." ^ But Goodale had enemies who later 

^ L. (Sy P. Henry VIII, ii, 1447. 

2 Nicolas, Test. Vetusta, 191 ; P.C.C. Logg, f. 103 : Kent Sede Vacante 
Wills, p. 190; P.C.C. Fetiplace, f. 18. 
. -^ There is no mention of them in Rymer's Fcedera, vol. xiv. 

"^ L. (syP., Hen. VIII, xiii, i. No. 225 ; Wilkins, Concilia, III, 829. 

5 L. (^ P., Hen. VIII, xiii, i. No. 926 ; Wilkins, HI, 835. 

^ Wright, Suppression, p. 194. 

7 L. (sy P., Hen. VIII, xiii, i. No. 1456. 

^Wright, Suppression, 216. 

48 Grey Friars of Salisbury. 

secured his arrest and imprisonment.^ Meanwhile another appHcant 
appeared. Charles Bulkeley, a J. P. for Wiltshire, wrote to Cromwell 
from the Grey Friars at Sarum on 21st September, 1538, asking for the 
house of the Grey Friars which is likely to be soon in the King's hands. 
" I have had lodging in it this 20 year, at 26s. 8d. a year, which is all 
the yearly profits they receive within the precinct of the house. I will 
give 100/ for it, and would use the timber and stone to build my own 
lodging, trusting there to keep twice as many persons as there now are 
friars, who shall work for their living without begging." He also would 
like to buy the "jewels and goods " which were valued at about 100 
marks. '^ 

Ingworth returned to Salisbury on 30th September (from Dorchester) 
and secured the surrender of both friaries on 2nd October. That of the 
Grey Friars was signed by ten friars, the first two of whom, John 
Burthamusand Thomas Man, were B.D.'s. The third, William Redyng, 
describes himself as " W " — ^perhaps warden.'* 

All who were priests probably received "capacities," i.e., licence to 
serve as secular clergy as the visitors admitted that until the friars had 
their capacities " we have to find them meat and drink." ■* 

The stuff entrusted to John Shaxton and John Goodale for the King 
consisted of the high altar, a table of imagery gilt (i.e., reredos ?), a 
lamp, stalls, organ loft and two lecternes in the choir ; four altars, 
one alabaster, and fair forms in the church (or nave) ; two bells, ont " a 
fair bell " in the steeple. In the vestry were five laten candlesticks, a 
golden cope with the offeras (orphreys ?) imagery, 17 other copes, white 
satin, blue, green, and black, and " 4 litill copis for childerne," six suits 
of vestments and many single vestments, palls, altar cloths, etc., and 
various articles of furniture including seven chests " never one good," 
a "fair press," and a number of tables and benches in f rater, parlour 
and hall.^ 

It would be unsafe to infer from the order — choir, church, steeple — 
that the steeple was at the west end, not (as usual in friars' churches) 
between the choir and the nave. The mention of a hall, as distinct 
from the f rater or refectory, is unusual. 

Besides these, there were sold to pay the debts, three suits of vest- 
ments and four copes (poor), all for 10/, also a pair of organs (broken), 
two candlesticks, and the stuff of the chambers, which was very poor, 
for 4/ 25. The debts drew 19/, great part being to brewers and others 

; xiv, i, Nos. 777, 778. 
Wilts Arch. Mag., xxx (1 

^ Ibid., No. 518 ; Wilts. Arch. Mag., xxx, p. 30 — 32 where the surrender 
and inventory have been printed in full by the Rev. Preb. 
Clark-Maxwell; reprinted below, pp. 52 — 4. 

1 L. &> P., Hen. VIII, 





2 L. S^ P., Hen. VIII 





3 L. &- P., Hen. VIII, 





30; and p. 52 below. 

' L&^P., Hen. VIII, 





By A.G. Little. 49' 

for necessaries, and the rest to the warden : 12/ I2d. {sic) satisfied all. 
The visitor has for the King 595. and 278oz. of silver. The visitor paid 
his own charges.^ Apparently nothing was given to the friars. 

Charles Bulkeley's offer of ;^100 for the friary was not accepted, 
perhaps not renewed, but he and his wife became tenants, holding (a) the 
dwelling-place (mansio) where he had already been living for the last 
twenty years, which lay on the south side of the Church, together with 
a garden adjacent and a way {via) from the dwelling-house to the garden, 
for forty years, at a rent of six quarters of good corn per year, at the 
rate of 5/4 per quarter, i.e., an annual rent of 32s. (as against the 26s. 
which he had previously paid to the friars) and (b) the rest of the site 
and precinct including orchard, garden, land and soil within the said 
site at a rent of 20s. a year for the duration of the lives of himself and 
his wife, by lease dated 23rd May, 1539." He gives unfortunately in 
this account, which he renders in 1539, no indication of the amount of 
land included in the precinct. 

It will be noticed that in this account Bulkeley makes no mention of 
any buildings except the " mansio " which he occupied to the south of 
the church. The reason is that on 2nd August, 1539, he purchased all 
the buildings, enumerated as the church, choir, steeple, cloister, frater, 
dorter, chapter house, firmary, and all other lodgings and buildings of 
the same with two bells and lead.^ He also assumed that the timber 
on the estate was included in the purchase — namely thirty (or, according 
to another account, forty) elms of eighty years' growth — and proceeded 
to cut the trees down. The bells were valued at ;^10. The lead was 
considerable : — " the church all leaded, the upper part of the steeple 
lead, a gutter between the choir and the battlement, a great cloister and 
all four panes lead." The whole was estimated at thirty f other and 
valued at ^100.^ As late as 1544 some attempt was made by the 
officials of the Court of Augmentations to secure the lead, bells and 
timber for the Crown, ^ but the claim does not seem to have been pressed. 

In August, 1544, the property was sold to John Wrothe, one of the 
numerous speculators in monastic lands — the price being £39, i.e., 
fifteen years' purchase of the rent of 52s. paid by Bulkeley.*' It was 

1 Ibid. 

2 P.R.O., Mins. Accts., 7047. 

3 Particulars for Grants, P.R.O., E. 318/1262. 

' P.R.O., E. 36 153, f. 7 v., P.R.O., Special Collections, 12/33/28. 

° Particulars for grants, u.s. 

^ Ibid. Estimates of the value of the property varied very much. A 
certificate drawn up by officers of the Court of Augmentations on 
14th Feb., 1539 (P.R.O., S.C, 123/3/28), has the following note on the 
Grey Friars of Salisbury : — " Churche and mansion in convenyent 
astate. The same to be sold leuing an honest lodging estemed to 


iiij li " =;^80. 


50' Grey Friars of Salisbury. 

sold subject to Bulkeley's lease, which still had some thirty-five years 
to run. How far the latter carried out his plans of pulling down and 
rebuilding is unknown.^ The next owner and occupier that we hear of 
is William Windover c. 1600. He seems to have been interested in the 
history of his house, for he built into the surrounding wall an inscription 
referring to " the friars' wall." ^ 

Arch. Franc. Hist.- — Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 

(Quaracchi) . 
B.S.F.S. — British Society of Franciscan Studies. 
C.C.R. — Calendar of Close Rolls. 
C.P.i?.— Calendar of Patent Rolls. 
C. Lib. R. — Calendar of Liberate Rolls. 
Cal. Pap. L. — Calendar of Papal Letters. 
C. & Y. Soc. — Canterbury and York Society. 
D.N.B. — Dictionary of National Biography. 
Eccleston — Tractatus Fr. Thomae . . . de Eccleston, ed. 

A. G. Little, Paris, 1909. 
E.H.R. — English Historical Review. 
Inq. a.q.d. — Inquisitio ad quod damnum. 
L. (sy P. Hen. VIII. — Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic of 

the Reign of Henry VIII. 
Lib. R. — Liberate Rolls. 
Mon. Franc. — Monumenta Franciscana (R.S.), i ed. Brewer, ii ed. 

P.R.O.— Public Record Office. 
O.H.S. — Oxford Historical Society. 

P.C.C. — Prerogative Court of Canterbury (wills at Somerset House) . 

R.S. — (Rolls Series) Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and 

Ireland, published under the direction of the Master of the Rolls. 

Wright, Suppression. — Letters relating to the Suppression of the 

Monasteries, ed. T. Wright, Camden Soc, 1843. 

Notes on the Existing Buildings. 
By J. L. LoviBOND. 
The Convent buildings stand in an enclosure 118ft. long from north 
to south and 55ft. wide, on three sides of which was a thick flint wall, 
the remaining portions of which are shown on the plan. On the fourth 
or north side it is believed the Chapel stood which was probably built 
up to the road. 

^ Charles Bulkely was sheriff for Wilts 1546. I have not noticed any 
later reference to him. 

2 The inscription discovered by Mr. Lovibond in the west wall 
runs : — " This wale belongeth/to William Windover/made at his charge/ 
ye Friars wale tak . . . /anno domini 16 . , ." The wall also contains 
stones carved with Windover's merchant's mark. 

By A. G. Little. 51 

By the construction of the building marked " R " (the Refectory) 
there is little doubt that this is the earliest of the Franciscan buildings 
femaining, as the outside was plastered in places where adjoining 
buildings now prevent the possibility of such plastering (Plate II, Fig I) . 
The room is about 20ft. square and 25ft. high and has a hole framed 
in the rafters about the centre of the roof, where the smoke from the 
fire, which originally burnt in the middle of the room, found its way 

The roof is composed of three trusses and retains nearly all the 
original timbers with the exception of some of the rafters of the 
southernmost truss which has been hipped. 

This room now has a ceiling, coved on two sides, springing from the 
wall plates, a portion of the curved moulded beams of which are 
shown in Plate IV, Fig. 2. This ceiling was no doubt added 
after the large chimney had been built, presumably in Henry VII 's 
reign, or it may have been added still later in the early part of the 
17th century when the remains of this Franciscan Convent were turned 
into a private dwelling house. 

Plate IV, Fig. 1, shows one side of the hammer-beam truss and the 
upper side of the added ceiling. 

Plate II, Fig. 2, shows the inside of the northern gable-end. The 
blackness on the plaster filling between the timbers is caused by the sooty 
deposit from the smoke of the Franciscan friars' fires which were burnt 
in the middle of the room before the chimney was built. 

Plate HI, Fig. 2, shows plainly a pair of rafters trimmed to form a 
hole for the smoke to go out. 

About 4ft. from the northern side of the Refectory stands another 
room marked " A," I8ft. long, 13ft. 6in. wide, and 7ft. 6in. high, with 
moulded beams dividing the ceiling into four squares. 
There is an upper storey to this room. 

Ten feet from the western side of the Refectory stands a building 
marked " B." The roof timbers of this building have been altered 
several times but it is not possible to describe the many alterations 
here. The open fireplace in this room is said, on good authority, to 
have been built in Henry VII 's reign at the same time as three other 
fireplaces, and was built over a surface-well about 6ft. square, the sides 
being lined with squared chalk blocks which can be seen in Plate V, 
Fig. 1. 

This water hole was discovered in consequence of the right-hand 
jamb of the chimney sinking away, making it necessary to rebuild it. 
This chimney jamb was found to be resting on a flat stone which on 
being moved disclosed six square holes which had originally contained 
2in. square wooden piles as a foundation. This form of foundation 
was necessary because the chalk-lined water hole had been filled up 
with soft earth. 

While digging out the earth it was possible to cut these clearly defined 
holes in section from top to bottom and discover that the wooden piles 
liad rotted completely away. 

E 2 

52 Grey Friars of Salisbury. 

Next to the room marked " B " stands another building marked 
" K " with well-constructed and preserved roof timbers. The roof of 
this is formed of three trusses, the centre one being in hammer beam 
form (Plate I, Fig. 1) . This building has a lower and an upper chamber. 

There is a doorway formed in the southern gable-end at the level of 
the principal beam and the edges of the doorway are stop chamfered 
(Plate I, Fig. 2). 

The courtyard is now enclosed at the northern end by a collection of 
buildings facing St. Ann's Street, built in the early part of the 
17th century, it is believed upon the site of the Chapel (Plate V, Fig. 2). 
There is a good deal of stone work in the foundations of these early 
17th century domestic rooms and most of the timber shows evidences 
of having been used before while some is unnecessarily massive for the 
purpose for which it was required. Both the timber and the stone 
may therefore originally have been used in the construction of the 

Surrender of the Grey Friars of Salisbury,^ 
2nd. Oct., 30, Hen. VIII. 
[Reprinted from W.A.M., xxx, 30—33.] 
" Memorandum we the Wardeyn 6- Conuent of ye Graye Fryers of 
Salysbury w' one assent and consent w' owte any maner of coaccyon or 
consell do gyue ow"" howse in to y'' handes of y'' lorde vysytor to y" 
Kynge's vse desyeryng his grace to be good and gracyous to vs. In 
wyttenes we subscrybe ow"" namys w* ow*" proper handes the ij'^ day of 
October In y*" xxx'^ yere of y*" raygne of ow*" most dred Souereyn lorde 
Kynge Henry y*^ xiij"'. 

"fr Joh'es Burthamus baccalarius 
" fr Thom's man bacca 
"frWillm's Redyng w 
" fr Thomas Poope 
" fr Will'ms Yong 
" fr. Willm's Turnor 
" fr Will'ms Newman 
" fr Vincencius Tutty 
" fr Bartramus Byllyng 
• " fr Robert Walkar " 

[L. 6^ P. Hen. VIII., vol. xiii, part II, No. 518.] 
Inventory of the goods of the Grey Friars of Salisbury. 
"The Grey freerys of Salisbury." 
" This indenture makith mencyon of all the stuff e of the grey 
freerys of Salisbury receyvyd by the lorde visitor vnder the 
lorde Preuey Scale for the Kingis grace &' delyuerid to Mr. iohn 
Shaxton gentilman &- to iohn goodale baly of Salisbury to See 

^ The original of this document is in P.R.O., E. 36/115, pp. 27—29. 

By A. G. Little. 53 

and order to y'' Kingis vse w' the howse (S- alltheappurtenaunce 

till the Kingis plesure be further known. 
" The quere 
"' It. the hey alter taabill of ymagery giltt 
'"It. a lampe laten bason 

"" It. feyer stallys well sileid w' an orgayne lofte 
*' It. ij lecturnys timber 

"The chirche 
" It. fore auterys on [i.e. one] alabaster 
" It. feyer formys 
"The Stepill 
"' It. ij bellis the on a feyer bell 

' ' The Vestre 
■" It. V. laten candelsticks small 
" It. vj cruettes 6- an holy water stoppe 

" In copis 
■"It. a golden cope w''' y*" off eras [orphreys] ymagery 
" It. iij white saten w'^ y*" offeras red saten 
■"It. V blewe copis ij w*^'' starys ij w'*' flowerys 6- on w' golden 

■" It, iij grene copis ij dornekes ^ 6- on silke 
"' It. iiij white copis iij dornikes &> on bustion 
" It. on blacke cope silke 
"' It. iiij litill copis for childerne 
" It. ix small alter clotheis for lowe alterys 
"' It. vj for ye hey alter 
■" It. vj to welly s 

" It. X albys y"^ be not occupeid & ix surples 
" It. XX corporas cases w' x corporas in y'^"' 
'' It. ij old grene chesabullys &- iiij tunakill 
" It. a blacke co(r)pe w' a sute of blacke vestment ^ 
^' It. a Sute of white for ou"" lady 
"" It. ij Sutis of grene 
"It. a Sute of blacke 
" It. an other Sute of white 
"It. a Sute of redde 
" It. iij Sengeill redde vestmentes 
" It. a Sengeill vestment halfe blewe c^ halfe yelowe 
" It. on of chamlete 
" It. vj grene Sengeill vestimentis 
"It. iij Redde Seingeill vestimentis 
" It. iiij Seingill vestimentes for lent y*" on yelowe 
" It. an alter cloth for y^ hey alter w"' a frontlet 
" a grene auter clothe w' ij frontletis 

^ Dornyske, a coarse kind of damask. V 

^ A suit of vestments was chasuble, dalmatic and tunicle. 

64 Grey Friars of Salisbury. 

" It. a golden pawell w' ij frontletis 

" It. a blewe alter cloth w' ij frontletis 

" It a Sute of hangines for the hey alter white and greene veluit 

" It, an other Sute of Redde 

" It. ij pallys y*" on white 6- y'' oter redde 

"It. a noter hangin alter clothe 

" It. ij olid grene pallys 

" It. ix frontletes on w' an other 

" It. iiij blewe clotheis 

" It. viij olid broken vestmentes chesabulles &> tunakilles 

" It. vij chestes neuer on good 

" It. an olid blacke clothe 

" It. a borde 6- ij trestelles 

" It. a feyer presse 
" The freytre 

" It. ix tabilles (S- iiij formys 
" The Parlar 

" It. ij tabilles iiij trestelles & ij formys 

" It. feyer bencheis well Sileid, a propar portall 
" The Hall 

" It. iiij tabilles viij trestellys iij formys 

" It. an olid cubborde 

" It, well benchid & dobill Sileid 

" Memorandum beside y'^ stuffe y' still Remaynith ther ys solid ta 
paye the dettes iij Sutis of vestmentes iiij copis pore all for x" 
also a payer organys broken ij candelstickes the stuffe of the 
chamberys w*-'^' was very pore w' other small thinges abrode for 
iiij^' ijs the dettis drewe xix'' 6- above of the w''' a gret parte 
was y* xij'^ xij"^ satisfeid every man so ye howse y' owt of dett 
clere &> the visitor hathe in his handis to y'^ kinges vse above 
yese payementes lix' and beside y' in silver xiij'"' vnc' and 
xviij vnc' 

" And y' y' to be notyd y*" evidens of y'* howse be in y° vestre 
vnder y^ keparys handis & y*" visitor payde his owne chargis <&• 
so departid after iij days being here 
p. me. loHN Shaxton 

p. me. lOHN GOODALE 

[Extract from a Return of the lead : P.R.O., E. 36/153.] 
" The grey freres in Salisbury./ The Church all leaded the vpper 
parte of the steple leade/a gutter bitwene the quere/cS' the 
batilment/a greate cloystre &- all iiij paines leade " 




By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Phil. 

The comparative isolation of the " Woodhenge " culture in British 
pre-history has until recently been a source of no little wonder ; and 
in a county such as Wiltshire, which has received attention at so many 
hands, the absence of definite ceramic affinities is nothing less than 
extraordinary. Any discoveries, therefore, which are capable of throw- 
ing light on this little known culture are to be welcomed, and Ratfyn, 
near Amesbury, has fortunately supplied a number of finds which are 
capable of being utilised as checks by which to appraise the association 
evidence and homogeneity of this remarkable culture, first recognised 
by Mrs. Cunnington in her excavations at Woodhenge {Woodhenge, 
Devizes, 1929). 

The culture is distinguished mainly by its pottery and associated 
flint industry, and, since 1929, a number of sites producing these dis- 
tinctive types have been found in other parts of England. At Clacton, 
in Essex, the potsherds obtained by Mr. Hazzledine Warren were first 
recognised as similar to the Woodhenge types by Mr. Stuart Piggott 
(T. D. Kendrick and C. F. C. Hawkes, ArchcBology in England and 
Wales, 1932, p. 93), and since then Mr. E. T. Leeds has obtained similar 
pottery from Pit P at Sutton Courtenay, Berkshire [Antiquaries J ., 1934, 
xiv, 264). This pit bears a remarkable resemblance to one to be des- 
cribed from Ratfyn and contained a very similar assortment of objects. 

Description of Site and Former Finds. 

The site which immediately concerns us lies on the edge of a steep 
wooded slope about 70 feet above the River Avon and upon a spur of 
the 300ft. contour (Fig. 1). It is thus in a naturally defensible position, 
and from its eminence must have been comparatively dry compared 
with the swampy ground immediately bordering the slow running and 
tortuous river which even to this day is liable to floods over a large 
area. Across the river and one mile roughly to the N.W. lies 
Woodhenge, again on the 300ft. contour. 

In 1920 the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries built two 
houses on the Amesbury-Ratfyn bye -road, the chalk for the walls being 
extracted from a pit dug close to one of the houses. During the course 
of these excavations human skeletons, a vessel or vessels, and an axe- 
hammer were discovered and the discovery was subsequently most 
inadequately described in the Antiquaries Journal, Vol. i, p. 125. So 
vague is the description that one is left wondering what really was 
found and where, for no plan accompanied the find. Fortunately some 
of the sherds and the axe-hammer were deposited in the Salisbury 

Some Discoveries at Ratfyn, Ameshury 




200 300 i^ao soo boo roo eoo eoo looo 

Scale o-F;yavds 

Fig. 1. — Plan of Woodhenge area. Fig. 2. — Axe-hammer from 

Woodhenge (after Mrs. M. E. Cunnington), |. Fig. 3. — Axe-hammer 

from Ratfyn, ^. 

By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Phil. 57 

At the time of the discovery no vessels of the form found or bearing 
such ornament were known and it is natural that they lay in the 
museum unrecognised until quite recently when other finds close to the 
site of this discovery drew attention to them. The report on certain 
representative sherds submitted to Mr. Stuart Piggott, which is 
reproduced below, leaves no doubt whatever that they belong to the 
little-known Woodhenge — Clacton culture, which Mr. Piggott infers is 
contemporary with or slightly earlier than the beakers. Although no 
beaker or hint of " hyphenated " ornament was associated with the 
sherds, the Early Bronze and beaker affinities of the associated axe- 
hammer were emphasised by Mr. Reginald Smith in a note to the paper 
just referred to and this has since been confirmed by Dr. J. G. D. Clark 
in his study of the Dual Character of the Beaker Invasion [Antiquity, 
1931, V, 415). At the time of the discovery Woodhenge and its con- 
tiguous barrows had not been investigated and here it should be recalled 
that a very similar axe-hammer was found with a beaker in Circle 1 at 
Woodhenge together with typical Woodhenge sherds in both the 
encircling outer and inner ditches and in some of the holes towards the 
centre near the beaker burial. Such associations as these at both sites 
prove almost conclusively that the two cultures were contemporary in 
date. For comparison the two axe-hammers are here illustrated side 
by side, the Woodhenge example (Fig. 2) being of red tourmaline granite 
with olive-green markings, and the Ratfyn example (Fig. 3) of a dark 
olive-green close-grained quartzite. 

In his last report on Excavations at Stonehenge [Antiquaries J., 
1928, viii, 166) Lt.-Col. W. Hawley records the existence of a large 
circular earthwork at Ratfyn close to the site of the 1920 finds. Since 
it is noted that the site was not properly investigated and since no 
objects, other than some of Early Iron Age date, are mentioned, the 
matter need not concern us further here. 

Excavations of 1934. 

In July, 1934, the present owner of "Millmead," Ratfyn Lane, 
Flight-Lieut. A. G. Somerhough, R.A.F., informed the writer that 
some form of pit had been encountered whilst fencing a triangular 
piece of the field at the back of his garden (Fig. 4). Permission was 
readily granted for further excavation and we must here express our 
indebtedness to Fit. -Lieut. Somerhough not only for such permission 
but also for appreciating the possible importance of the discovery. The 
importance, of noting any changes in the level of the underlying chalk 
was well exemplified, it will be recalled, at Winterbourne Dauntsey 
recently [W.A.M., 1934, xlvi, 445) and it is to be hoped that owners 
and tenants of land in Wiltshire will actively pursue such indications 
in future, since a knowledge of former habitation sites can only be 
obtained in this way. 

Since accurate delimitation of the 1920 excavations was of first im- 
portance efforts were directed towards this end. The statement that 
the site lay about 175 yards N.E. of Ratfyn Barrow coincided roughly 

58 Some Discoveries at Ratfyn, Amesbury. 

with " Millmead," and upon prodding the ground with an iron bar, 
immediately to the N.E. of the house, a long oval and deep excavation 
could be fairly accurately planned. That this was the actual site was 
confirmed by a local builder who had helped to erect the house 

By trenching, prodding, and ramming, almost the whole of the 
triangular paddock and a large part of the garden, lying between the 
1920 excavations and the paddock, have been covered ; and by these 
means a number of pits and the remains of a completely obliterated 
ditch were located. 

The Ditch (Fig. 5). The position of this ditch was found by Flt.-Lt. 
Somerhough during fencing operations. The turf was removed from an 
area 8ft, by 6ft. 6ins. and the contents of the ditch investigated spit by 
spit to the bottom. The dimensions of the ditch were found to be : — 
width at chalk surface 6ft., width at base 6ins., total depth from present 
surface 4ft., and depth of soil covering the undisturbed chalk 18ins. 

Four well-defined layers were distinguishable : — 

Layer 1. Turf and cultivated soil Sins, thick. 

Layer 2. Ploughed and well-mixed soil with flints 12ins. thick. 
This layer yielded 63 deeply patinated flint flakes, 5 pot-boilers and 1 
very rough round scraper. 

Layer 3. Old turf line consisting of dark mould 12ins. thick with a 
few angular flints. This layer contained 714 flint flakes, mostly black 
or blue in colour, the greater number occurring towards the base of the 
layer ; 19 cores from which flakes had been struck ; 11 pot-boilers ; 1 
rough round scraper ; 18 pieces of unspht animal bone, mostly ox. a 
lower jaw of a sheep and a tooth of a pig ; and 33 minute scraps of 
pottery which were confined to the top of the layer, none being found 
deeper than 6ins. in it. The texture of these sherds proved conclusively 
that they were of Early Iron Age date, a conclusion corroborated by 
Mr. Stuart Piggott. 

Layer 4. Primary silting consisting of chalk dust and rubble, sterile 
but for 6 flint flakes in the top of the layer. 

Too little of this ditch was opened for one to be in a position to pro- 
nounce conclusively upon its purpose or date. The nature and 
abundance of the flint industry in Layer 3, which appeared to be in 
situ and not derived and which included numbers of the minutest flakes 
(uncounted), is strikingly similar to that from Pit 5 (see below) and the 
earthwork may therefore have been constructed in Early Bronze times. 
It was at first thought that a pit similar to Pit 5 had been disturbed in 
the later cutting of the ditch in Early Iron Age times, and that the 
flints, etc., had found their way back into the ditch by the simple 
process of weathering. But this is improbable since the layer consisted 
of true mould and not earthy chalk dust which would have resulted 
from a bank derived from the chalk ditch. Further, the flints were 
distributed evenly throughout the lower layers of the old turf line and 
over the whole area exposed. Possibly, therefore, the grass grown 

By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Phil. 


>-■ 1 

-00 / Q CQ 8 


\ ^ 55 : 


\ — 1 " 






\. q: 

\. ^^ *^ 

"° . " ^v °~ 

>oo o-^ -§ ^\ 

"D \ 




:t: A- 

/ ^ 










; o ; 





; o c ; 


; O^X ; 


"RatfAfi^ LoQC 

60 Some Discoveries at Ratfyn, Ameshury. 

ditch had remained open until the Early Iron Age when sherds of that 
period found their way into the upper layers. 

An arrowhead (Fig. 13) and a well battered prismatic tool of 
triangular section (Fig. 12) had been thrown out of this section of the 
ditch during the fencing operations. Both are deeply patinated white 
and therefore probably came from either Layers 1 or 2. 

Pit 1 , Modern, 4ft. in diameter, containing sherds stamped with the 
word " Woolworth, " old tins and ashes. 

Pit 2. This was 2ft. 6ins. deep and 3ft. in diameter. Twelve 
patinated flint flakes only, in earthy chalk dust. 

Pit 3. Very probably a pit dwelling, being 5ft. by 3ft. 6ins at the 
chalk surface with gently sloping sides and roughly flattened base. 

Total depth 2ft. lin., being chalk cut to a depth of 18ins. This pit 
•contained besides a few small scraps of charcoal, 36 pot-boilers and 6 
flint flakes. Probably contemporary with Pit 5. 

Pit 4. Cooking hole ? This was a small scooped-out depression 
18ins. by 14ins. and narrowing to Sins, at the base. Total depth 17ins. 
being chalk cut to lOins. The pit contained 2 small pieces of sarsen, 
6 pot-boilers, 2 flint cores, 52 unpatinated flint flakes, 1 flint saw with 
very fine serrations, part of the tibia of a sheep and much charcoal. 
This pit was undoubtedly contemporary with Pit 5. 

Pit 5. This, the most important pit discovered, measured 3ft. 6ins. 
in diameter at the mouth and was circular, the overlying surface mould 
being here 7ins. thick (Fig. 6). The chalk walls were fairly regularly 
cut and narrowed gradually to the bottom which was also roughly 
circular and measured 24ins. by ISins. The total depth from the 
present surface was 4ft. 

The contents of the pit were most varied and it is of interest to note 
how close is the agreement between the expert's reports reproduced 

Immediately below the surface mould was a thin layer (about 3ins. 
thick) of shell-filled soil which sealed in the contents of the pit. This 
contained the usual assortment of damp scrubland species normally 
associated with the Early Bronze Age and earlier. The occurrence of 
a large scallop shell, obtained from the refuse below this shelly layer, 
is also of interest not only from its rarity in habitation material but 
mainly because other species of edible shellfish were found at 
Woodhenge, and broken shells appear to be the normal filling of the 
pottery of this culture. 

The remainder of the pit, but for 3ins. of sterile primary chalk silting 
at the bottom, consisted for the most part of charcoal in sizes varying 
from large pieces to dust. Since none of the other objects found in the 
pit, other than a number of pot-boilers, showed any signs of the action 
of fire, there is no reason to believe that this pit was a " cooking-hole." 
In character it resembled an ordinary refuse pit, and no stratification 
was observed. 

Scattered throughout the filling were 37 pot-boilers and a remarkably 
interesting flint industry which is described below. This industry is 

By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Phil. 61 

characterised by the use of halberd-shaped implements (Fig. 7) and 
appears to be a normal accompaniment of the Woodhenge-Clacton 

Animal bones were abundant and Dr. Jackson compares these favour- 
ably with those obtained from Woodhenge. The occurrence of a right 
scapula of a brown bear is remarkable in view of its rarity. Though 
this animal is known to have persisted in Britain certainly up to Roman 
times, when it was exported to Rome for use in the amphitheatres, its 
remains are rarely found. In his report of the animal remains from 
Woodhenge Dr. Jackson notes that the remains of this animal are 
recorded by Boyd Dawkins from a midden of uncertain date at 
Richmond, Yorkshire (/. Geol. Soc, 1865, xxi, 493 ; 1867, xxiii, 178). 

Fifteen very small fragments of pottery were also recovered from the 
pit and these have been identified by Mr. Stuart Piggott as belonging 
to the Woodhenge-Clacton culture. 

The Flint Industry from Pit 5. 

Altogether 519 flints, excluding very small flakes, were recovered 
from the pit. All were very sharp and dead black when exposed which 
suggests that they had been discarded and thrown into the pit almost 

Flakes and Knives. Of these, 501 specimens were obtained, a number 
being blunted through having been utilized as knives. Three specimens 
had been roughly trimmed into the form of scrapers. 

Cores. These were represented by 11 specimens and were for the 
most part rough and without character. 

Saws. (Figs. 9 — 11.) Five saws made from flakes and possessing 
very fine serrations were obtained. These may be compared with those 
from Pit P at- Sutton Courtenay {Antiquaries J ., xiv, pi. xxviii, h). 

Halberd-shaped Arrowheads. (Figs. 7, 8.) Two of these interesting 
tools were found, No. 7 being perfect and No. 8 slightly damaged. 
Both are made from flakes, one edge being left sharp and untrimmed 
whilst the other is delicately trimmed on both sides. I must here ex- 
press my indebtedness to Dr. J. G. D. Clark, F.S.A., for his great 
kindness in allowing me to read and make use of his projected paper on 
' Derivative Forms of the Petit Tranche t in Britain " prior to publica- 
tion which is to be printed in the ArchcBological Journal, vol. xci. 
Needless to say, without this advantage I should not be in a position 
to make the following remarks. In this paper Dr. Clark shows most 
convincingly that the " halberd " and " lop-sided " types of arrowhead 
are derivatives of the petit tranchet. There would appear to be no 
perceptible difference in chronology between the different forms except 
that the true petit tranchet antedates the whole group. The Ratfyn 
examples would appear to belong to Dr. Clark's Class D since they 
possess a marked concavity on one edge, thus producing an asymmetric 
form. Somewhat similar ones have been found at Woodhenge ; The 
Sanctuary, Overton Hill (Peterborough-Beaker) ; Windmill Hill 
(Peterborough-Beaker) ; Avebury (Peterborough-Beaker) ; Clacton and 

62 Some Discoveries at Ratfyn, Amesbury . 

Sutton Courtenay. Although a considerable number of such derivatives 
have been found in Peterborough-Beaker contexts none has so far 
been found in pure Peterborough or earlier associations.^ From this 
Dr. Clark concludes that no derivative antedates the coming of the 
beakers. For our present purpose it must be emphasised that such 
petit tranchet derivatives are particularly abundant in association with 
the grooved pottery of Wopdhenge type, nine having been found at 
Woodhenge, five at Clacton, and two at Sutton Courtenay. 

As regards the use of such implements Dr. Clark points out that the 
asymmetry makes it almost certain that the cutting edge was disposed 
obliquely when the implement was hafted, the degree of obliquity 
varying with different forms. In this case the hafted implement would 
resemble a single-barbed harpoon. 

Report on the Pottery. 

By Stuart Piggott. 

A. — From Excavations of 1920. 

The three sherds submitted as typical of the 20 or 30 found at Ratfyn 
in June, 1920, are of extreme interest, for, as regards their distinctive 
decoration and to some extent their actual texture, they can only be 
paralleled in a small group of Early Bronze Age wares which includes 
the pottery from Woodhenge, itself only one mile from Ratfyn, on the 
other side of the Avon. 

The decorative features referred to consist of (1) shallow incised 
lines ; (2) broad shallow grooves, showing longitudinal striations along 
the bottom ; (3) low applied cordons with incised or stabbed ornament 
thereon ; (4) fingernail ornament, and (5) predominantly herring-bone 
or zig-zag disposition of the pattern. While any of these features in 
isolation would probably be insufficient to give an index to the cultural 
relation of the shard on which they occurred, their combination and 
the complete absence of either cord-impressed ornament or of the 
' hyphenated " ornament of the Beakers make the assignment to the 
Woodhenge type of pottery inevitable. 

Parallels between the Ratfyn shards and examples from Woodhenge 
are numerous ; the shallow wide grooves occur at the latter site on such 
shards as Nos. 16, 17, 23, 30. 36 ; the narrow incisions on Nos. 28, 44, 
47 ; applied cordons with notches pi. 25, fig. 1 ; Nos. 8, 9, 10, 36, and 45. 

The group of pottery to which the Woodhenge and Ratfyn shards 
belong has not -long been recognised as such, but now the main features 
are known it has been identified in a number of sites, ranging from 
Huntingdonshire to Wiltshire. A large habitation-site of the culture 
producing this ware has been examined on the Essex coast near Clacton, 

^ Owing to the fact that excavators have not always recognised the 
type, some may have occurred in Long Barrows for example. The 
earlier occupation at Windmill Hill, and the camps at W^hitehawk and 
the Trundle, however, yielded none. 

By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Phil. 


Figs. 7— 11.— Flint Implements from Pit 5, Millmead, Ratfyn J- 
Figs. 12, 13.— Flint Implements from Ditch, -1. 

6,6 Some Discoveries at Ratfyn, Amesbury. 

Report on the Animal Remains from Pit 5. 
By J, Wilfred Jackson, D.Sc, F.G.S. 
The remains submitted by Dr. J. F. S. Stone from the above site are 
Gff great interest and belong to both wild and domestic animals. They 
are described below under separate headings. 

Wild Animals. 

Brown Bear {Ursus arctos). Of this animal there is an imperfect 
right scapula. I have not previously seen remains of this animal from 
sites of this kind. The state of preservation of the bone is much the 
same as in the other remains. 

Red Deer. A large tine, broken from the antler, belongs to this 

Roebuck. The basal portion of a rugose antler belongs here. 

Domestic Animals. 
Ox. The remains of this animal consist of five imperfect scapulae, a 
much broken os innominatum, the distal end of a tibia, the proximal 
end of an ulna, the proximal end of a large left radius, the distal end of 
another left radius, four distal ends of humeri, three large phalanges, a 
lower molar, and a large horn-core. All are of interest on account of 
their large size, but only one or two dimensions are obtainable. Three 
of the scapulae give the following measurements : — 

Least diameter Greatest diameter 

of neck of glenoid cavity 

l.—Right 63-5mm. 61-5mm. 

2.— Left 61-5mm. 63-5mm. 

3.— Left 57-Omm. 56-5mm. 

Nos. 1 and 2 are very near two large examples from Woodhenge 

{Woodhenge, 1929, pp. 64 — 69), and No. 3 equals the general series from 

that station. All the above are much larger than examples from the 

Early Iron Age sites of Glastonbury and All Cannings Cross. The 

innominate bone agrees with several from Woodhenge. The distal end 

of the tibia has a diameter, over all, of 60mm., and equals the form 

from Woodhenge and Whitehawk Camp [Antiquaries J., 1934, xiv, 

128). The proximal end of the ulna is interesting as it has been broken 

at the olecranon and reset during life. The proximal end of the left 

radius measures 89mm. over all, across the top, and has a diameter of 

46mm. about the middle of the shaft. It equals three large examples 

from Woodhenge, but is larger than the majority from that station ; it 

also agrees with an example from the Neolithic horizon at Maiden 

Castle, obtained this year by Dr. R. E. Mortimer Wheeler, and one 

from Stonehenge (Ditch, south, 2nd crater) found by R. S. Newall some 

years ago. It is very much larger than those from Glastonbury and 

All Cannings Cross. The distal end of the left radius has a width at 

the top of 71mm., over all, and equals many from Woodhenge, one 

from the Neolithic level at Maiden Castle, and some from Whitehawk 

Camp. It is much larger than specimens from Early Iron Age sites. 

Of the four distal ends of humeri, only one can be measured. This is 

By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Phil. 67 

a robust example with a width across the condyles of about 80mm. It 
is comparable with a Woodhenge example and equals some and is 
larger than others from Whitehawk Camp, while it is larger than 
examples from Glastonbury and All Cannings Cross. The phalanges 
agree in size with others from Woodhenge and Whitehawk Camp. 
The horn core is of the Bos primigenius kind, but is smaller than in 
the true Urus. Its length along the outer curve is approximately 
330mm. (it is somewhat damaged at the base) : the circumference near 
the base is 193mm. ; and the diameters at the same place are 67 '5 and 
56mm, The horncore is somewhat larger than most of the Woodhenge 
examples, but agrees with one or two damaged examples. A specimen 
(No. 4702) obtained by Mr. Newall from the Ditch at Stonehenge 
also agrees. 

Notwithstanding the scantiness and imperfection of the Ratfyn 
remains, it is clear that the ox bones do not belong to the small Celtic 
ox, Bos brachyceros Owen, of the Early Iron Age sites. The resemblance 
of the Ratfyn remains to those from early sites, as Stonehenge, 
Windmill Hill, Woodhenge, and Whitehawk Camp, is particularly 
striking, and seems to suggest that they are of the same general age. 
At all the above stations the oxen appear to have been of a robust type 
with large horns, derived possibly from a Bos primigenius stem. 

Pig. Of this animal there are various broken limb bones, fragmentary 
jaws with teeth, and loose teeth. One interesting bone is the proximal 
•end of a large ulna which has been broken at the olecranon and reset 
in life (as in the ox example). Young and old animals are represented. 
The remains are too scanty for definition of breed. Similar remains 
were found at Woodhenge, Whitehawk Camp, and other places. 

Report on the Charcoal from Pit 5. 
By J. Cecil Maby, B.Sc, A.R.C.S.. F.R.A.S. 

Corylus sp. (Hazel). Medium-aged wood. Some much collapsed or 
compressed tangentially. 

Crataegus sp. (Hawthorn). Medium-aged wood. 

Fraxinus sp. (Ash). Mature wood of poor growth ; some possibly 
from a large branch. Some much collapsed internally, some becoming 
vitreous and coaly. 

Quercus sp. (Common Oak). Medium-aged wood. 

In addition to the acknowledgments already made I must here 
■express my indebtedness to Mr. Stuart Piggott for his reports on the 
pottery ; to Mr. A. S. Kennard for his report on the mollusca ; to Dr. 
J. W. Jackson for his report on the animal remains ; and to Mr. J. C. 
Maby for his report on the charcoal. I should add that Flight-Lieut. 
Somerhough has kindly consented to the objects recovered being placed 
with the other Ratfyn remains in the Salisbury Museum . 

F 2 



By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Phil. 

Since the publication of my last report on Easton Down {W.A.M., 

1933, xlvi, 225) a number of finds have been made in the workshop 
floors of the mined area and in the contiguous dwelling pits. Although 
the volume of work expended on the site has not been as much as it 
might have been, owing to other necessary investigations on sites 
threatened with destruction, it is considered that the importance and 
interest of these finds warrants a short description of them. 

Workshop Floor 7. 
A description of the partial examination of this floor with a diagram 
of the section exposed has already appeared {Ibid., p. 227 and PI. Ill) 
and it will be recalled that the moUuscan evidence suggested that the 
floor was definitely later in date than the underlying Pit Shaft 47. How 
much later cannot of course be inferred, though it should be borne in 
mind that what evidence there is, is in favour of a date lying between 
the erection of the barrow over the decapitated Beaker man {Alan, 

1934, 51, 52, 53, and reprinted in W.A.M., 1934, xlvi, 563) and the 
Middle Bronze Age urnfield {W.A.M., 1933, xlvi, 218). No evidence 
against this view has been obtained by further excavation of the floor 
but it may be said to have been strengthened somewhat by a further 
report by Mr. A. S. Kennard on samples of soils from the urnfield, 
which is here appended. Naturally such evidence derived from different 
parts of Easton Down cannot be considered as conclusive, and for areas 
widely separated would be definitely unjustifiable. But, in this instance, 
we are dealing v/ith parts of an area separated by no more than 
100 yards or so, which, in the absence of subsequent cultivation, lend 
themselves to tentative correlation. 

But for a completely polished axe the implements recovered would 
appear to call for little comment. The majority consisted as usual of 
axes in various stages of manufacture, twenty-six in all having been 
obtained. Of these, four have been chosen for illustration (Plate I, 
Figs 1 — 4). 

Fig. 1. An axe of very fiat oval section, the butt end of which has 
been truncated by a blow which has produced a pronounced hinge 
fracture. The edges are much battered and the greatest thickness 
occurs towards the cutting edge. As usual from such floors the patin- 
ation is dead white. L. 5in., B. 2|in., T. |in. 

Fig. 2. This axe is one of the most interesting tools so far obtained. 
It is in fact the first completely polished axe or chisel from the site 
and, lying associated with the debris of the floor, proves conclusively 
that here both polished and unpolished axes are contemporary. The 

Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1933 — 1934. 69 


Plate I. Axes from Workshop Floor 7 (Figs. 1 — 4) and Pit Shaft 47 
(Figs. 5, 6), Easton Down. |. 

70 Excavations at Easton Down, Winter slow, 1933 — ^1934. 

tool is of pointed oval section with straight edges and the butt end has 
been truncated, possibly intentionally though of this one cannot be 
certain, by a sharp blow on one side which has resulted in a hinge 
fracture similar in some respects to that on Fig. 1. The thickness 
throughout the length is practically uniform and the cutting edge has 
been produced by heavy grinding, the fiat faces on both sides receding 
for 2|ins. from the edge. This cutting edge is somewhat worn, probably 
through use. The polishing or grinding has been done longitudinally 
as evidenced by the scratches, and a number of small facets remain 
which have not been totally erased. L. 4fin., B. IJin., T. fin. 

The lack of polished axes on flint mining sites in general has been 
the subject of comment and it is usually considered that the final act 
of polishing was executed elsewhere, when and if desired. There is no 
reason to believe, however, that this later act was an invariable 
accompaniment of axe manufacture. At other flint mining centres two 
polished greenstone axes have been found at Grimes Graves, Norfolk, 
one by Canon Greenwell in 1870 (/. Ethn. Soc. of London, 1871, ser. 2, 
ii, 429) and the other by Mr. Lingwood in 1916 {P.P.S.E.A., ii, 431) ; 
and at Cissbury the butt end of a polished flint axe was found by 
General Pitt-Rivers {Arch., xliii, 63). 

Such a well marked type as the present example should prove useful 
for dating the floor but, unfortunately, too few axes of the type have 
been found in England in dateable deposits for this purpose. I have 
here to thank Dr. J. G. D. Clark for pointing out that the most similar 
example is that belonging to the Bexley Heath hoard in the British 
Museum {B.M. Stone Age Guide, 1926, PL VI). This hoard included 
not only a polished chisel but also two others of identical form, chipped 
instead of polished, and two flint axes with slightly squared edges. In 
his paper on hoards [Arch.. Ixxi, 113) Mr. Reginald Smith pointed out 
that since the squaring of the edges is obviously secondary, axes show- 
ing this are theoretically later (at least in origin) than those with 
pointed oval section. The chisel form being associated with the flattened 
edge form should, therefore, not belong to the earliest period of axes. 
Beyond this it would appear to be unwise to proceed at present. 

Figs. 3, 4. Two other axes from the same floor. The former, which 
is perfect, is of pointed oval section, and both sides are finely flaked. 
There is a perceptible curvature throughout its length— a feature 
already noted on axes from this site. L. 5^in., B. l|in., T. fin. The 
latter axe is presumably not quite complete in that its greatest thick- 
ness occurs towards the centre and a number of ineffectual blows have 
been delivered on its edges to reduce its girth. Possibly the flint was 
not so tractable as other pieces. L. 5in., B. l|in., T. Ifin. 

Figs. 5, 6. In the hope of obtaining further evidence towards the 
dating of this floor the remainder of the flint-sterile shelly layer (15in. 
thick) overlying Pit Shaft 47, but below the floor, was removed. Six 
inches below this shelly layer two more axes were found. That shown 
in Fig. 5 is a perfect example of a finely chipped axe of pointed oval 
section. The cutting edge is sharp and oval in outline ; and the 

By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Phil. 71 

patination has advanced to the stage of a lustreless dead white colour. 
The maximum thickness occurs towards the cutting edge. L. 5|in., 
B. l|in., T. lin. The other is less perfect and a small quantity of crust 
remains on both faces. The patina in this case has not proceeded 
farther than the greyish-white stage. L. 4fin., B. 2in., T. lin. 

Other nondescript chipped flints were found in the floor but these 
would appear to be the normal accompaniment of workshop floors on 
this site. Only two or three flakes bearing any signs of secondary 
chipping were encountered out of cartloads of flint debris. 

Dwelling Pits, Area A. 

In Area A {W.A.M., 1931, xlv, 350, Fig. 1) three further dwelling 
pits have been opened. For some as yet unexplained reason the pottery 
obtained from this area is very much more highly ornamented than 
that obtained from Area B. The latter area contains, it is true, beaker 
ware ornamented in the usual style but it is commonly mixed with a 
very large proportion of unornamented ware of the same fine texture 
and form. Area A, on the other hand, rarely yields plain unornamented 
sherds, the great majority being highly decorated, often with a mixture 
of motives such as the normal toothed impressions and pinched-up or 
bone impressions on the same sherd. The difference between the two 
areas may be cultural but it may just as well be indicative of a difference 
in date. As yet we have no means of deciding the question, since the 
well-known differences between the A — C and B beakers have been 
noted on sherds from both areas. 

The pits themselves call for no comment, being elongated shallow 
depressions similar in all respects to those fully described before. The 
flint industry associated is, however, worth noting if only for its com- 
parative richness of types compared with those from Area B noted 
below, and in former reports. In place of the massive flakes usually 
trimmed crudely by percussion, small delicate implements trimmed by 
pressure flaking appear to be the normal accompaniment of the more 
richly decorated sherds of Area A. The tools recovered from Pit A 3 
are shown in Plate III, Figs. 4 — 8. 

Fig. 4. Knife with blunt back retaining original crust. Typical 
Early Metal Age secondary flaking, on plain flake. 

Fig. 5. Knife also possessing typical Early Metal Age pressure 
flaking on one face. 

Fig. 6. Knife, the trimming of one edge of which has been carefully 
done on both sides of a thin flake. The bulb of percussion has also 
been trimmed away. The opposite edge has been carefully trimmed to 
form possibly a scraping edge, the flaking being smaller and steeper, 
though it is more probably a form of battering to render the knife less 
sharp to handle, and' would thus represent a battered-back knife. 

Fig. 7. Knife formed on a flake with the usual careful trimming on 
one edge. A small flake which has been removed at one end resembles 
a burin blow, but this is probably accidental. 

72 Excavations at Easton Down, Wintevslow, 1933 — -1934. 

Fig. 8. Plano-convex knife. A study of this beautiful type of im- 
plement has recently been made by Dr. J. G. D. Clark [Antiquaries J., 
xii, 158) to whom I am indebted for the following observations. " The 
present example is fairly typical. In the highland zone of Britain the 
type is found with food vessels and cinerary urns, and in one instance 
with a beaker and food vessel (Mortimer, Fig. 285), i.e., in the highland 
zone the type was certainly contemporary with beaker. In the lowland 
zone, where true food vessels are scarce, they may be contemporary 
with many beakers, but no case of a plano-convex knife in sole burial 
association with a beaker has, however, been recorded." Since they 
are thus a characteristic of the food-vessel culture Dr. Clark thinks 'it 
possible that they spread into the lowland zone while beakers were still 
being used. If this really was the case it means that the pit dwelling 
under discussion and its contents is of comparatively late date which 
may explain the differences noted above between the contents of the 
dwellings in Areas A and B. On the other hand there is the possibility 
that the beaker folk used such knives but never buried them, a 
hypothesis which can only be tested by excavation of other beaker 

In the present example the pointed end has been worn smooth by use. 

The three remaining illustrations on Plate III are surface finds and 
were found in mole hills close to Pit dwelling A3. 

Fig. 9. Probably an awl formed by edge trimming on a flake. The 
bulb end is too thick for the object to be an arrowhead. 

Fig. 10. Fabricator or more probably a strike-a-light since one end 
is worn smooth by use. The curvature of the tool is remarkable and 
this makes it very convenient to hold. A similar tool, though straight, 
has recently been found on the extreme edge of Workshop Floor B 1. 

Fig. 11. A so-called "prismatic tool " which shows no signs of use 
as in Fig 10. 

Dwelling Pits, Area B. 

The area to the west of that previously explored {W .A .M., 1933, xlvi, 
228 and PI. IX) has been extended over a length of 50ft. by 10ft., and 
this has yielded another shallow beaker dwelling pit (No. 11) and two 
more ash pits (B and C), the relative positions of which are indicated in 
Plate II, Fig. 1. Besides being surrounded by stake holes this pit 
dwelling contained the u^ual assortment of beaker sherds, both 
ornamented and unornamented. Certainly one of the most important 
finds from this dwelling was an axe (Plate III, Fig. 1) which was found 
on the base of the pit. This axe is a typical flint mine product and is 
the first to have been found in one of the beaker pits which surround 
the mined area. It was no doubt discarded through having become 
unfit for further use, since the original cutting end has disappeared and 
efforts to rectify this mischance have resulted in the removal of a large 
deep flake which would render subsequent trimming of little value. 
It may be worth noting that the tool shows no signs of the wanton 

By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Phil. 




u - '■' ' 

i I Jo 

V^, oV 





Scale o^ feet 

R^. Z 


1 Tiirf Qnd mioiild 
Z HabitafioQ layer 
5 Eartby-cbalK dust 
4- Powdered bot2e 

ond wood asb 
DID CbalK YocK 



Ttirf and raooild 
Earfb^r-cbalK dt4S'l' 
PrinQory silfmS 
CbalK rocK ^ 

O 5 

F=F= hH HH 

Scale of feet 

Plate II. Plan of Dwelling Pits and Sections of Ash Pit and Ditch 
on Easton Down. 

74 Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow,_ 1933 — 1934. 

re-chipping so often observed on settlement areas. A further point of 
interest can be recognised on what remains of the original cutting end 
which shows a small area of polish. In its original state, therefore, the 
axe probably possessed a ground cutting edge, the remainder having 
been left in a roughly flaked condition only. L. 4|in., B. l^in., T. lin. 
Thus we have at last positive evidence of actual contact between the 
mined area and beaker dwelling pits and this is corroborated by the 
nature of the flint refuse associated with this pit and the two ash pits 
to be described. Large numbers of flakes were recovered, the majority 
massive and of workshop floor form. Some bore evidence of rechipping 
to form knives and scrapers while others were without character. This 
will again be referred to later, and here it need only be added that an 
almost perfectly spherical and well-battered hammerstone, 2|in. in 
diameter, lay at the bottom of the same pit, a rare find at this site. 

The Ash Pits. A full description of Ash Pit A and its contents has 
already appeared {W.A.M., 1933, xlvi, 230). The contiguity and 
similarity of contents of the two new pits B and C in no way solves the 
problem of their use. Both contained large quantities of the same 
finely pulverized bone and wood ash, a few sherds of beaker pottery 
and a number of flint cores and flakes. A large number of the flakes, 
of which 90 were recovered froin both pits, must undoubtedly have 
been used as knives, not only from the signs of wear on their sharp 
edges but also from their special mode of manufacture, a wide blunt 
face of cortex having been left for hand grip on the side opposite the 
blade (Plate III, Fig. 3). 

Ash Pit B was circular, being 2ft. Gin. in diameter, with a total 
depth of 15in. but was somewhat irregularly cut in the chalk. It con- 
tained besides ash and flints sixteen sherds consisting for the most part 
of unornamented beaker ware, and included one portion of a flat base 
of a beaker ornamented with stab markings, and two rims, one everted 
and the other straight. 

Ash Pit C resembled Ash Pit A in the careful way in which it had 
been cut in the chalk. It measured 3ft. in diameter with a total depth 
of 3ft. 3in., having been cut 2ft. 6in. into the chalk. A section through 
this pit is shown in Plate II, Fig. 2. Below 6in. of undisturbed humus 
(layer 1) there occurred a thin habitation layer (2) which contained 
besides the usual masses of snail shells and flakes, two small scraps of 
unornamented beaker ware and three pieces of fine grained sandstone 
(foreign to the district) , one piece of which bore evidence of use as a 
grinder and may possibly have been used for powdering the bone ashes 
in the pits. A small roughly chipped axe (L. 3iin., B. l|in., T. IJin.) 
was associated. The maximum thickness of this axe lies towards the 
cutting edge (Plate III, Fig. 2) . Layer 3 below consisted of earthy-chalk 
dust, 12ins. thick. In it was found one ornamented beaker sherd, three 
small thumb scrapers, a few pieces of unburnt split animal bone and a 
number of flakes. The remainder of the pit to the bottom was filled 
with powdered bone ash containing a few unpatinated flint flakes. 

By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Phil. 


Scole of aches 
Plate III. Implements from Beaker Dwelling Pits, Easton Down, i 

76 Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1933 — 1934. 

At the bottom of this pit, but 3ins. from the actual base, lay the 
complete skeleton of a dog of fox terrier type in a very well preserved 
condition. It was lying in an attitude of sleep with head on front paws 
and hind legs curled up with the tail between them. In spite of being 
buried in the powdered ashes none of the bones were burnt or scorched 
and it was not at all evident how the animal had met its death. Its 
attitude as mentioned resembled that of sleep and it may therefore 
have crawled into the pit to die. On the other hand it may have been 
intentionally buried there by the beaker folk on relinquishing the pit 
and site ; but in this case would the dead animal have been arranged 
in such an attitude for burial ? And would they have covered the dog 
with their seemingly precious ashes ? What is quite certain is that the 
pit was never afterwards disturbed, the ashes around and below and 
the undisturbed layers above proving this ; and, therefore, the dog was 
contemporary with the use of the pit and of Beaker date. 

Through the generosity of our President, Mr. Frank Stevens, O.B.E., 
F.S.A., it has been possible to have the complete dog set up as in life 
under the skilful hands of Mr. L. Parsons, Preparator at the British 
Museum (Natural History) . It is now encased in the Salisbury Museum 
(Plate IV). Before reconstruction the bones were submitted to 
Dr. J. Wilfrid Jackson to whom I am much indebted for the following 
exhaustive report. 

Report on the Skeleton of the Dog from Ash Pit C. 
By J. Wilfrid Jackson, D.Sc, F.G.S. 
I am indebted to Dr. J. F. S. Stone for the opportunity of examining 
the skeleton of a dog found with beaker pottery at Easton Down. 
Complete skeletons of animals of prehistoric date are rarely found and 
the present instance is of great importance as it is so well-dated. The 
following report is based upon the skull, lower jaws, and principal limb- 

The measurements of the limb-bones are as follows : — 


15 — — 

The tibiae are about the size of the example figured by Pitt- Rivers 
from the Romano-British village at Woodcuts, Dorset [Excavations in 
Cranborne Chase, 1887, i, PL LXIX, Fig. 4). 

The dimensions of the bones seem to indicate a small dog of the Fox 
Terrier type in which the relative lengths of the two bones of the hind 












,, - 



















Distal condyles 

(over all) 





















0^ f^ms: 


By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.Phil. 11 

limb and of the two bones of the fore hmb are nearly equal. The 
Easton Down animal, however, was a little taller than the small-sized 
Fox Terrier (about 18 inches at the shoulder) used by Pitt-Rivers as 
one of his test-animals. 

A close comparison of the dimensions of the limb-bones with those 
of the large series of dogs detailed by Wagner (K. Wagner, " Rezente 
Hnnderassen," Norske Vid.-Akad. I. Ma^.-A^a^. i^/., 1929, No. 9, 1930) 
in his recent work again shows the closest agreement with the Fox 
Terrier, more especially with his largest animal of this group. Com- 
pared with the latter, the lengths and other dimensions of the femur 
and tibia agree closely ; the humerus and radius are very slightly longer ; 
the ulna is somewhat longer. In the largest of Wagner's Whippet 
group the femur and humerus are about the same length as those of the 
Easton Down dog, but are less robust ; the tibia and radius are much 
longer and are thinner relatively ; the ulna is about the same length, 
but less robust. In the fore and hind limbs of the Whippet the lower 
bones are longer than the upper bones, and not about equal as in the 
Easton Down dog and Fox Terrier. The dimensions of the limb-bones 
of the small-sized Fox Terrier used by Pitt-Rivers are as follows : — 
femur, 135 ; tibia, 138 ; humerus, 123 ; radius, 125 ; and ulna, 145mm. 

The dimensions of the bones of prehistoric dogs are difficult to obtain. 
Riitimeyer {Die Fauna der Ptahlhauten der Schweiz, 1861, p. 119) gives 
the following for his Canis palustris, the New Stone Age dog of the 
Swiss Lake Dwellings : — femur, 127 — 144 ; tibia, 144 ; humerus, 127 — 
144 ; and radius, 122 — 128mm. Studer (in F. Keller, Lake Dwellings 
of Switzerland, etc., 2nd Edn. by J. E. Lee, 1878, Vol. I, p. 208) gives 
the following for bones of the same dog from the New Stone Age site 
at Ltischerz : — femur, 150 ; tibia, 148 ; humerus, 150 ; and radius/ 

Full measurements have been taken of the Easton Down dog's skull 
and lower jaws and a selection is given below along with those of the 
Fox Terrier taken from Wagner's tables. 

Dimensions of the Skull. 


ston Down. 

Fox Terrier 

Total length, from furthest point of 

occipital crest to prosthion 


138— 169mm, 

Basilar length 



Basion to mid-frontal ... 



Mid-frontal to prosthion 



Length of snout 



Height of skull 



Breadth of skull 



Height of occiput 


34 42 

Breadth of occiput 



Height of nasal opening 



Breadth of nasal opening 



Height of orbit ... ... 




26 — 33mm 
































7.8 Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1933 — 1934. 

Least width between orbits 

Zygomatic width ... 

Width between postorbital processes 

Length of palate 

Greatest breadth of palate 

Least breadth of palate 

Breadth over canines ... 

Length of tooth-row 

Dimensions of Lower Jaw. 
Length from middle of condyle to 

alveolar point 
Height of vertical branch 
Width of vertical branch 
Height of horizontal ramus behind Ml 
Width between angular processes . . . 
Length of tooth-row 
Length of premolars 
Length of molars 

In the lower jaws both of the first premolars have been lost and the 
alveoli are closed with bone. 

In the skull there is no sagittal crest : the supra-occipital is prominent, 
and the auditory bullae are somewhat oblong in form and depressed, 
not bulging appreciably : they measure — length, 20; width, 16mm. 

As in the case of the limb-bones, the dimensions of the skull and 
lower jaws agree closely with those of large Fox Terriers. 

The Easton Down remains have also been compared with the Canis 
palustris of Riitimeyer and the skull appears to agree with the two 
illustrations of the skull of that animal from Meilen, as well as with the 
few dimensions given (Riitimeyer, op. cit., pp. 117 — 118, text-figs.) 

It is of interest to note that a complete skeleton of a dog referable to 
Canis palustris was found by Mr. Alexander Keiller during his excava- 
tions at the Neolithic site at Windmill Hill [Proc. First Internat. Con- 
gress of Pre- and Proto-Historic Sciences, 1934, 135 — 138). A photograph 
of the complete skeleton appeared in Country Life, Sept. 17th, 1932. 

Report on the Non-Marine Mollusca from the Middle 

Bronze Age Urnfield. 

By A. S. Kennard, A.L.S., F.G.S. 

Dr. Stone kindly sent me two samples of soil from the Middle Bronze 
Urnfield, Easton Down, recently described by him {W.A.M., 1933, xlvi, 
218) and these have yielded very interesting results. 

(1) From the original turf and humus before making the urnfield. 
This was in contact with but below the flint nodule layer. This yielded 
ten species, viz. : — 

Pomatias elegans (Miill.) Common 

Carychium minimum Miill. Very rare 


By J. F. S. Stone, B.A., D.PhiL 79 

Pupilla muscorum (Linn.) Common 

Go7iiodiscus rotundatus (Miill.) Very rare 

Vallonia excentrica Sterki Very rare 

Avion sp. Abundant 

Cecilioides acicula (Miill.) Very rare 

Xerophila itala (Linn.) Rare 

Chilotrema lapicida (Linn.) Very rare 

Cepcea nemoralis (Linn.) Very rare 

This is really a downland faunule with some of the larger species of 
scrubland lingering on in greatly diminishing numbers. All the real 
damp loving forms have vanished and the climatic conditions must 
been very similar to those of to-day. 

(2) A sample of the humus from above but in contact with the flint 
nodule layer and thus representing the accumulated soil from the con- 
struction of the urnfield to the present day. This yielded five species, 
viz. : — 

Pupilla muscorum (Linn.) Rare 

Vertigo pygmcsa (Drap.) Very rare 

Vallonia excentrica Sterki Common 

Arion sp. Abundant 

Cochlicopa luhrica (Miill.) Very rare 

This is a true downland faunule and the example of Cochlicopa lubrica 
(Miill.) is the small dwarfed form characteristic of dry situations. 

From the above facts it is evident that the damp conditions had 
passed away before the construction of this Middle Bronze Age urnfield, 
and should this conclusion be verified by future work it will prove a 
valuable datum line. The change was apparently not long previous to 
the construction, for, as we have seen, some more adaptable species had 
managed to survive, possibly a luxuriant herbage affording the necessary 
shelter. : There is such a marked contrast between the series from the 
Beaker deposits and that from the urnfield not only in species but in 
the relative abundance, that great changes had taken place in the 
molluscan fauna of the neighbourhood. Many species had become 
extinct and the survivors had enormously decreased in numbers. One 
is thus forced to conclude that the rainfall had greatly diminished and 
that the later conditions approximated to those of to-day. 

Section through Ditch dividing Areas B and C. 
The complex network of ditches on Easton Down has been noted in 
a previous report {W.A.M., 1931, xlv, 350, 371) and has since been 
accurately recorded by H.M. Ordnance Survey [Celtic Earthworks of 
Salisbury Palin — Old Sarum, 1934). In a review of this latter work 
Dr. J. P. Williams-Freeman suggests that the evidence is in favour of 
the cattle-way theory [Antiquity , 1934, viii, 232). Since, so far as is 
known, no attempt has hitherto been made to study the system by 
means of the spade south of the river Bourne, other than on Roche 

80 Excavations at Easton Down, Winterslow, 1933 — 1334. 

Court Down which yielded a number of decapitated Saxon or later 
secondary burials {W.A.M., 1932, xlv, 568), a section has been cut on 
Easton Down. 

This section was cut through the fairly well preserved bivallate ditch 
which divides areas B and C at a point just south of Workshop Floor 
6 {W.A.M., 1931, xlv, 350, fig. 1). Here the north bank alone is 
unploughed but much weathered down, the south bank having been 
levelled somewhat by cultivation, though fortunately, no soil has 
accumulated in the ditch through this partial erasure of the bank. At 
this point the estimated total width from crest to crest is 24ft. The 
section obtained is shown diagrammatically in Plate II, Fig. 3. 

As will be seen, the ditch is remarkably shallow in comparison with 
its width, the total depth below the present surface being only 3ft. 4ins. 
The actual depth, however, below the surrounding chalk level is 
3ft. Tins. Whereas the slope of the north edge is gradual, that of the 
south is steep and not so evenly cut, a difference possibly due to the 
direction in which the workers advanced when making the cutting ; i.e., 
slightly uphill towards the east with the north bank on their left side, 
it would be easier, if right-handed, to complete the work more efficiently 
on that side. 

The width of the base is only 5ins., a space too narrow to walk erect 
in for any length without overbalancing. 

At the bottom the soft and powdery primary silting of chalk dust 
was 15ins. deep and this contained a number of angular flints. The 
banks, also, just below 4ins. of mould, were composed mainly of flints 

probably derived -from the ditch and left in position after the chalk 

and mould had weathered away. The remainder of the filling up to 
the turf and humus consisted of earthy-chalk dust only. 

No objects of a dateable nature were found and no layers of snail 
shells, or even single shells were encountered. This absence of snail 
shells is important in view of their abundance in all pre-Middle Bronze 
Age sites on Easton Down. The date of the construction of this part 
of the ditch system can therefore be inferred to be post-Middle Bronze 

Further, there w^ould appear to be little doubt that this ditch was not 
constructed for the same purpose as the doubly-stockaded, wide-based 
ditch recently recorded at Winterbourne Dauntsey [W.A .M., 1934, xlvi, 
450). The exceedingly narrow base, the shallowness of the ditch itself , 
and the absence of a hard trodden layer at the bottom, together with 
the absence of post-holes under the banks, all indicate that this was of 
the nature of a boundary ditch and not a cattle or trackway. 

As in former communications I am indebted to the Commandant, 
Col. E. L. Bond, D.S.O., for permission to dig on War Office lands. 
My grateful thanks are also due to Dr. J. Wilfrid Jackson for his report 
on the skeleton of the dog, to Dr. J. G. D. Clark for examining a 
number of flint implements, to Mr. A. S. Kennard for his report on the 
mollusca, and to Commander H. G. Higgins, D.S.O., R.N., and Flight- 
Lieut. R. C. Field, R.A.F., for help with the actual digging. 


Compiled by B, Howard Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot. 
" Seven miles from, any town, 
There stands Imber, on the down." 
So runs the couplet, and to this day the charming village of Imber is 
still isolated from the rest of the world. Lying in a valley at the foot 
of Rough Down with its one street of houses, mainly cottages, it affords 
an unexpected pleasure to the visitor who coming off the downs from 
either Warminster or Lavington, on turning a corner suddenly finds 
himself in this typical Wiltshire downland settlement. Until quite 
recent times there was only one hard road out of Imber, namely that 
leading to Warminster about seven miles distant. Another road lead- 
ing to Lavington became merely a down track for a couple of miles 
about mid-way between the village and Tilshead. In early documents 
Imber is spelt Ymmer, Immer, or as in Domesday, Imemerie, and it 
has been suggested that the name is derived from ' ' ge-maer = boundary . ' ' 
To this day the boundary line of the Hundreds of Heytesbury and 
Swanborough runs through the parish. The church dedicated to St. 
Giles has a I2th century font, and the nave arcade is of the 13th 
century. Through this village runs a river or brook, locally known as 
The Cut, that taking its rise about two miles on the Warminster side 
passes on to Chitterne and thence into the Wylye. But this brook — 
sometimes a river of considerable size as will be seen later — becomes 
dried up for miles in the summer when there is a drought, and hence 
no doubt comes the name of " Imber Dry Dock " chaffingly given to 
the portion that runs through the middle of the village. The casual 
visitor to-day might imagine that nothing could or ever had happened 
to disturb the peaceful quiet life of the inhabitants, yet in Charles 2nd's 
reign Imber came much into the limelight when a Mr. Chambers was 
indicted at the Quarter Sessions for diverting the course of the stream 
and causing the village street to become flooded. From the evidence 
produced it appears that the prosecution arose entirely through the 
jealousy of two of the more wealthy inhabitants, as will be seen from 
what may well have been the opening address to the jury by the 
counsel for the defence. In the first place however the matter was 
considered by the Grand Jury who returned the following report : — 
" Wiltes. 

The jurors for our Lord the King upon their oath present that 
Thomas Chambers late of Imber in the aforesaid county, yeoman, 
on the 20th day of February in the 26th year (1674) of the reign of 
our Lord Charles the second by the Grace of God King of England, 

1 This account of the prosecution of Thomas Chambers of Imber is 
extracted from the original documents in the library of the Wilts Arch. 
Society. The quotations are copied verbatim. 


82 Troubles over Imher Brook in the Reign of King Charles 2nd. 

Scotland, France and Ireland, by force and arms etc at Imber in the 
county aforesaid, diverted a certain common water course in the 
close there called Ye Home Close, on to the King's high road there 
leading from Warminster in the county aforesaid to Lavington 
Forum in the same county, at the lower end of the street in Imber 
aforesaid, whereby the King's high road is flooded and damaged 
to the common nuisance and heavy damage of all the lieges and 
subjects of our said Lord the King passing and travelling in, 
through, and across the aforesaid road, and that the said Thomas 
Chambers on the aforesaid 20th day of February in the above said 
26th year, at Imber aforesaid, in the county aforesaid, by force and 
arms etc raised and erected certain hedges across the King's road 
leading from Warminster in the county aforesaid to Amesbury in 
the same county, at the lower end of the street in Imber aforesaid, 
whereby the said road is so much stopped up that the heges and 
subjects of our said Lord the King cannot travel in, through, and 
across the said King's road as they ought and were wont to do, 
from time whereof the memory of man is not to the contrary, to 
the heavy damage and common nuisance of all the subjects of our 
said Lord the King, going and travelling in, through, and across 
the same road and against the peace of our said Lord the King 
that now is, his Crown and Dignity etc." 

John Blake (probably chairman of the Grand Jury). 
Billa Vera (true bill) . 
On returning a " true bill " one can picture Mr. Chambers then 
entering the prisoner's box and his counsel addressing the jury in the 
following words — " Gentlemen of the Jury, the answer to this indict- 
ment is ' Not Guilty ' — ^the truth is as follows : — 

"About 40 years agone, one Mr. Ayliffe was seised of a ffarme 
(wch is a Mannor) in Imber & the ffarme and grounde (belonging 
thereunto) doe lye on the west Side of the Street there (wch is also 
the watercourse menconed in the indictmt) through wch Street ye 
water (caused upon violent raynes or suddoyne thawes for the 
springes doe not, neither have they constantly yearly broke there) 
did run into the rode way then formerly used (and now complayned 
of in the indictment) by means whereof (as it was then) that comon 
rode or highway became rotten, dangerous, and unfitt for travellors 
wch (though very un frequent) had occasion to passe that way. 
The inhabitants finding the mischief, could not think of any better 
preventing remedy than to apply themselves to Mr. Ayliffe & to 
intreat him to accept of this moorish, rotten, watercourse (highway) 
and desire him to allow a firm good substantiall highway out of his 
lands of inheritance wch was next adjoyning to this dangerous 
highway and water passage. In complyance with the desire of the 
inhabitants Mr. Ayliffe was pleased to pt (part) wth his land of 
inheritance (in regard it was soe apparently advantagious for the 
avoyding of the old way and to prevent his share in the coste 

By B. Howard Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot. 83 

of indictment (if it should soe happ) wch was usuall, and did 
exchange his land (to make a firm way wch yet continues) for the 
old water course, and accordingly bounds and quickfrith were made 
and planted and neere 10 yeares peaceable enjoyment in Mr. 
Ayliffes tyme. Dcor (Doctor) Davenant about 30 yeares agone 
purchased the inheritance of Mr. Ayliffe. 

Some differences (occasioned upon private grudges rather then 
upon just grounds) have been since but to noe purpose. 

The only cause of this complaynt is merely out of envy in regard 
the prosecutors find that the ground which was formerly a way 
(through industry and tract of tyme) is now become indifferent 
ground, but tis forgotten that Mr Ayliffe parted with his good 
ground to make a common way in exchange of the old way, wch 
was long before it came to be Vv^orth any thing. 

The prosecutors doe acknowledge (wch will be proved) that this 

way as it now is, is farr the better and whereunto their predecessors 

concluded and themselves (videlt Mr. Harris and Mr. Polden) wth 

in theis few yeares agreed that if Dcrs tennt (the pty indicted) would 

cleanse the pond (a pond in the street and watercourse) and scoure 

the ditch thereby they would stir no farther. This prosecution is 

against the consent of the whole parish except those two." 

Then follows a long list of inhabitants who were ready to bear witness 

to the foregoing statements one of whom was prepared to swear that 

" she had lived 3 yeares at Imber with Mr. Ayliffe before the way was 

altered, that she lived there at the time of the turning of the way, that 

the old way was so miry that one plough could scarce draw out another, 

and that by the in treaty of the parishioners Mr. Ayliffe allowed the 

new for the old way and bounded it out accordingly about 38 yeares 


To the foregoing is attached Doctor Davenaunant's statement of the 
case which is headed 

The Case of Thomas Chambers indicted for a nuisance by 
Annoying the Highway at Imber with water. 
" Imber is a village soe untorwardly scituated in a very narrow 
valley that not only the melting snow but even the raine wch 
ordinarily falls on very many of the hills in that part of the country, 
naturally finds that place for its receptacle and sinke, and in all 
ages the street and highway there have every wet winter beene 
greatly annoyed with deepe water. 

About 35 years since or more (for it was some considerable time 
before the warrs) one Mr. Ayliffe having lands there adjoyning to 
the said street and highway, did, at the request of the neighbour- 
hood, and by a writ of ad quod damnm, as may well be supposed 
after so long enjoyment and where the benefit to the highway is 
soe very apparent, turne the said highway wch was inconvenienced 
by the ordinary watercourse, some few yards up into his dry land, 
where there is still a very good and sound highway, and left open 
still a way for the water to runne in its ancient course, which he 

G 2 

84 Troubles over Imber Brook in the Reign of King Charles 2nd. 

then had taken into his meadow in lieu of the new way soe set 
forth. And for a further avoydance of the said water he made 
two other large trenches deeper than the ancient w^atercourse, 
and together with the ancient watercourse, capable of drayning 
more water out of the said street, and the further benefitt of the 
said trenches was, and is, that the highway for about a mile below 
Imber wch had formerly been annoyed by the said water now lye 
very dry. Mr. Ayliffe and the succeeding possessors of Mr. iVyliffe's 
land from these trenches have watered their meadow, wch has 
occasioned soe much envy in some of the neighbourhood, that they 
have now indicted Thomas Chambers, the present possessor who 
has cleansed the street 4nd his trenches and a ditch wch (as it was 
affirmed by the neighbourhood) should be accepted as a sufficient 
conveyance for the water, together with the other conveyances, and 
has left open sufficient passage for the water to run into the low 
place in his meadow where the said highway anciently annoyed 
with water had been, soe that there is evidently much more passage 
for the water, then heretofore and no ground heightned by any 
banke or otherwise any where to hinder the goeing of itt away, 
and itt is very probable that the next winter itt will be lower 
than heretofore. 

There are few improvements made in England by water, but 
where some highway or other is a little annoyed, by bending back 
the water by hatches or bayes, and yet all are for the publique 
good permitted, heere the water is noe way penned back but rather 
avoyded, at least as much as the unhappy scituation of the place 
will admitt, and yet the envy of two or three men has produced a 

Thomas Chambers had diverse ancient witnesses to have produced 

to prove that the street (for the highway beyond the street is 

unquestionably bettered) was anciently much annoyed with water 

as itt was att any time since the said alteration made by Mr. 

Ayliffe, and much more then it is likely to be in time to come, now 

Thomas Chambers has cleared soe many passages for the avoyding 

itt. But one Harris and one Polden of Imber, the prosecutors of 

this indictment fright them (being poore men and who may possibly 

hereafter stand in need of releife from the said parish of Imber 

wch is wholly governed by Harris and Polden) from giving their 

evidence, and declaring at the Sessions what they have often 

declared to be the truth in this case." 

It would be interesting to know the upshot of these troubles but here 

the story comes to an end as far as these documents are concerned and 

a careful search through the Great Rolls of the Wilts Quarter Sessions 

for that period revealed nothing concerning the matter. Nor is there 

any reference to the case in the carefully written reports of the clerk of 

the Sessions from 1675 Id 1682. We can only hope that the Justices 

took a sensible view of the situation and that Mr. Thomas Chambers. 

left the court " without a stain upon his character." 


Edited by C. M. R. Pitman, 39, Rampart Road, Salisbury. 



Rev. W. R. Addison 



Mrs. A. Alcock 


West Wellow 

Rev. F. L. Blathwayt 



J. C. E. Boys 



A. E. Burras 



Dr. E. W. Clapham 



Dr. R. C. Clay 



G. W. Collett 



H. C. R. Gillman 



Canon E. H. Goddard 


Clyffe Pypard 

H. St. B. Goldsmith 



Miss G. M. Grover 



Major R. G. Gwatkin 



Rev. D. P. Harrison 


Lydiard Millicent 

V. G. Hawtin 



Major-Gen. W. P. H. Hill 



P. N. Hills 



R. T. James 



R. J. Mansfield 



Major Stuart Maples 



N. H. Moody 


Fifield Bavant 

R. S. Newall 



A. D. Passmore 



L. G. Peirson 


10 miles radius round 

C. M. R. Pitman 



C. Rice 



Rev. W. Sole 



J. St. Maur Shiel 



S. J. Strange 



T. H. Thornely 



W. F. Trumper 



Major C. B. Wainwright 



Capt. H. N. Ward 



H. H. Williams 



R. Whitlock 



Canon T. J. Woodall 



D. C. Urquhart 



86 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

The Report is drawn up following the " Systematic list of British 
Birds in Witherby's Practical Handbook of British Birds, 1924." To 
make it quite clear for the observers who have been in doubt concern- 
ing the introduction of trinominals I venture herewith to take this 
opportunit}^ of giving the following example to explain the advantages 
attained by using them. For instance, trinominals are only given to 
clearly recognized sub-species, e.g., Binominal, CorvusCorax; Trinominal, 
Corvus Corax Corax, the first name being that of the genus, the second 
of the species, and the third the sub-species, the last being added to 
distinguish local forms or races, e.g., the typical Corvus Corax Corax 
from Corvus Corax Hispanus (Spain), etc. 

Again this year, although suffering from the effects of the continued 
drought, which from an ornithologist's point of view is in many ways 
detrimental to the study of many species, the reports received show 
that the season has offered good opportunities for the observation of 
the birds of our county, and although, unfortunately, there were one or 
two absentees from last year's lists of contributors, the number of 
reports received show an increase and the contents of the reports sent 
in are considerably more interesting and detailed. 

It is indeed most encouraging and gratifying to observe that my 
desire of last year concerning the migration and movement of birds has 
been carried out with such great success and contributors are to be 
congratulated oh the very interesting information I have received. I 
am particularly grateful to my friend R. W. who has spent considerable 
time and exercised great care on the observation of the migration and 
local movement of the birds in his district during the year. 

Over one hundred and fifty species are mentioned again this year in 
the general reports and there is a great increase to be noted in the 
migration table. In this connexion I would mention that I have 
received a number of reports in which are included details of the com- 
mencement and cessation of bird song and I would like observers, if 
possible, to help me by making a list of their observations concerning 
the period of song in this coming year ; it would be an interesting 
feature to include in the next report and as far as I know a new 
departure in ornithology for the county. 

Among important nesting records for the county may be mentioned 
that of the Buzzard, Tufted Duck, and the continued breeding range 
and increase of the Great Crested Grebe, Dipper, and Redshank, and 
although for obvious reasons the exact breeding sites are not disclosed 
these species will be observed with a special interest in the future. 

It seems extraordinary considering the continuous " improvement " 
and ' 'development" going on throughout the county, that even an attempt 
should be made to exist here, to say nothing of increasing, especially 
in the case of the above species, which, besides being naturally shy, are 
comparatively newcomers. Probably they are trying to find suit- 
able and secluded quarters having had experience of the " development " 
of the countryside elsewhere, however be this as it may I do hope that 

By C. M. R. Pitman. 87 

they will find our county to suit their requirements and will become 
firmly established within our borders. From a remarkably good list of 
noteworthy and interesting visitors to the county may be mentioned 
the following : — Hooded Crow, Golden Oriole, Mealy Redpole, Willow 
Tit, Fire Crested Wren, Great Grey Shrike, Marsh Warbler, White's 
Thrush, Greenland Wheatear, Red-Footed Falcon, Montague's Harrier, 
Sheld Duck, Ringed Plover, Grey Plover, Whimbrel, Red-Necked 
Grebe, and Red-Throated Diver. 

A noticeable feature of the observations made this year was the 
interest shown in the inovements of the Lapwing ; the great shortage 
noticed in the breeding season was matched by a great influx of autumn 
migrants which in some areas were seen in thousands. R.T.J., who 
has spent a considerable time observing this species and has prepared 
a map to show the rise and fall of the Lapwing population over a num- 
ber of years, also writes the following interesting account of his 
observations near Chute : — " This bird has taken up an unfair proportion 
of my time this year. In anticipation of the nesting season being as 
great an affair as last year, I prepared a map of the district showing all 
the old-established nesting places, and also the fields occupied last year, 
that is thefiew places. My trouble was wasted. Fields which held 
twelve or more nesting pairs last year were empty this year. One long 
stretch of downland which in an ordinary year has upwards of twenty 
pairs, and last year had, I should think, almost a hundred, this year had 
not more than seven. The field which usually has six or seven pairs, 
and last year fourteen or fifteen, had none. 

From the middle of September the few Plover of the district seemed 
to be getting into flocks. The flocks seen were from two to thirty 
birds. On October 25th I saw a flock of about two hundred. From 
that time the flocks became larger and more frequent. On November 
11th I saw a huge flock at Collingbourne. I cannot give any opinion 
of the number except to say that there were many thousands. Now 
the district has more Plover than in the best days of last year, but they 
are in flocks instead of being scattered about on the breeding grounds." 

In some of the foregoing notes it will be seen that the northern 
and southern observations often contradict one another ; this is 
extremely interesting and is an example of the benefit derived from 
having contributors posted throughout the county, without whose help 
and annual observations it would be difficult to put on record the 
fiuctuations of a species within the limits even of one county. 

Some of the following notes may appear to be somewhat trivial, but 
it should be remembered that they may be useful, and they are recorded 
with a view to comparison with future reports on the birds of Wilts. 
The movements and distribution of our common and local species are 
in reality more worthy of study than the occasional records of accidental 

I thank all contributors who have helped me during the year with 
their notes and observations and sincerely hope to be favoured with a 
like support in future years. 


Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

Arrival and Departure of Migrants in Wiltshire, 1934. 
Departure records marked (d) . Records of large movements marked (1) . 

Yellow Wagtail. 

April 12, Britford (CM. P.) 
April 13, Laverstock (J.B.) 
April 17, Salisbury (J.B.) 
April 28, Marlborough 


Tree Pipit. 

April 13, Redlynch (CM. P.) 
April 28, Clarendon (R.W.) 






(d) Sept 


9, Chute (R.T.J.) 
11, Britford (CM. P.) 

13, Clyffe Pypard 


19, Lydiard Millicent 


20, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 

Nursteed (T.H.T.) 
22, Potterne (R.G.G.) 
27, Figheldean (CB.W.) 

Pitton (R.W.) 
. 10, Pitton (R.W.) 

14, Potterne (R.G.G.) 

Pied Plycatcher. 

May 10, Purton (N.H.W.) 
May 28, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 


April 21, Britford (CM. P.) 
April 26, Clarendon (R.W.) 
May 3, Alderbury (J.B.) 

May 8, Figheldean (CB.W.) 
(d) Sept. 21, Pitton (R.W.) 
Oct. 2, Britford (CM. P.) 

Iiesser Whitethroat. 

April 26, Britford (CM. P.) 
May 1, Clarendon (R.W.) 
(d) Sept. 11, Pitton (R.W.) 

Garden Warbler. 

April 26, Britford (CM. P.) 
May 4, Clarendon (R.W\) 
May 13, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
(d) Sept. 14, Clarendon (R.W.) 


April 24, Britford (CM. P.) 
May 4, Clarendon (R.W.) 
May 9, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
(d) Sept. 7, Pitton (R:W.) 

Grasshopper Warbler. 

April 27, Marlborough 

April 28, Clarendon (R.W.) 
April 29, Redlynch (CM.P.) 

Reed Warbler. 

April 22, Stratford (CM.P.) 
April 28, Marlborough 

April 30, Salisbury (R.W.) 
(d) Sept. 23, Stratford (CM.P.) 
Sept. 30, Alderbury (J.B.) 

Sedge Warbler 

April 12, Britford (CM.P.) 
April 19, Salisbury (R.W.) 
May 3, Alderbury J.B.) 
May 5, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
May 8, Figheldean (CB.W.) 
(d) Sept. 30, Britford (CM.P.) 

Marsh Warbler. 

May 11, Alderbury (J.B.) 

Willow Warbler. 

March 31, Bulford (W.R.A.) 
April 2, Chippenham (G.W.C) 
April 3, Britford (CM.P.) 
April 15, West Wellow 

April 16, Nursteed (T.H.T.) 

April 17, West Wellow (J.B.) 
April 26, Lydiard Millicent 

April 28, Pitton (R.W.) 
(d) Sept. 14, Pitton (R.W.) 
Sept. 23, Britford (CM.P.) 

Wood Warbler. 

April 13, Redlynch (CM.P.) 
April 22, West Wellow 


By C. M. R. Pitman. 


April 28, Pitton (R.W.) 
May 3, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
May 15, Whiteparish (D.C.U.) 
(d) Oct. 6, Pitton (R.W.) 

Oct. 28, Laverstock (J.B.) 


March 16, Potterne (R.G.G.) 
March 21, Britford (CM. P.) 
March 25, Marlborough 

March 31, Bulford (W.R.A.) 
April 1, Chippenham (G.W.C.) 
Lydiard Millicent 

April 12, West Wellow 

Nursteed (T.H.T.) 
April 21, Clarendon (R.W.) 
(d) Sept. 14, Pitton (R.W.) 
Sept. 20, Laverstock (J.B.) 
Sept. 30, Britford (C.M.P.) 


April 20, Figheldean (C.B.W.) 
April 22, Whiteparish (J.B.) 
April 30, Salisbury (C.M.P.) 


April 21, West Wellow 

April 22, Pitton (R.W.) 
April 23, Alderbury (C.M.P.) 
April 29, Chute (R.T.J.) 
(d) August 9, Pitton (R.W.) 


April 15, Figheldean (C.B.W.) 
April 22, Downton (C.M.P.) 
May 3, Alderbury (J.B.) 


April 3, Bulford (W.R.A.) 
April 5, Figheldean (C.B.W.) 
April 9, Pitton (R.W.) 
April 10, Laverstock (C.M.P.) 
April 15, Marlborough 

May 8, Whaddon (J.B.) 
(d) Oct. 15, Pitton (R.W.) 

Red-Backed Shrike. 

Mav 10, Sahsbury (C.M.P.) 
May 25, Pitton (R.W.) 
(d) Sept., Pitton (R.W.) 


April 9, Figheldean (C.B.W.) 

Britford (C.M.P.) 
April 10, Potterne (R.G.G.) 
April 11, Chippenham (C.R.) 
April 13, Lydiard Milhcent 

Salisbury (J.B.) 
Pitton (R.W.) 
Lyneham (A.D.P.) 
April 14, West Wellow 

Nursteed (T.H.T.) 
Fyfield Bavant 

(1) May 1, Lydiard Millicent 

May 3. Salisbury (J.B.) 
(d) Oct. 14, Pitton (R.W.) 

Oct. 16, Chippenham (C.R.) 
Oct. 18, Chute (R.T.J.) 

Sahsbury (C.M.P.) 
Oct. 19, Sahsbury (J.B.) 

House Martin. 

April 12, Britford (C.M.P.) 
April 13, Chippenham (C.R.) 

Salisbury (J.B.) 
April 15, Pottei-ne (R.G.G.) 

Nursteed (T.H.T.) 
April 17, Chute (R.T.J.) 
April 30, Figheldean (C.B.W.) 
May 1 , Lydiard Millicent 

May 2, Pitton (R.W.) 
May 5, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
(1) May 3, Figheldean (C.B.W.) 
(d) Sept. 14, Chute (R.T.J.) 
Sept. 25, Potterne (R.G.G.) 
Oct. 13, Pitton (R.W.) 
Oct. 16, Fovant (R.C.C.) 
Oct. 24, Britford (C.M.P.) 
Oct. 27, Chippenham (C.R.) 
Oct. 31, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 

Britford (E.W.C.) 
Nov. 3, Salisbury (J.B.) 

Sand Martin. 

April 6, Britford (C.M.P.) 
April 13, Alderbury (J.B.) 
Bulford (W.R.A.) 
April 20, Figheldean (C.B.W.) 
April 27, Marlborough 



Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

(d) Oct. 2, Alderbury (J.B.) 
Pitton (R.W.) 
Oct. 11, Britford (C.M.P.) 


April 12,-Lydiard Millicent 

Fifield Bavant 

Britford (C.M.P.) 
April 14, Pitton (R.W.) 
April 15, West Wellow 

Potterne (R.G.G.) 
Salisbury (J.B.) 
April 17, Nursteed (T.H.T.) 
Chippenham (C.R.) 

April 18, Marlborough 

Chute (R.T.J.) 
(d) July 30,. Pitton (R.W.) 

August 30, Stratford (C.M.P.) 
Sept. 7, Britford (C.M.P.) 


April 30, Bemerton (R.J.M.) 
May 3, Pitton (R.W.) 

Salisbury (C.M.P.) 
. May 5, Salisbury (J.B.) 

Figheldean (C.B.W.) 
May 9, Chippenham (C.R.) 
May 11, Chute (R.T.J.) 
(d) August 14, Figheldean 

August 29, Salisbury (C.M.P.) 
August 30, Chute (R.T.J.) 
Sept. 10, Pitton (R.W.) 


April 28, Pitton (R.W.) 
May 9. West Wellow (E.A.A.) 
May 11, Barford St. Martin 
(d) Sept. 25 Pitton (R.W.) 

Sept. 30, Alderbury (C.M.P.) 

Stone Curlew. 

March 25, Salisbury (C.M.P.) 
April 10, Pitton (R.W.) 
April 20, Fifield Bavant 


April 29. Figheldean (C.B.W.) 
May 4, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
(d) Sept. 25, Clarendon (C.M.P.) 
Oct. 13, Pitton (R.W.) 
Oct. 25, Stratford (J.S.) 

Corn Crake 

May 7, Bishopstone (R.J.M.) 
May 19, Britford (C.M.P.) 
May 27, Lydiard Millicent 

(d)Sept. 9, Stratford (J.S.) 

Turtle Dove. 

April 27, Nursteed (T.H.T.) 
Potterne (R.G.G.) 
May 4th, West Wellow 

May 6, Pitton (R.W.) 

Stratford (C.M.P.) 
May 8, Chute (R.T.J.) 
May 9, Wanborough (A.D.P.) 
May 12, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
May 15, Figheldean (C.B.W.) 
(d) Oct. 9, Pitton (R.W.) 
Oct. 21, Alderbary (J.B.) 


April 14, Laverstock (C.M.P.) 
May 16, Chute (R.T.J.) 
(d) Sept. 10, Pitton (R.W.) 


Nov. 7, Grimstead (J.B.) 
Nov. 10, Woodford (C.M.P.) 
(d) April 2, Savernake Forest 



Sept. 3, Laverstock (J.B.) 
Sept. 25, Pitton (R.W.) 
Sept. 29, Salisbury (C.M.P.) 
Oct. 19, Marlborough (L.G.P.) 
Nov. 13, Chute (R.T.J.) 

Wishford (R.J.M.) 
(d) Feb. 26, Pitton (R.W.) 
March 4, Salisbury (J.B.) 
March 10, Britford (C.M.P.) 


Oct. 31, Pitton (R.W.) 

Salisbury (C.M.P.) 
Oct. 29, Figheldean (C.B.W.) 

By C, M. R. Pitman. 


Nov. 4, Nursteed (T.H.T.) 
November 11, Marlborough 

Nov. 13, Wishford (RJ.M.) 
Nov. 27, Chute (R.T.J.) 
(d) March 19, Marlborough 

March 28, Pitton (R.W.) 
(1) April 2, Chippenham (G.W.C.) 
Newton Tony (R.W.) , 
(1) April 14, Laverstock (C.M.P.) 
April 15, Nursteed (T.H.T.) 
Chippenham (C.R.) 


Oct. 22. Clarendon (C.M.P.) 
Nov. 7, Netherhampton 

(d) March 28, Coate (L.G.P.) 
April 3, Britford (C.M.P.) 


Nov. 21 

Britford (E.W.C. 


Oct. 19, Clarendon (C.M.P.) 
Oct. 22, West Wallow (J.B.) 
(d) Feb. 6, Clarendon (C.M.P.) 

Tuffced Duck. 

Oct. 31, Clarenden (C.M.P.) 
Nov. 3, Britford (E.W.C. ^ 
(d) March 2, Clarendon (C.M.P.) 

(xolden Plover. 

Oct. 11, Britford (E.W.C.) 
Oct. 14, Zeals (H.St.B.G.) 
Oct. 22, Ford (C.M.P.) 
Nov. 15, Pitton (R.W.) 

(d) March 21, Figheldean(C.B.W.) 
April 5, Sahsbury (C.M.P.) 

. April 8, Figheldean (C.B.W.) 
April 9, Bulford (W.R.A.) 

Jack Snipe. 

Dec. 8, Britford (E.W.C.) 
Dec. 11, Alderbury (J.B.) 
Dec. 22, Stratford (J.S.) 
(d) Feb. 4, Britford (C.M.P.) 

Hooded Crow. Corvus cornix cornix. 

Two seen at Britford during January, feeding in company with 

Rooks ; they were in the same area for about 10 days. C.M.P. 
One at Berwick St. James also seen in company with Rooks on 

November 21st, by R.J.M. 
Another seen by L.G.P. at Marlborough on April 28th, a very 

unusual date. 

Carrion Crow. Corvus corone corone. 

Although C.B.W. comments that constant trapping has reduced the 
numbers on Salisbury Plain, enormous numbers were seen by 
C.M.P, on April 24th, all these were undoubtedly nesting birds 
and a good many nests were found, clutches of eggs average five 
but near the New Forest area the average is only four. 

R.W. notes that it is seen in most months at Pitton but not known 
to nest. One or two apparent migrations south-east noticed 
during end of September and beginning of October. 

92 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

Rook. Corvus frugilegus frugilegus. 

Evidence of a second brood comes from G.W.C. who reports " seen at 
the nest, some sitting and others pulhng the twigs about " on 
November 24th. 

R.T.J, gives Conholt Park as a winter roost, remarking that the 
train of birds on their way home of a winter evening is a sight 
worth seeing ; he also sends the following interesting incident : — 
On December 3rd, a heavy fog came on suddenly at about 4 p.m., 
the Rooks were then on their way home, when, overtaken by the 
fog, they apparently lost their way and settled on trees in the 
hedgerows and small copses for the night ; they did not stay the 
night however, but left for the Park at about 7 — 8 p.m. when 
one would have thought conditions were much worse. 

Owing to the hot season much more egg stealing was done by this 
species than usual, C.B.W. 

Another interesting observation comes from E.H.G., who, remark- 
ing on the incredible number of Rooks that roost during the 
winter in the plantations at Rockley causing much damage to 
the trees, goes on to say : — " The number of nests here is so large 
that last year over 1,000 young rooks were shot and this year it 
has been decided not to allow more than 100 nests, and that these 
must be in one particular plantation. To enforce this guns are being 
fired off at all Rooks trespassing on the forbidden areas. The 
birds now recognise the limits of territory allotted them and 
whilst those nesting in the allotted area pay no attention to any- 
one walking under the trees with a gun, those outside the 
boundary make off the moment anyone with a gun comes near 
the place." 

Jack Daw. Corvus monedula spermologus. 

The following interesting varieties were seen and handled by CM. P. 
this year : — An albino shot at Teffont Magna on September 24th ; 
another with chocolate coloured wings and tail caught in a trap 
at Britford on November 23rd, with this was also one which was 
considerably streaked with brown, both of these are still alive 
and living in an aviary. On March 21st one was seen with a fawn- 
coloured tail near Compton Chamberlayne. 
T.J.W. sends a note of one seen building in early January near 

Mag'pie. Pica pica pica. 

One seen at Alderbury by J.B. on January 22nd, this is the first 

reported near Salisbury for a number of years. 
A flock of about 50 seen on Salisbury Plain on April 24th, although 

a search for nests was made not one was to be found and it 

appears the birds were on migration or local movement, CM. P. 
Nesting records from Pitton (R.W.), Chippenham (G.W.C), Chute 

(R,T.), Figheldean (C.B.W), and Fifield Bavant (N.H.M.). 

By C. M. R. Pitman. 93 

Jay. Garrulus glandarius rufitergum. 

Seen feeding on acorns by C.R. who reports more than usual this 

Increase noticed by C.B.W. at Figheldean, and Chute by R.T.J., 

while at Fifield and near Salisbury N.H.M. and CM. P. comment 

on decrease. 

Starlingf. Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris. 

Records of enormous flocks come in from a good many observers. 
R.W. mentions a flock of about 1,200 seen at Pitton on October 
24th. T. J. W. saw incredible numbers in early January. C.B.W. 
notes the very big flocks here that have been flying north to west 
now fly south. 

A good many were heard mimicking other birds this year and from 
a list sent in I select the following : — Thrush, Redshank, Willow 
Warbler, Green Woodpecker, Missel Thrush, Chaffinch, Green- 
finch, Swift, Curlew and Little Owl. 

Flocks were seen throughout the summer by R.W. who notes that 
these roost in places remote from the village and nesting birds. 

One seen in Salisbury during the winter with a white tail. 

Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus oriolus. 

One seen near Clarendon Lake on May 31st, R.W. Also seen 
about the same place by J.B. on June 2nd. 

Hawfinch. Coccothraustes coccothraustes coccothraustes. 
Breeds near Chute, R.T.J. 
To be seen in the woods near Grimstead where it possibly 

breeds, R.W. 
V.G.H. saw nine at Longford on August 11th. 
A party of twelve or fourteen seen at Downton during November 

by C.M.P. 
This species annually visits the bird bath during autumn at 

Stourton Rectory, H.St.B.G. 

Greenfinch Chloris chloris chloris. 

Not seen at Chippenham this year, C.R. 

R.T.J, notes not present in such large numbers this year at Chute. 

R.W., however, writes, " In spring and summer extremely abundant, 
apparently increasing." 

One almost an albino seen at Shrewton during the autumn by 
H.W.W. who also sends in details of two other complete albinos 
hatched with two normal examples in a nest near Idmiston. 

Goldfinch. Carduelis carduelis britannica. 

Increase of 1933 maintained. Breeding records from all over the 

Big flocks seen near Chippenham by G.W.C. during December. 

94 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

Siskin. Carduelis spinus. 

Seisn throughout January at East and West Grimstead, Farley and 
Whiteparish by J.B. and CM. P.; also seen during February by 
J.B. who remarks on large numbers noticed especially on 
February 7th. 

Twite. Carduelis flavirostris flavirostris. 

One seen on the Downs near Cranborne Chase during March and 
another on May 6th by P.N. H. 

Lesser Redpole. Carduelis flamea cabaret. 

J.B. who saw 100 — 150 on January 9th comments that they are to 

be seen all through January aud February at Grimstead. 
A nesting record comes from R.W. who reports a nest in Clarendon 

Woods during June. 

[Mealy Redpole. Carduelis linaria cabaret. 

Two seen by J.B. at Grimstead on January 19th and a party of 
about twelve on February 3rd. Identification doubtful.] 

Iiinnet. Carduelis canabina canabina. 

R.W. notes very abundant as a breeding species near Pitton and 

although quite common in late October, there is a decrease 

noticed towards the end of the summer. 
A flock was seen migrating north over the downs on April 

24th, R.W. 
A nest containing seven eggs and another with four pure white 

eggs seen by CM. P. during May. 

Bullfinch. Pyrrhula pyrrhula nesa. 

D.P.H. who reports the breeding of this species in his garden, 
mentions one which flew against his study window during 
October and was killed. 
A definite increase noticed this year, also a great many more nest- 
ing records. 

Crossbill. Loxia curvirostra curvirostra. 

Breeding at Redlynch confirmed by A. E.B. who most unfortunately 
does not give any date. 

CliafElncli. Fringilla coelebs coelebs. 

General reports show not so many in spring and summer but 

increase during the autumn. 
An all buff coloured example was seen by CM. P. at Compton 

Chamberlayne during September. 
A cock was observed sitting on the nest on May 8th, R.W. 

Br ambling". Fringilla montifringilla. 

Although a good many were seen during the early part of the year, 

especially January, very few were seen this winter. 
A large flock seen in Savernake by L.G.P. on January 27th, and 

G.W.C reports a flock of about 25 feeding under the beeches in 

Savernake Forest on April 2nd. 

By C. M. R. Pitman. 95 

The only December record is from P.N.H. who saw five on a birch 
tree at Whiteparish on December 23rd, apparently feeding on 

House Sparrow. Passer domesticus domesticus. 

An albino reported by R.T.J, from Chute where it has been seen 

for two years, and another from Salisbury, which left the nest 

during the beginning of July, CM. P.. 
R.W. sends in details of a pair which nested and raised two broods 

in an old blackbird's nest which was built in an old shed, the 

first brood hatched on June 2nd and the second on July 13th. 
A pair was seen building on December 23rd at Whiteparish, P.N.H. 

Tree Sparrow- Passer montanus montanus. 

Reports this year show this species as generally distributed but 

not common. It undoubtedly breeds near Grimstead, Stratford, 

and Chippenham. 
L.G.P. saw two on February 11th and four on March 19th. 
A flock of 12 were seen by G.W.C. near Chippenham on March 30th 

and four on November 27th. 
R.W. notes about eight or ten seen near Pitton on October 8th ; 

also seen on January 15th. 
Many seen by J.B. near Grimstead during January. 

Corn Bunting*. Emberiza calandra calandra. 

Increase noticed by W.F.T., N.H.M., H.H.W., and C.M.P. 

S.M. notes not so plentiful as a resident but large flocks arrive in 
the Shrewton district during the autumn. 

A white example was seen by H.C.R.G. who could not get close 
enough to it to see if it were a true Albino. 

R.W. comments that they were quite common and seen every day 
until July 12th ; after that they suddenly disappeared. " Although 
I was in every part of their area a good many days looking for 
them I saw not a single bird until October 8th, since then I see 
them occasionally." 

Yellow Bunting. Emberiza citrinella citrinella. 

Large flocks seen near Chippenham by G.W.C. on November 27th, 
probably local movement or migration. 

Cirl Bunting". Emberiza cirlus cirlus. ""' 

Nesting records come from Shrewton and district (S.M.) and 

(H.W.W.), Britford (W.R.A.) and (C.M.P.), Pitton (R.W.), also 

Salisbury district (J.B.) and (C.M.P.) . 
R.G.G. reports one picked up dead under the telegraph wires near 

Potterne and comments that it is quite a new species to the 


Reed Bunting*. Emberiza schoeniclus schoeniclus. 

Commenting that this species is well up to its usual standard C.R. 
notes that they wander from their usual haunts during autumn 

96 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

and winter. CM. P. has also noticed this, having seen more 
than double the number of birds in the winter, when they may 
be observed in the gardens right in the centre of Salisbury. 

Wood Lark. LuUula arborea arborea. 

A family of four seen by D.C.U. on June 11th, between Whiteparish 

and Redlynch. 
Two nesting records on Salisbury Plain, CM. P. R.W. saw three 

near Pitton on October 19th, and one was seen on November 28th 

near Broadchalke by R.J.M. 

Skylark. Alauda arvensis arvensis. 

Noticed flocking on the Wiltshire downs during mid-August and 
quite strong on the wing having got through their summer 
moult unusually quickly. It is suggested that this was the result 
of the drought, since the lack of nesting cover which resulted 
from it caused many casualties to nests, by Rooks and Crows, 
who for the same reason were unusually thirsty. Birds which 
failed to bring up young perhaps moulted instead. 

Large flocks were noticed on migration during the autumn at 
Lydiard Millicent by D.P.H. and Pitton by R.W. 

R.W. writes, " I have seen this species singing when (a), crouched 
on a hedge; (b), running along the ground; (c), soaring; (d), 
flying, not soaring. 

A pure white example was seen by R.W. on September 26th. 

Tree Pipit. Anthus trivialis trivialis. 

Colonies at Old Sarum where they breed and eggs of various types 

were found, CM. P. 
S.M. notes plentiful on autumn migration but not seen during 

spring passage. 
Not seen at Figheldean until June 6th, C.B.W, 

Meadow Pipit. Anthus pratensis. 

A great number of nesting pairs in the vicinity of Stonehenge,H.H.W. 
Very plentiful in the water meadows during the winter, but more 
are found on the higher land during the spring and summer. 

Blue-Headed Wag-tail. Motacilla flava flava. 

One seen near Harnham, Salisbury, during early spring, identifica- 
tion authoritative. 

Yellow Wag-tail. Motacilla flava rayi. 

Breeding records from South Wilts, where CM. P. found a nest 

containing three eggs and one Cuckoo's egg on May 5th. 
G.W.C comments that it is getting much rarer than it used to be 

in the Chippenham district. 
A migration of this species was noticed by R.W. near Salisbury on 

August 11th. 

By C. M. R. Pitman. 97 

Grey Wagftail. Motacilla cinerea cinerea. 

A general increase seems to have been noticed this year. Migration 

was noted near Marlborough by L.G.P. during the autumn, 

October 15th at Britford by J.B., and February 13th at Britford 

by C.M.P. 
R.W. observed migration movements on August 25th, September 

30th, and October 14th. 

Pied Wag-tail. Motacilla alba yarrellii. 

Not seen so commonly this year as a resident but very common on 

passage. R.W. writes, " Passage noticed in January and 

February. Increased in March and April." 
A nest containing four eggs and one Cuckoo's egg seen by C.M.P. 

at Britford on April 21st. 
R.H.W. considers this species very unusual in the Purton district. 

White Wagftail. Motacilla alba alba. 

Seen with migrating flocks of Pied Wagtails on September 30th 

and October 14th. R.W. 
One seen at Salisbury by C.M.P. on March 22nd. 

Tree Creeper. Certhia familiaris britannica. 

Numbers appear to have decreased a little during the last few 
years ; former localities in the meadows are deserted and the 
birds are now found in much more wooded areas so that 
probably a good many are overlooked. 

Nuthatch. Sitta europoea afhnis. 

Many more reports sent in than last year and although not 

generally common it seems evenly distributed. 
R.W. watched a pair collecting lichens for nesting material on 
June 12th whilst another young bird of this species was in close 
attendance ; no doubt the offspring of a first brood. 

Great Tit. Parus major newtoni. 

More in evidence this year ; a pair built a nest and reared a family 
in a Pheasant's sitting box, near Farley, the young and parents 
became extraordinary tame, R.W. 

Blue Tit. Parus caeruleus obscurus. 

D.P.H. notes more than usual, a good year for this species, other 
reports confirm this. 

Coal Tit. Parus ater britannicus. 

Seen feeding on Hemp Agrimony and Willow Herb in the Wylye 
Valley by R.W. who also notes "although not so common as the 
former Tits they are by far the best songsters." 

Marsh Tit. Parus palustris dresseri. 

S.M. notes very seldom seen near Shrew hon, but more observed on 
autumn passage this year. 


;98 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

Willow Tit. Parus atricapillus kleinschmidti. 

Several were seen by J.B. at East Grimstead on February 2nd and 
a few days later one of the birds was brought to me for inspection. 

Iiong-tailed Tit. Aegithalos caudatus roseus. 

Reports received this year show this species to be particularly 
common and apparently increasing its range. A good many 
large parties seen throughout the county during the winter 

Golden Crested Wren. Regulus regulus anglorum. 

More breeding records than usual, one of which was of a nest built 
in a honeysuckle growing on trellis work in a garden near 
Salisbury (C.M.P.). 
Noted singing by R.W. on January 10th, who comments on the 
song being rather ventriloquial. 

[Pire-Crested Wren. Regulus ignicapillus ignicapillus. 

R.W. reports a pair believed to have been this species seen near 
Salisbury on June 12th, a very unusual date.] 

Great Grey Shrike. Lanius excubitor excubitor. 

One seen at East Grimstead by J.B. on February 7th. 

R.T.J, writes : — " Seen twice, August 31st at Limmer Pond and 
November 17th at Nag's Head, also seen near Nag's Head during 
Xmas." Both of these places are near Savernake Forest where 
R.T.J . remarks : — " This is the locality where it has been observed 
for several years past." 

Ked-Backed Shrike. Lanius collurio coUurio. 

Reported very scarce this year and several observers remark on 

the complete absence of this species from their areas. 
Only one nesting record, and that from near Chute by R.T.J., who 
also noticed four other pairs in the district. 
Spotted Flycatcher. Muscicapa striata striata. 

Very common this year with more nesting records than usual. 

Pied Plycatcher. Muscicapa hypoleuca hypoleuca. 

A pair was seen by H.R.W. on May 10th at Purton. These were 
joined by six hen birds about five days later when they all dis- 

Reported by L.G.P. near Marlborough on May 28th, and one, a 
cock, seen by CM. P. near Redlynch where it remained for about 
a fortnight during May. 

Chiffchaff. Phylloscapus collybita collybita. 

One seen on March 16th at Potterne by R.G.G. This is a very 
early date and in contrast with D.P.H. who notes later in arriving 
than usual. 
S.M. remarks common on migration in spring and autumn but few 
remain at Shrewton to breed. 

By C. M. R. Pitman. 99 

Willow Warbler. Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus. 

Reported by S.M. as a much commoner nesting species near 
Shrewton than the Chiffchaff. 
Wood Warbler. Phylloscopus sibilatrix sibilatrix. 

E.A.A. notes much more in evidence this year at West Wellow, also 

noticed as commoner than usual by several other contributors. 
J.B. saw several at Laverstock on October 23rd which is quite a 
late date for this species. 
Grasshopper Warbler. Locustella naevia naevia. 

A very late nest and young seen on Salisbury Race Course on 

September 19th, CM. P. 
A.D.P. remarks : — Again in my orchard at Wanborough but did 
not stay so long as usual." 
Reed Warbler. Acrocephalus scirpaceus scirpaceus. 

The colony at Stratford was stronger than usual this year although 
at Britford they were fewer and in a good many places absent 
Marsh Warbler. Acrocephalus palustris. 

Seen on the Avon below Alderbury by J.B. on May 11th who 
believed it to be nesting there. 

Sed*e Warbler. Acrocephalus schoenoboenus schoenoboenus. 

Heard at Pitton by R.W. quite 2| miles from any pond or river, 
and CM. P. found a nest containing two eggs on May 28th built 
in brambles growing on a down near Salisbury quite three miles 
from any water. 
Oarden Warbler. Sylvia borin. 

N.H.M. reports great decrease at Fifield Bavant, while L.G.P. 
comments " very common near Marlborough." 
Blackcap. Sylvia atricapilla atricapilla. 

General reports show a decrease in the numbers observed last year. 
Whitethroat. Sylvia communis communis. 

Captain Read, of Salisbury, found a nest and four eggs of this 
species on September 23rd near Wilton. 
liesser Whitethroat. Sylvia curruca curruca. 

Noticed as being scarce this year, and N.H.M. comments on the 
complete absence of this species from his area although very 
numerous last year. 

J)artford Warbler. Sylvia undulata dartfordiensis. 

The mild winters of late coupled with favourable summers have 
helped to establish this delightful little species in its favoured 
localities, and although occurring in greater numbers this year 
they do not seem to have spread outside their old area. 

First nest seen with four eggs on May 13th ; another on May 17th ; 
three nests with young on May 19th ; more young and another 
with four eggs on May 23rd. Young seen on the wing on June 

H 2 

lOO Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

rieldfare. Tardus pilaris. 

Large numbers seen in the south of the county but fewer in the 
north, particularly large flocks seen during March and April near 
Savernake Forest, Salisbury, Laverstock, Calne, and Chippenham. 

R.G.G. and H.H.W. note absent this year owing to drought. 

Missel Thrush. Turdus viscivorus viscivorus. 

Seems to be increasing on the Salisbury Plain area and C.B.W. 

mentions four pairs which bred within 100 yards of his house, he 

also remarks that flocks may be seen on the downs during 

Migration noticed by R.W. at Pitton during September. 
G.W.C. heard this species in full song on November 27th near 


Song- Thrush. Turdus philomelus clarke. 

E.H.G. sends in an interesting account of four eggs of this species 
laid on the bare earth at the foot of a wall at Biddestone, there 
was no sign of a nest or a " scrape " and the eggs were left 
exposed on the ground. This was probably the result of the 
destruction of the nest of this bird when she was due to lay. 

An example with a white ring round its neck was seen throughout 
the spring at Pitton by R.W. 

Kiedwing-. Turdus musicus musicus. 

General reports show a great decrease and most observers attribute 

this to the drought. 
G.M.G., however, notes small flocks near Calne in March, and 

probable increase, while D.P.H. comments numerous but not 

until November. 

Ring" Ouzel. Turdus torquatus torquatus. 

One seen near Warminster by A. W. Mundy on April 13th, 
undoubtedly on migration. 

Blackbird. Turdus merula merula. 

Two white examples were in the garden of D.C.U. at Whiteparish 
during May and another almost white on the lawn of C. H. 
Woodward at Devizes during the spring. Pied specimens were 
seen at Alderbury, Britford, Tisbury, Pitton, Chippenham, 
Salisbury and Calne. 
From several unusual nesting sites, I select the following which 
was built in a well 68 feet deep at Old Sarum. The nest was rest- 
ing precariously on a ledge about 15 feet from the top on which 
some ferns were growing, the young were hatched successfully 
but as soon as they were fledged they fell to the bottom, which 
fortunately was dry. There they were for two or three days and 
the parents still fed them. When they were rescued and brought 
to the light a.nd put down on the green turf, they were 
completely lost and ran around helplessly, only being able to 

By C. M. R. Pitman. 101 

remain on their legs by sticking their bills into the ground and 
resting thus, and although still looked after by the parent birds 
the young died within two days of their rescue. 
White's Thrush. Turdus aureus. 

I feel obliged to include this species after the strong evidence I 
received from the Rev. F. G. Walker, supported by others, who 
writes : — " There can be no possible doubtof this being a White's 
Thrush ; the golden buff spots on its back, the crescent-shaped 
black spots on its neck and breast and the patch of white across 
the base of the wings stood out quite clearly." The bird was 
handled and well examined by F. G. Walker in his garden at 
Upton Lovell, near W^arminster, during July, when it was 
found caught in the nets protecting the fruit. 
Wheatear. (Enanthe oenanthe oenanthe. 

Although generally a common and early summer visitor very few 
were seen this year and there were hardly any breeding records. 
R.W. notes usual nesting sites deserted, and only one seen on 
migration in the spring. 

Not seen by J.B. at Whaddon, a favourite locality for this species, 
until May 8th. 

An albino was reported from Amesbury by R.S.N. 
Greenland Wheatear. Oinanthe oenanthe leucorrhoa. 

Occasionally seen on autumn passage near Shrewton. A hen was 
brought to me during September which had hit the telegraph 
wires and the bird was easily identified, being much stockier 
than the common Wheatear, brighter in colour with a reddish- 
buff breast, S.M. 
Whinchat. Saxicola rubetra rubetra. 

Several nesting pairs noticed by H.H.W. near Shrewton, also by 
W.R.A. near Bulford. 

Three seen near Biddestone during August migration by C.R., and 
noted on passage by R.W. at Pitton from August 26th to 
September 14th. 

R.T.J, saw several near Chute during the year. 
Stonechat. Saxicola torquata hibernans. 

Not up to the standard attained last year. 

Bred on the downs near Salisbury where R.W\ noticed them; they 
were partially migratory. 
Redstart. Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus. 

Odd birds seen occasionally by C.R. in the Chippenham district. 
Although seen on spring and autumn migrations there is no 
evidence of breeding in his area. 

CM. P. has a definite nesting record from near Downton where a 
pair successfully reared a brood. 

A pair seen during the second week of September near Shrewton 
by H.H.W. Also seen in Savernake by L.G.P. and at Bulford on 
April 23rd by C.B.W. 

102 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

Black Redstart. Phoenicurus ochrus gibraltarensis. 

Two seen by CM. P. at Ford, near Salisbury, during the end of 
February and beginning of March. 
Nightingale. Luscinia megarhyncha megarhyncha. 

Reports show this species as well above the average this year, and 
an increase in its breeding range. 

R.T.J, comments on it as present in the usual numbers, but not in its 
usual haunts. Nests were in small pits overgrown with brambles 
in the middle of cornfields. This was probably due to the 
depredation of vermin in the woods which, owing to the drought, 
plundered more nests than usual, and the birds resorted to more 
isolated places for nesting. 
Robin. Erithacus rubecula melophilus. 

R.C.C. reports a pair which built a nest on top of a cistern in an 
old pump house. It forsook when the nest had been touched. 
Subsequently another pair built on top of the old nest and eggs 
and hatched out. The second nest was much smaller than the 
first into which it was built. 
Hedge Sparrow. Prunella modularis occidental is. 

Noticed flocking on a small scale during end of September and 
beginning of October. R.W. suggests possibly a migration, but 
more likely a local movement. 

A cinnamon coloured example was seen by R.W. near Clarendon. 
Wren. Troglodytes troglodytes troglodytes. 

A nest made of dead nettle leaves, and moss, which was built on 
a post in a hawthorn hedge, was found containing one egg and a 
Cuckoo's egg at Redlynch, the nest was forsaken, per R.W. 
Dipper. Cinclus cinclus gularis. 

There was an increase in the number of birds seen and in the 
number of nests found. This species has definitely become well 
established as a Wiltshire resident, and appears to be extending 
its range each year. 
Swallow. Hirundo rustica rustica. 

A.D.P. notes earlier than usual this year, and they arrived in two 
" waves," not so many in the first lot, but numbers were made 
up by a second later " wave " on June 2nd. 

At Shrewton S.M. comments local and becoming scarcer each year. 

A very late nest was seen by R.T.J, at Chute which had young 
birds in it on September 14th. 
Martin. Delichon urbica urbica. 

T.H.T. reports that this species has completely deserted their old 
nesting quarters at Nursteed, while CM. P. notes that they 
have returned to the former nesting sites near Salisbury, after an 
absence of three or four years. About fifty seen running about 
on a thatched cottage near Potterne and catching flies on 
September 25th (R.G.G.). These were probably congregating in 
readiness for migration. 

By C. M. R. Pitman. 103 

Sand Martin. Riparia riparia riparia. 

While examining nests near Salisbury it was noticed that a good 
many of them contained eggs from at least two hens, for example, 
several clutches consisted of seven, eight, and even nine, while 
the usual number is from four to six. 

Swift. Apus apus apus. 

An increase is noticed by S.M., D.C.U., J.B., and C.M.P. At 
Chute ; however, R.T.J, reports a slight decrease, and W.S. has 
never known so few in the neighbourhood of Crudwell. 

Nig-htjar. Caprimulgus europseus europaeus. 

More than usual this year. L.G.P. reports although a rare bird at 

Marlborough two nests were found this year. 
R.T.J, reports that it has reappeared at Chute after a complete 

absence for two or three years and mentions hearing four at 

one time. 
First seen by R.W. on April 28th. He writes — " I watched the 

Nightjars sitting on the eggs, during the day and came to the 

conclusion that they went to sleep." Last seen on September 


King-fisher. Alcedo at this ispida. 

The increase of 1933 was maintained. Seen by E.H.G. at Clyffe 

Pypard who notes that it is a rare bird here. 
At Britford a melanic example was seen by E.W.C. 
Many more nesting records than usual from the south of the 


Green Woodpecker. Picus viridis virescens. 
Evenly distributed throughout the county. 

A nest and eggs found at Britford by C.M.P. two feet from the 
ground in a trunk of an old tree used as a hedge post. 

Great Spotted Woodpecker. Dryobates major anglicus. 

Nesting records from Shrewton (S.M.), Britford (W.P.H.H.), Chute 

(R.T.J.), Fonthill (R.W.), Redlynch, Alderbury, Grovely Wood, 

and Whiteparish (C.M.P.). 
G.W.C. reports it is always present in a limited area near 

Chippenham, where it may be seen at any time of the year. 
E.H.G. sends in an interesting account of one which for some time 

frequented the garden of Capt. B. H. Cunnington, of Devizes, 

and drummed regularly on a wooden weather cock and always 

on the same spot, the tail of the weather cock made of thin 

plywood, ? because it made more noise. 

Lesser Spotted Woodpecker. Dryobates minor comminutus. 

Several new occurrences reported near Chippenham by C.R. who 

mentions one which visited his garden during August. 
Seen for several days high up in the elms and drumming daily at 
Nursteed during April, T.H.T. 

104 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

D.P.H. notes it was very much in evidence this year at Lydiard 
Milhcent, although absent for a number of years previously. 

Other reports from Salisbury (T.J.W.) and (CM. P.), Chute (R.T.J.) 
Bulford (C.B.W.), Pitton (R.W.), and Whiteparish (J.B.). 

W.S. comments on a nest near Crudwell with young not more than 
seven feet from the ground in an old decayed plum tree. 

Wryneck. Yunx torquilla torquilla. 

Several heard in the elms near Salisbury by T.J.W. 
W.S. notes very few now. 

Cuckoo. Cuculus canorus cahorus. 

Among fosters for this species in the county this year may be 
mentioned Pied Wagtail at Britford on April 21st, an early date ; 
Hedge Sparrow at Pitton on May 3rd ; Yellow Wagtail at 
Stratford during May ; and at Redlynch a Wren's nest was found 
deserted with a Cuckoo's egg in it, a very rare occurrence. 

Appears to have arrived a little earlier this year, D.P.H. 

Little Owl. Athene noctua vidatii. 

A definite increase is reported throughout the county. 
R.T.J, writes : — " It is rapidly becoming a serious factor in the 
lives of the small bird population of the district. One was 
watched killing the entire brood of a Chaffinch, five in number. 
The young were just out of the nest, and were perched in small 
bushes. It was then noticed that a Little Owl was beating the 
bushes determined to scare the young birds out. It was driven 
away three times but returned within five minutes and eventually 
secured the whole family." 

Long-eared Owl. Asio otus otus. 

W.R.A. reports several nesting near Bulford, and two nests and 

eggs seen at Pitton. 
Breeding records also from Redlynch, Whiteparish, and near 

Short-eared Owl. Asio flammeus flammeus. 

Seen by R.W. migrating south of Pitton on September 14th. 
On Salisbury Plain during January and December, C.B.W. 
Two seen on Clearbury Down December 14th by V.G.H. ; also at 
Tilshead during February by W.R.A. 

Tawny Owl. Strix aluco sylvatica. 

Very common near Fonthill, breeding in open nests such as old 

Crows' and Pigeons' ; one with young in a Magpie's nest. 
Other reports compare favourably with* 1933, with the exception 

of H.H.W. who notes not up to the standard of other years. 

White-breasted Barn Owl. Tyto alba alba. 

A general increase with perhaps the exception of Marlborough 
where L.G.P. reports this species seems scarcer. 

By C. M. R. Pitman. 105 

Nesting records from Pitton (R.W.) who gives three pairs ; Britford 
two pairs (W.P.H.H.) and (E.W.C.) ; Fifield Bavant (N.H.M.) ; 
Shrewton district (S.M.) and (H.H.W.) ; Tidworth (W.R.A.). 

A specimen was found drowned in a water butt near Donhead 
(per R.W.). 

Peregfrine 'Palcon ' Falco pere^rinus peregrirras. 

Still to be seen around the spire of Salisbury Cathedral where 

T.J.W. has observed them often, occasionally four at a time. 
J.B. reports two over the downs near Whiteparish on January 19th 

and another on February 6th, and again on March 11th when 

one was seen to stoop at a Lapwing. 
Seen near Fonthill in early September and Pitton on October 6th, 

(R.W.) ; also at Bulford during the winter, C.B.W. 
At Chute R.T.J, mentions several seen during the summer. 

Hobby. Falco subbuteo subbuteo. 

Not in evidence so much as during the last two years. 
R.W. reports several nests on Salisbury Plain while C.B.W. com- 
ments not so many as usual on the Plain. 
Other nesting records from Whiteparish (CM. P.) and Pitton (R.W.). 
First seen by W.R.A. on May 5th near Bulford. 

Merlin. Falco columbarius aesalon. 

Two seen at Britford on March 7th, CM. P. ; and another near 

Britford by T.J.W. on December 22nd. 
One near Steeple Langford seieh'by R.J.M. on January 18th. 
R.T.J, reports one near Chute on December 13th, also seen during 
the winter on Salisbury Plain by C.B.W. 

Kestrel. Falco tinnunculus tinnunculus. 

Appears to be scarcer in North Wilts where A.D.P. remarks rare ; 

general reports seem to confirm this and it is interesting to note 

that this species is seen more as one gets further south in the 

county, where it is very common. 
At Britford CM. P. found three eggs laid on the ground at the foot 

of a tree and the bird sitting, on April 28th. 
R.W. mentions one at Pitton which was seen to stoop at a Green 

Woodpecker on October 4th. 
W.S. notes that they are seen near Crudwell on spring and autumn 

passage, but do not often breed in the neighbourhood. 

Red-footed Falcon. Falco vespertinus vespertinus. 

One seen on April 8th near Coombe by Capt. Read, who was certain 
of identification. 

Common Buzzard. Buteo buteo buteo. 

As it was anticipated in the last two or three reports this species 
has now become a definite breeder in Wiltshire, and CM. P. who 
has spent a good deal of time locating pairs in the county dis- 
covered five nests during April and May. One of these contained 

106 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

four eggs, an extreme clutch, others had three and two. Three 
of the nests were near Fonthill and Hindon, one near Redlynch, 
and another near Clarendon. 

R.W. reports the bird as seen near Farley during January, February, 
and again later, and has good reasons for believing it to have 
bred near there. Seen also in the breeding season near Fifield 
Bavant where N.H.M. thinks it is quite likely to have bred. 

T.H.T. saw two at Nursteed on April 30th. Five seen at Groveley 
on October 24th (CM. P.) ; also seen at Shrewton (H.H.W.) and 
Odstock during October by V.G.H. 
Montagfue's Harrier. Circus pygargus. 

Seen on several occasions during the spring by A.E.B. near 
Hen Harrier. Circus cyaneus cyaneus. 

A male seen at Imber by W.P.H.H. on September 20th. 

Seen on Clearbury Down by V.G.H. December 8th, and two 
observed at Dogdean by J.S. during early April, 

H.C.R.G. reports having seen a male on December 5th, and since 
then a pair has been seen regularly between Robin Hood's Ball 
and Shrewton, and adds he has had a good view of both birds. 
Also seen hawking over the Plain during November by C.B.W. 

Reported by R.W. to be causing havoc among the Pigeons in the 
woods near Grimstead. 
Sparrow Hawk Accipiter nisus nisus. 

Very few reports of this species during the year. 

S.M. notes not a common bird here at Shrewton now but a few are 
seen during Autumn and Winter. Other reports seem to be 
about the same with the exception of W.S. who comments that 
it is the commonest Hawk in the neighbourhood. 
Heron. Ardea cinerea cinerea. 

Noticed in plenty this year, no doubt shallow water afforded 
excellent opportunities for fishing. 

R.J.M. notes Heronry very strong at Compton Chamberlayne. 

G.W^C. reports seven nests occupied at Bowood Park on March 
31st, and eight nests occupied in Savernake Forest April 2nd. 
Bittern. Botaurus stellaris stellaris. 

Still seen and heard on the Avon near Downton but no definite 
proof of nesting. However, birds were seen there most of 
the year, particularly during February and March. 
Mute Swan. Cygnus olor. 

T. J.W. comments on larger numbers seen than usual, and mentions 
22 seen flying in a pack over Salisbury on December 3rd. This 
increase is confirmed by E.W.C. and CM. P. who also reports 
many more breeding in the vicinity of Britford. 
Wild Geese. 

F.L.B. reports about 30 which flew over Chippenham on December 
8th flying west and coming from the east. 

By C. M. R. Pitman. 107 

Sheld Duck. Tadorna tadorna. 

One seen with Mallard and Teal on the Avon at Britford during 
January (CM. P.), and W.S. saw one on January 29th standing 
on the ice by a trickle of open water on Bray don Pond. 
Mallard Anas platyrhyncha platyrhyncha. 

One almost an albino seen on Coate water by S.J.S. during the 
winter, all white with the exception of a light patch of brown. 

One found sitting on nest and 11 eggs in a hole in an elm tree 
approximately thirty feet from the ground, CM. P., and another 
sitting on a full clutch of eggs on February 8th at Britford. 
Teal. Anas crecca crecca. 

Many more than usual this year, and suggestions of breeding comes 
from Braydon Pond by W.S., and from Britford where CM. P. 
saw a pair throughout the year. It is quite likely we shall be 
able to add this species as a breeding bird in the county within 
the next few years. 

Wig-eon. Anas penelope. 

Two seen by E.W.C near Odstock on November 27th, one of 
which was shot and identified. 

Shoveler. Spatula clypeata. 

Again seen on the Avon below Britford by V.G.H. and E.W.C 
Observed throughout the greater part of the year. 

Pochard. Nyroca ferina ferina. 

S.J.S. reports a few on Coate water ; also seen by L.G.P. on March 
17th and October 27th. 

Seen on the Salisbury Avon by J.B. and CM. P. during January 
and February. 

R.W. reports this species on Clarendon Lake during the spring and 
saw one on May 3rd and again on the 1 1th. This is a very 
unusual date and he thinks it may possibly have nested there, 
but it is more likely to have been a " pricked " bird left behind. 

Tufted Duck. Nyroca fuligula. 

Large numbers of 50, 60, or 100, were seen on Braydon Pond nearly 
all the winter by W.S. who reports no evidence, of breeding but 
hopes to be able to report a nest in the near future. 

L.G.P. notes it as still spreading and breeding. 

Not so many at Clarendon (CM. P.), or Coate Water where S.J.S. 
notes fewer than last year. 

Seen on the Avon at Britford during April, CM. P. 

Cormorant. Phalacrocorax carbo carbo. 

One was seen on several occasions on the Avon near Longford by 
V.G.H. during end of August. 

Manx Shearwater. Pufhnus puffinus pufhnus. 

F.L.B. reports one which flew over Wilts territory on November 
15th flying from north-east. The characteristic call " Kitty 
Nock " " Kitty Nock " made when the bird was flying over, 

108 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

disturbed the dogs in the neighbourhood. Although this is the 
only report of this species for a number of years it is quite likely 
that they pass over the county regularly but are unobserved 
because of their nocturnal habit. 

Great Crested Grebe. Podiceps cristatus cristatus. 

It is most encouraging to rrote that in spite of the drought this 
species is still going strong in the county and extending its 
ranges. New breeding localities come in from Tockenham Manor 
Pond (E.H.G.), near West Wellow ( J.B. and C.M.P.) two pairs. 
Durnford (C.M.P.), and also at Clarendon (R.W.). 

Still to be seen in its former localities at Stourton, Hurdcott 
House, Shearwater, Coate Water, and Compton Chamberlayne. 

W.S. mentions three pairs on Braydon Pond during the spring ; 
only one pair remained to breed and these successfully reared a 
brood. On this water the birds usually remain until the end of 
November and return again in February, W.S. 

Red-Necked Grebe. Podiceps griseigena griseigena. 

Three seen on the Avon between Britford and Harnham by T.J. W. 
during the end of January. This is confirmed by C.M.P. who 
also saw them on February 1st. 

Iiittle Grebe. Podiceps ruficollis ruficollis. 

Commoner throughout the county, more than usual on Braydon 
Pond, where W.S. suggests the drying up of smaller ponds and 
streams as likely to be the cause of their presence here. 

Red-Throated Diver. Colymbus stellatus. 

E.W.C. reports one shot at Britford on January 15th. The bird 
which was immature was given to me and upon dissection was 
found to contain a trout about eight inches long which it had 
just swallowed. The skin now in my possession was identified 
at the British Museum (Natural History), E.W.C. who watched 
the bird for a considerable time, observing its diving powers, 
commented that it came in with the hard winds prevalent at 
that time and that the bird was handicapped owing to being 
covered on the underparts with oil pollution. 

Wood Pig-eon. Columba palumbus palumbus. 

In the Salisbury district T.J.W. and R.J.M. comment on the 

shortage and almost absence of autumn visitors. 
At Lydiard Millicent, however, D.P.H. notes large flights seen on 

migration during November. Local passage noted in January 

by R.W. at Pitton. 

Stock Dove. Columba oenas. 

Very common and resident throughout the county but reported as 

decreasing at Britford (E.W.C.) and Pitton (R.W.). 
At Shrewton S.M. notes common but considerably augumented by 
autumn migrants. 

By C. M. R. Pitman. 10» 

[Rock Dove- Columba livia livia. 

Although reported from time to time from Salisbury Cathedral it 

is rather difficult to be certain as there are so many domestic 

breeds of Pigeon already there and interbreeding with the Stock 

Doves, the result being birds of all characteristics.] 
Turtle Dove. Streptopelia turtur turtur. 

General reports show this species to have arrived early and in 

greater numbers this year. R.T.J, notes increase after becoming 

scarce during the last two years at Chute. 
R.W. comments common, often noticed to travel long distances 

for food and water. 
Stone Curlew Burhinus oedicnemus oedicnemus. 

Well up to the standard and breeding freely throughout the county, 

particularly on Salisbury Plain and the barren downs near 

First seen on March 25th at Stratford (CM. P.), last seen October 

25th at Stratford by J.S. 
Ringed Plover. Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula. 

One seen at Ford, near Salisbury, by Mr. G. Hunt during December. 
Golden Plover. Charadrius apricarius apricarius. 

Among early flocks observed may be mentioned a large flock at 

Britford October 11th (E.W.C.), a flock at Stourton October 14th 

(H.St.B.G.), and a late departure comes from W.R.A. who reports 

a flock seen on April 9th, one individual, of which was a male, 

in full breeding plumage. 
Also reported from Charlton-All-Saints during January (V.G.H.), 

Pitton November 15th (R.W.), and enormous flocks noted by 

R. J. M. near Berwick St. Jameson January 19th. S.M. comments 

only seen at Orcheston on autumn passage. 

I Grey Plover. Squatarola squatarola squatarola. 

L.G.P. reports two seen feeding on the mud at Coate Water on 
November 4th. Identifications authoritative. This is also 
reported in British Birds, vol. xxviii, pp. 281. 

Iiapwing". Vanellus vanellus. 

A great deal of movement has been noticed in this species during 
the year, most particularly the autumn passage and the absence 
of this species from their regular breeding haunts. A great 
many contradictory reports have come to hand but this is chiefly 
due to the observations being made at different times of the 
Dunlin. Calidris alpina. 

W.F.T. reports quite a number seen on the downs near Devizes 
during migration. 

Common Sandpiper . Tringa hypoleucos. 

I W.R.A. notes two pairs which he believed nested on the Avon 

110 Report on the Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

eventually further up the river, a pair near Milston, and the 
other pair near Netheravon. 

C.B.W. also comments "seen on the Avon at Bulford during the 
summer where they presumably breed." 

E.W.C. reports often seen at Britford, and CM. P. notes they are 
seen there from January to the end of May. 
Green Sandpiper. Tringa ochropus. 

Seen throughout the year at Britford (CM. P.) ; this is confirmed 
by E.W.C 

Several seen near Salisbury on April 9th (W.R.A.). 

A solitary bird seen near Ford by CR. on April 29th. 

Reported from Netherhampton during February (R.J.M.), also at 
Bathampton on January 20th (R.S.N.) . 
Common Redshank. Tringa totanus totanus. 

Breeding near Bowerchalke for the first time, near the only water 
in the district (N.H.M.). 

L.G.P. remarks that they breed in all the water meadows near 
Marlborough. Other breeding records as last year, with the 
exception of Bulford where they left owing to the drought. 

An example nearly all white seen at Britford (E.W.C). 

There is a good deal yet to be observed as to this species, partic- 
ularly the departure and return of the birds to their breeding 
Ear-Tailed Godwit. Limosa lapponica lapponica. 

H.C.R.G. writes " On September 12th near Chippenham I saw two 
flocks of ' waders ' fairly high and flying west. From their call 
and flight I am certain they were Godwits. They were too big 
for Redshanks and smaller than Curlew." H.C.R.G. has had 
opportunities of observing Godwits before, and I do not think 
he is mistaken in reporting these birds as Godwits. 
Common Curlew. Numenius arquata arquata. 

Several pairs still nest in their usual haunt near Redlynch (CM. P.). 

Reported by L.G.P. from Marlborough district on May 3rd and 
May 7th. 

One reported from near Nursteed by T.H.T. on August 12th, also 
reported from Monkton Farleigh where Sir Charles Hobhouse 
mentions that his keeper often sees this species. 
Whimbrel. Numenius phaeopus phaeopus. 

Three were seen on Boscombe Down during the end of September 
(CM. P.), the birds were easily and readily identified. 
Common Snipe. Capella gallinago gallinago. 

The increase of 1933 was maintained, especially in the breeding 

First heard " drumming " on March 14th at Laverstock (CM. P.). 
R.W. notes that when " drumming " they always dive with their 
bodies and wings slanting to the left never to the right. The 
direction of the wind makes no difference. 

By C. M. R. Pitman. Ill 

Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus. 

Common in the water meadows near Salisbury during January but 
soon disappeared. Not so many reported as in 1933. Probably 
the weather was not hard enough to drive this species inland to 
the running water in the meadows. 

Woodcock. Scolopax rusticola rusticola. 

Nesting records from West Wellow (E.A.A.), Compton Bassett 
(some years ago) (E.H.G.), Clarendon, Whiteparish, and Redlynch 
(CM. P.) ; and near Farley (R.W.), who comments that the 
drought dried up the ditches and streams in this district and 
subsequently the Woodcock left leaving their young to die. 
More than a dozen dead young were found in this area. 

Also reported from Britford (E.W.C.), near Fifield Bavant (N.H.M.), 
and C.B.W. mentions some inthe young coverts on the downs 
near Figheldean during December, which is unusual. 

S.J.S. reports Woodcock in Burderop Wood and mentions a white 
example which was shot there a few years ago. 

Little Tern. Sterna albifrons albifrons. 

Major M. Rawlence reports seeing this species twice on April 
16th whilst fishing on the Avon below Stratford. He spent a 
good deal of time watching the bird which passed within twenty 
feet of him and twice did he see it dive into the water for a fish. 

Black-Headed Gull. Larus ridibundus ridibundus, 

A large flo^k was seen near Chippenham by C.R. on March 18th, 

and F.L.B. notes seen here all the year except in the nesting 

L.G.P. mentions one seen on July 9th near Marlborough. 
Other reports compare favourably with 1933. 
R.W. comments that one was seen every day during the winter, 

often in the early morning and late at night, and he is doubtful 

as to whether this bird went back to the sea at night. 

Common Gull. Larus canus canus. 

Seen by L.G.P. on May 12th and by E.W.C. at Britford during the 

F.L.B. notes it as seen throughout the year except in the nesting 

season ; and C.B.W. reports it on the Plain during winter. 

Herring- Gull. Larus argentatus argentatus. 

S.M. notes that the birds which visit the Shrewton area during the 

summer are the young birds of the previous season, and adds 

there are always a lot about summer and winter, but more in 

autumn and winter. 
General reports show this species very common during the winter. 
R.W. comlfneftts on a flock of this species which found their way to 

their usual destination on February 17th, despite a thick fog. 

112 ^^Pjfi ?^ ^^^ Birds of Wiltshire for 1934. 

Great Black-Backed Gull . Larus maximus. 

R.T.J, reports eight passed over Chute on September 30th flying 

from north to south. 
V.G.H. reports one shot at Longford on May 25th. 
Kittiwake Gull. Rissa trydactyla trydactyla. 

S.M. writes " Kittiwakes pass here usually in late autumn on 
southward movement. Some years they are considerably more 
in evidence than in others, when the Channel is rough they may 
be seen in hundreds." 
Land Rail. Crex crex. 

A suggestion of breeding comes from L.G.P. who reports a young 
bird kiUed by the telegraph wires near Marlborough on August 
S.M. remarks not seen in such numbers at Orcheston either in 

spring or autumn as in former years. 
At Chute R.T.J, notes no nest found but birds present in fair 

Heard on May 7th at Bishopstone by R.J.M., and on May 27th at 

Lydiard Millicent by D.P.H. 
Seen at Stratford by J.S. on September 9th, also by E.W.C. at 
Britford during September. 
Water Rail. Rallus aquaticus aquaticus, 

S.M. notes that it is not frequently seen at Orcheston but a pair 

nested there when the meadows were in flood. 
Several seen at Stratford by J.S. who remarks they are seen quite 

easily during the winter. 
Breeding records at Britford come in from E.W.C, J.B., and 

CM. P. 
Seen at Bemerton quite often, R.J.M. ; and C.B.W. notes always 
in the water meadows near Figheldean. 
Moorhen. Gallinula chloropus chloropus. 

R.T.J, sends in an interesting account of a pair which built a nest 
and the bird was found sitting between the rafters on the roof of 
a barn. The bird gained its entrance by a hole in the thatch. 
Another interesting item comes from R.W. at Pitton who reports 
a pair which built a nest 12 feet high in a hawthorn hedge, quite 
two and a half miles from any river or pond. The birds were 
seen daily in the farmyard feeding and drinking with the chickens. 
Coot. Fulica atra atra. 

Common on Fonthill Lake where R.W. notes they are moderate 

divers, 15 seconds being good time. 
Reports show a general increase. 
Pheasant. Phasianus colchicus. 

E.W.C. comments Ring Neck, Black Neck, Melanistic and Cross all 
to be seen at Britford. Melanistic forms have certainly increased 
in the last two years. Two coloured examples were shot at 
Coombe, one a chocolate specimen and the other a white one. 

By C. M. R. Pitman. 113 

A very striking example of Gynandromorphism was brought to me 
by Col. Perkins ; the bird had the characteristics of both sexes, 
the plumage was neither cock nor hen, and whilst it certainly 
had the long tail of the male, the head was definitely that of a 
hen. The bird was a young one in its second year. 

Common Partridgfe. Perdix perdix perdix 

A very good year experienced by this species. 
R.J.M. remarks that lack of insect food produced small eggs. 
An albino was seen at Britford by CM. P. on November 16th. 
R.W. comments this is a very tidy bird, and remarks on the way 

it packs together the discarded eggshells after hatching. 
Quail. Coturnix coturnix coturnix. 

R.T.J, reports several seen during the year. First seen on May 

16th, two more later, and occasionally throughout the summer. 
Four seen on migration over Laverstock Down on April 14th 

S.M. notes often seen at Orcheston during autumn migrations. 
One seen near Pitton by R.W. on September 10th. This bird was 

very tame, and probably exhausted after a long flight. 

Red-Leg-g-ed Partridgfe. Alectoris rufa rufa. 

Nesting records from Pitton (R.W.), Fifield Bavant (N.H.M.), 
Salisbury (C.M.P.), Orcheston (S.M.), also from Pewsey, Farley 
and Britford. 

More than usual noticed at Figheldean by C.B.W. and Pitton 

At Fifield Bavant, N.H.M. reports a decrease. 



By Major G. W. G. Allen and A. D. Passmore. 

Ancient circular earthworks may be divided into two classes, those 
with the ditch outside the bank which are nearly always defensive 
either against man or beast, and those with the ditch inside the bank 
which are usually ceremonial or sepulchral. 

In the latter class are all the disc barrows and some of the earthen 
circles containing stones like Avebury. Also in the latter class are 
some curious examples of which no explanation has been put forward, 
they are just plain earthen rings and are very uncommon, occurring 
in two groups at Hutton Moor and Thornborough Moor in Yorkshire. 
There are also somewhat similar examples at Knowlton, in Dorset. 
Besides these, ring earthworks with the ditch inside the bank are almost 
unknown. Some newly-discovered works of this type are discussed 

To the observation of Mr. T. N. Arkell, of Highworth, we owe the 
discovery of a curious group of four earthen circles joined in a quatrefoil. 
Nos. 21 TO 24. Plate IV. 

Each has a distinct bank with ditch inside. They are situated in a 
large grass field between the Highworth — Swindon Road and the village 
of Sevenhampton and are one mile and three hundred yards due S. of 
Highworth Church. Mr. Ellwell, of Highworth, remembered other 
circles as existing at Common Farm to the N.E. of that town ; these 
were rediscovered from the air, and since that the number discovered by 
this means has risen to forty, all in a small area of N. Wilts between 
the Thames, the river Cole and the Roman Road from Stratton to 
Cricklade, with the exception of one just outside this area at Dudgrove 
Farm, N. of the Thames and two miles S.W. of Lechlade. 

A typical example is a perfect circle about 100 yards in diameter 
confined by a low bank never more than a yard high. 

Inside this is a wide and shallow ditch from ten to thirty-five feet wide, 
sometimes divided into two parts by a ridge in the middle. The ditch 
encloses the central area which is usually quite flat and presents no 
appearance of banks or other irregularities. There are no entrances of 
any kind but in two cases there are several small cuts in the banks 
which in one case radiate from the centre, and are therefore not field 
drainage trenches which at first sight they resemble. With but two 
exceptions these circles are all on heavy clay land, which in early times 
must have been covered by inpenetrable woods and swamps, isolated 
from any known lines of ancient communication. One is bound to 
assume that at some time in our history either an invasion or other 
trouble drove a tribe to this inhospitable area to hide with its cattle till 
better times. The absence of an entrance to any of the circles seems 
also to point to water as an enemy to be guarded against. In this 
water-logged country of wet clay a rainy season would make an entrance, 
worn down by the feet of cattle and men, a perfect channel for water 




*^^ P^"shes of Latton, Blunsdon, Highworth. Inglesham and Lechlade. The circles are shown double 
n^pd on the Ordnance Survey Map with the sanction of the Controller of H.M. Stationary office. Printed bv C. H Wnndward. Devizes. 


Earthen Circles near Highworth. 115 

to pour into the central area. A large continuous bank of clay would 
effectually prevent this, while entrance could be obtained by an easily 
constructed bridge of wood. The exceptions to this are the circle at 
Dudgrove No. 40, which has a double ditch now much mutilated by 
two ponds and is on gravel while the circles of the Sevenhampton Group 
are on sand. 

All the groups of circles described below are within a short distance 
of a spring. They seem to have been almost totally lost from human 
knowledge, till lately discovered from the air, with the exception of the 
Common Farm group of which an old man remembers hearing seventy 
years ago that Cromwell and his army used one to camp in when 
attacking Highworth. Cromwell is locally credited with firing at 
Highworth Church from Castle Hill, Blunsdon, a distance of three miles, 
and hitting it, though as a matter of fact, the seventeenth century field 
guns had not a range of half that distance. Cromwell was probably 
never there, so the true value of this tradition can be fairly estimated. 

The diameters given below are measured from outside the bank across 
the centre to the outside of the bank opposite. As it is difficult to tell 
where an earthwork starts or finishes these measures may not be strictly 
accurate. Where a circle cannot be seen on the ground the diameter 
has been estimated from air photographs. 

The circles have been numbered consecutively from W. to E. and 
round to N. as indicated in the attached map. 

Nos. land 2. Port Farm, 2^ miles E. of Cricklade. In the second 
field south of the farm, known as the " Ring Ground," there is a fine 
circle (No. 1), well preserved and symetrically shaped. The bank out- 
side the ditch is about 2 feet high and 21 feet wide ; the ditch is shallow 
and 17 feet across. On the S. and E. sides are small gaps in the bank 
much too small for an entrance, which seem to be merely modern foot- 
ways across the field. This is one of the best preserved of the whole 
series. Diameter 296 feet. 

No. 2. About three hundred yards W. of the last is a large circle, 
parts of which are in three separate fields. The hedges in this case, as 
in others to be described, cut across the circle, proving it to be older 
than the present field system. The S.W. area is well preserved and 
resting on the bank and ditch is a small mound about 30 feet in 
diameter. This appears to be of the same date as the earthen ring, and 
may have been the site of a bridge entrance or other structure. The 
N.E. part is well preserved in another field, while the N.W. portion has 
been destroyed by the plough but traces of it can be seen from the air. 
The ditch which is inside the bank is shallow and 14 feet wide, the 
bank 2 feet high and 15 feet wide. Diameter 289 feet. 

S.E. of the last is Ashmead Brake (1| miles N. of Blunsdon Church), 
W. of this is Little Rose Lane (O.M. X. N.E.). At the S.E. end this 
lane is crossed by another bending round to the N.E. The third field 
beyond this junction on the N. side has the first part of its hedge on 
the W. curiously bent. In the bend is a large ploughed down circle 
(No. 3) of the same character as those mentioned before. The ditch 

I 2 

116 Earthen Circles near Highworth. 

remains perfectly recognisable on the ground, the bank being seen as a 
very slight rise. Diameter about 250 feet. 

At the N.E. corner of the same field a small square shows faintly in 
the turf, ploughed down. 

Continuing along the lane to the E. for 330 yards a large field is 
reached. The N. hedge of this has a gateway around which three parts 
of a large circle (No. 6) can just be seen on the ground, ploughed almost 
fiat. The other part over the hedge has been destroyed and is not 
visible from the air. Diameter 230 feet. 

In the next field to the N. two (probably three) circles (Nos. 4 and 5) 
can be seen from the air, but no trace can be found of them on the 
ground as their banks have been ploughed fiat. Each is about 180 feet 
in diameter. 

The next field to the E., named Bushy Mead, is bounded on its E. 
side by Ashmead Brake, and contains five circles. One (No. 7) lies to 
the north of and cuts the northern boundary hedge and ditch of this 
field. It can be seen as a circular hollow full of rushes, and the bank 
lies outside the ditch. 208 feet in diameter. 

Circle No. 7a lies just S. of No. 7 and is ploughed fiat. Diameter 
208 feet. 

Nos. 8 and 9 are a pair of the same character ploughed fiat, but still 
recognisable, no reliable measurements could be taken. Rushes grow 
strongly in the ditches. 

No. 10 is of the same character, the bank is ploughed flat, but the 
ditch remains. 158 feet in diameter. 

No. 11. Partly in the wood ; ploughed fiat in the field, but shows 
better in the wood. Ditch 170 feet in diameter. 

No. 12. South of the last, in the next field, is a very fine circle much 
ploughed down but still in good condition. From the air it is seen as 
a perfect circle, and finely made. The ditch is inside the bank, shallow 
and 14 feet wide ; the bank is two feet high and 15 feet wide. There 
are no traces of gaps or entrance through the bank. 245 feet in 
diameter. See Plate III. 

No. 13. Three fields due E. of the last is another circle in Lower 
Ground, slightly E. of N. from Lower Burytown Farm. The bank is 
ploughed flat but the ditch is still prominent. 155 feet in diameter. 

Nos. 14 and 15. S.E. of No. 13 at the end of Lawn Lane is Stapler's 
Barn. 400 yards S.W. of this and just N. of the 300 feet contour line 
and E. of the Hannington Parish boundary are two circles, each is 
about 245 feet in diameter. They are ploughed fiat and invisible on 
the ground, but plainly seen from the air. 

No. 16. Partly in the same field but with its greater part in the 
next field to the S. is a large and curiously shaped earthwork with all 
the characteristics of the foregoing examples, but it is peculiar in 
having an outward bulge in the S. side, and also smaller ones on the 
W. and E. sides. The diameter from E. to W. is 340 feet. The ditch 
is in most places double. Although it has been ploughed down this is 
one of the best preserved of the circles, and after much study of all 


By Major G. W. G. Allen and A. D. Passmore. 


known examples the N.E. section of it was selected for excavation last 
October. The site looked promising and the idea was to cut through 
from the inside across the ditch in the hope of solving the question of 
the date of these enclosures. A trench was started in the central area 


t^; i 


CD ° 

H B 



(see section) and a mortar floor was struck almost immediately at 15 
inches deep. Then came a wall foundation and a blank space followed 
by a larger foundation and another floor as before, which extended 
almost to the edge of the ditch. These are the remains of a small 

118 Earthen Circles near Highworth. 

building which had a stone tiled roof fastened with iron nails. It had 
been robbed of its stone walls at some former time. On the floors in 
very small fragments was a quantity of Roman pottery. Most of this 
can be placed in its proper class, and as a whole is rather late, but 
there were one or two bits of Samian pottery of fine hard ware which 
cannot be later than the second century. The inner side of the ditch 
fell away rather sharply and at two feet produced a part of a bowl of 
T.S. form 18/3 A 1 of degenerate quality. At three feet, when apparently 
near the bottom, there was a small fragment of pottery of undoubted 
fourth century date. The floor of the ditch rose up in the centre but fell 
away again into a larger hollow till it reached the low wide spreading 
outside bank, in the centre of which there were doubtful indications of 
a posthole. Only those who have excavated in clay will recognise the 
difficulty of basing firm conclusions on diggings in this material. It 
is exceedingly hard to tell when the bottom of a clay ditch is reached. 
Owing to the lateness of the season and bad weather the excavation 
was filled in immediately. 

As far as excavation went it goes to prove that the ditches were open 
in Roman times, and points to the conclusion that this circle was the 
work of the Romanized Britons. Whether, however, the remainder of 
these earthworks are of the same age or not, there is not sufficient 
evidence as yet to prove. As they are all so much alike it seems 
reasonable to suppose that they are, but at this stage of the enquiry 
nothing definite can be said. However, the discovery of Roman pottery 
in one other circle as described below is significant. 

No. 17. In the S.E. corner of the same field and in the corner of 
the next field to the S. is half of another circle, which has been almost 
obliterated by the plough. The eastern half has been levelled com- 
pletely and is not visible even from the air. Diameter 245 feet. 

No. 18. Due S. of this and in the same field three quarters of a large 
circle can still be traced with difficulty on the ground. It can however 
be readily seen from the air. One sector to the S. has been completely 
ploughed out, and no signs whatever of it can be seen. Diameter over 
300 feet. 

No. 19. About 130 yards due E. of No, 16 a sector of another circle 
can be seen from the air, but no trace of it can be found on the 
ground. It is cut by the same line of hedge that passes through No. 16. 

No. 20 which is S. of the last and E. of No. 17 is a large circle which 
is seen from the air but is invisible on the ground. 

Nos. 21 — 24. Moving S.E. one mile and five-sixths, we come to a 
point S. of Highworth and close to and N.E. of Pickett's Copse. Here 
is the curious four-lobed earthwork described below. Mr. T. N. 
Arkell very kindly allowed A. D. P. to take charge of his excavation at 
this spot (Field No. 442 O.M. 25 inches). On the W. side of this 
field are four irregular circles joined together and forming four 
enclosures directed to the cardinal points. Each has an outer bank 
with broad and shallow ditch inside, and conforms to the general type 
in having no entrances. The W. enclosure has two cuts through its 

By Major G. W. G. Allen and A. D Passmore. 119 

bank, but it can be seen from the air that these are in line with a field 
track and are not original. An ancient bank and ditch older than the 
present hedgerow system crosses the N.E. circle and is evidently later 
in date than the circle. It seems to connect up with a curious small 
oblong earthwork over the hedge to the S. and is well shown in the 
illustration (Plate IV). The diameters are, No. 23, 141 feet ; 
No. 24, 144 feet ; No. 22, 143 feet ; and No. 21, the largest, 255 feet. 

In the N.E. corner of the same field, near a pond, is a small mound. 
This was cut right through from N. to S. but produced nothing but a 
gun flint. Immediately N. of the large group are two very small circles 
joined together (not numbered). These were dug into but nothing was 
found. The same result was reached in a small long mound near the 
W. hedge and Pickett's Copse. A trench was then carried from the 
outside of the W. circle (No. 21) into its centre. This group has at one 
time been under the plough, and consequently, the bank composed of 
clean sand, is much reduced in size. The ditch was about three feet 
deep and very broad. On its inside edge (cutting from the N.W. to the 
centre) was a pit of irregular shape and about six feet deep. This was 
cleared out but only produced a few bones in clean sand. The trench 
was then cut through the central area to the centre itself, where a great 
space was dug out but nothing was found. Immediately under the 
turf, close to the ditch, were a few sherds of Roman pottery and several 
of Norman date. Although not considered of much importance at the 
time, yet in view of the later find of Roman pottery above described, 
they are significant when compared with that excavation. It is 
perfectly certain that this particular circle was never used for habitation. 
There were no traces of the usual rubbish, the residue of human 
occupation, and unless they were merely cattle pens these circles must 
have been abandoned soon after their construction. Thanks are due to 
Mr. Arkell for much kind help, and to Lord Banbury the owner, and 
Mr. Eddols the tenant, for kind permission to dig. See Plate IV. 

No. 25. One mile and seven furlongs slightly E. of N. from the last 
is Common Farm, just W. of the Highworth — Coleshill Road. In the 
second field N. of the farm- is a rather small circle ploughed flat and 
not visible on the ground, but easily seen from the air. About 240 feet 
in diameter. 

No. 26. S. of the last and in the same field as the farm is a very 
fine circle. As seen from the air it is a really beautiful work, regularly 
and neatly made. The N. side is damaged by a hedgerow, the part 
beyond it is ploughed flat, the S. edge has also been ploughed. The 
ditch in places is double, a small rise being noticeable in the centre. 
At regular intervals on the E. side are small cuts in the bank which 
are traceable also on the W., but they appear to be too small for 
original work. 340 feet in diameter. 

No. 27. In the next field E. of No. 26, and 338 feet from it, is a very 
large earthwork with flattened sides, ploughed down, but still plainly 
seen to have a wide spreading bank outside a wide shallow ditch. 
Diameter W. to E. 317 feet. 

120 Earthen Circles near Highworth. 

No. 28. In the same field S. of the last circle is a small oblong en- 
closure with rounded corners and with ditch inside the bank. Although 
different in shape, this and No, 27 are of the same type as the circles. 

N. to S. diameter 212 feet ; E. to W. 165 feet. 

For the last four earthworks, Nos. 25 — 28, see Plate I. 

No. 29. Two miles N.W. of the last is N. Leaze Farm, W. of the 
Highworth— Lechlade Road. Here is an extraordinary assemblage of 
fine circles, close to the farm buildings, with another series to the E. 
and N. N. of the farm near Bydemill Brook, near B.M. 243.3, is a 
small circle which has a ditch with bank outside like a disc barrow, still 
in good condition, but formerly under the plough. 

No. 30. E. of the last, in a small field, the N.E. boundary of which 
is that of Inglesham parish, is a very fine circle, perhaps the finest of 
all. It seems to have escaped the plough. The bank is still 3 feet 
high and 18 feet wide, the broad ditch is 35 feet wide and shallow. In 
parts it is double, as seen in other examples. There are several slight 
cuts in the bank on the S. and E. sides. The central plateau is some- 
what irregular and there may be foundations below ground. The N. 
side is damaged by a hedgerow, but otherwise the circle is in good con- 
dition. This example should immediately be put under the Ancient 
Monument Act and be preserved, together with Nos. 1 and 26. Diameter 
338 feet. 

No. 31 lies 580 yards E. by N. of the farm and close to the parish 
boundary. It is ploughed flat and has a hedgerow across its S. part. 
Diameter 269 feet. 

No 32. Just S. of the last and about the same size, but it has a curious 
bulge on the W. side. It is ploughed flat and can hardly be seen on 
the ground, but is plain from the air. Diameter 235 feet. 

No. 33. A few yards E. of 32, ploughed flat, a hedgerow across it. 
Diameter 245 feet. 

No. 34. Close to the road leading to the farm, and S. of the latter, 
ploughed flat with hedgerow across it. Diameter 243 feet. 

No. 35. Just S. of the last, ploughed flat with hedgerow across it. 
Diameter 253 feet. 

No. 36. Near the farm, W. of the line of three. Bank low but ten 
feet wide, ditch inside, shallow and six feet wide. A curious narrow 
banked circle less strongly built than usual. Diameter 257 feet. 

No. 37. Next to the East is a large and fine circle well preserved 
with broad ditch inside the bank, but it has a hedge across its N. side. Its 
bank touches the last (No. 36) on the W. side. Its bank is 2 feet high and 
15 feet wide. The ditch is 20 feet wide and shallow. Diameter 320 feet. 

No. 38. Lies E. of the last with banks touching, a well preserved 
circle, the bank very low and smaller than the last, the ditch narrower 
and more shallow. Diameter 247 feet. 

No. 39. Is N. of the last. It has been ploughed, its bank is low and 
wide spread, its ditch shallow with a hedge across its N. edge. Diameter 
233 feet. 

The last four circles (Nos. 36 — 39) are shown in Plate II. 





# I 



By Major G. W. G. Allen and A. D. Passmore. 121 

No. 40. Is on Dudgrove Farm. Just over a mile N. of the last 
described (No. 39) over the Thames, and just E. of Dudgrove Ham 
Barn, is a small circle of the same class standing on gravel on a slight 
rise. It has a double ditch which has been mutilated by the con- 
struction of two ponds. 

No. 41. At Inglesham, on the Manor Farm and by the foot of the 
letter " I " in " Inglesham " on O.M. 6 inches, vi, N.W., apparent signs 
of half a circle can be seen from the air, but investigation on foot does 
not bear this out. It is mixed with field drainage trenches and is 
probably not a circle. Only excavation can decide. 

There are indications of other circles in the Ashmead Brake group, 
and perhaps two more at Hannington, but as the indications seen from 
the air are so slight, they are not described here, but are held over for 
future investigation. 

It seems rather curious to have so many circles in a group when one 
would have done equally well (as far as one can judge without knowing 
for what purpose they were constructed) . Probably they were tribal 
hiding places, each clan having its own quarters. In this respect 
a quotation from Strabo will not be out of place ; writing in the early 
first century A.D. he says of the Britons : — " Forests are their cities, 
for having enclosed an ample space with fallen trees, here they make 
themselves huts and lodge their cattle though not for long continuance " 
(Excerpta de Britania, vii, Monumenta Historica Britanica). 

This paper is an example of the results that can be obtained by the 
close co-operation of air and ground observers. The first discoveries 
were made on the ground, a flight to photograph them led to the 
discovery from the air of other circles nearby, and subsequent systematic 
searching disclosed many more. The air survey and photography was 
undertaken by Major G. W. G. Allen. 

Some of the circles are very elusive and cannot always be seen even 
from the air. Each site has been photographed repeatedly, and from 
different angles, and although some of the circles cannot be seen on the 
ground there is no doubt of their former existence. They are disclosed 
in some cases by the slight shadows thrown by their banks or ditches, 
and in others by slight differences in the growth of herbage, e.g., rushes 
in the damp ditches, or merely different shades of green in the grass. 

It is safe to say that except with the help from the air the majority 
of these circles would never have been seen from the ground. Many 
flights, extending over a period of two years, have been necessary to 
find and confirm those which are here placed on record, and there is 
little doubt that at least a few more will be discovered in this area as 
a result of further searches. 

Only those circles, the existence of which has been fully confirmed 
by air photography, are included here ; others which are suspected to 
exist but which have not been photographed conclusively have been 

An album containing a selection of the photographs has been 

122 Earthen Circles near Highworth. 

presented to Devizes Museum and is available for inspection there by 
those who desire more detailed information. 

We are grateful to all landowners who have so kindly allowed us to 
explore their lands. Special thanks are due to Messrs. A. E. Archard, 
of Hannington, and Mr. S. J. Russell, of Blunsdon, for much kindness 
and assistance in many ways. 

So far as is known to the writers no other examples of circles in 
groups and of dimensions and construction similar to those above 
described in these notes, have yet been found in England. 

The parishes in which the circles described here are situated are Nos. 
1 and 2, Latton ; Nos. 3—13, Blunsdon St. Andrew ; Nos. 14—20, 
Hannington; Nos. 21 — 39, Highworth; No. 40, Kempsford ; No. 41, 


Sir Harold Brakspear, K.C.V.O., F.S. A., F.R.I.B. A., 

died November 20th, 1934, aged 64. Buried at Corsham. Born 1870, 
at " Salesbank," Sale, Cheshire. Youngest son of WilHam Hay ward 
Brakspear, architect. In 1892 his parents came to reside at* the " Priory, " 
Corsham, where his father died, aged 79, on March 30th, 1898, his 
mother dying ten years later. Living at first at the " Priory," he 
afterwards built himself a house, "Bean Close," in Corsham, where he 
lived until about 13 years ago, when he bought Pickwick Manor, a beautiful 
old house which he restored. He married, 1908, Lilian, d. of Walter 
Somers, of Halesowen, Worcester, who, with a son, Oswald Somers, and- 
a daughter, Lilian Mary, survives him. 

His eldest son, Harold, died in 1921, aged 11. His surviving son, 
Oswald, is like his father, an architect. At the time of his death Sir 
Harold was recognised universally as one of the foremost living experts 
in mediaeval architecture, and more especially in the history and 
architecture of the monastic houses of Great Britain. He was for many 
years associated with Sir William St. John Hope, F.S. A., in excavating, 
planning, and describing some of the most important monastic sites in 
the country, and it was in this best of all schools of mediaeval 
archaeology that he learned the lessons that he put into practice for the 
rest of his life. 

It was probably the restoration of Malmesbury Abbey Church, under 
Bishop Forest Browne, that first brought him into public notice. This 
building indeed to the end of his life claimed his most devoted care. 
He was engaged on the repair of its roof at the time of his death. 
i The restoration of Battle Abbey, after the fire, was another of his larger 
works, but that which won him his knighthood and brought him 
especially into notice in his later years was the extremely delicate and 
responsible work of saving the magnificent roof of St. George's Chapel 
in Windsor Castle from imminent collapse. Of his restoration work on 
secular buildings the beautiful Manor House at Gt. Chalfield is a good 
example. His whole working life indeed was spent in the repair and 
restoration — ^in the best sense — of mediaeval buildings which had fallen 
on evil times, just as every possible leisure hour was occupied in the 
excavation and recovery of the history and plan of one monastic house 
after another all over England. It is on this type of work that his 
reputation was built up, and will remain. His chief excavations in 
Wiltshire were those of the large Roman villa at Box, and of the site of 
Stanley Abbey. He also did much at Lacock, where the present 
chancel of the Parish Church is an example of his original work. Our 
own Society, deeply indebted to him as it is for his constant help in 
descriptions of Churches and monastic buildings during the annual ex- 
cursions, as well as for a whole series of most valuable papers in the 
Magazine on the like subjects, did what it could to show its appreciation 
by electing him as its President in 1933 and 1934. His help as guide 

124 Wilts Obituary. 

during meetings and excursions was, however, by no means confined to 
our own county, but for many years had been freely given on such 
occasions all over England, more especially during the annual meetings 
of the Royal Archaeological Institute in various parts of the country. 
He was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1900, and was 
knighted on the completion of his work at St. George's Chapel in 1931. 
He was President of the Wessex Society of Architects and Consulting 
Architect to the Dean and Canons of Windsor and Worcester. His 
taste and wide knowledge of mediaeval architecture were of the 
greatest practical use to the Church Advisory Committees of the two 
Dioceses of Bristol and Salisbury, as well as to the recently formed 
Council for the Preservation of Rural England for this county. There 
is indeed no one to fill the authoritative position that he occupied as 
an adviser on matters that came within his special scope. 

Long obit, notice and appreciation in The Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 
22nd, 1934 ; Times, Nov. 22nd, 1934. 

He was the author of : — ^ 
Iiacock Abbey. Building News, July 21st, 1893. [Short account of 

the Abbey buildings with measured drawings.] 
Notes on Encaustic Tiles at Heytesbury House. W.A.M., xxvii, 241 — 

244, 1894, 2 plates. 
Notes on Upper Upham Manor House. W.A.M., xxviii, 84 — 86, 1895, 

1 plate. 
Notes on Places visited by the Wilts Arch. Soc. in 1895. Sheldon 

Manor House, Yatton Keynell Ch., Nettleton Ch., N. Wraxall Ch., 

Biddeston St. Peters and St. Nicholas Churches, Box Ch., Haselbury 

House, Chapel Plaister. W.A.M., xxviii, 319—334, 1 plate, 1896. 
" The Jessye" at Amesbury. Wilts N. <^ Q., iii, 366—368, 1900. 
Lacock Abbey. W .A .M., xxxi, 196—240, 1900. Folding plan, 8 plates, 

8 cuts in text. 
On the First Church at Purness. Lanes, and Chesh. Antiq. Soc, xviii, 

70—87, 1900. 
The Architecture of Hayles' Abbey. Trans, of the Bristol and Gloucester 

Arch. Soc, xxiv, 126 — 135, coloured plan, 1900. 
The Church of Hayles' A-bbay. Arch. Journ., Iviii, 350—357, 1901. 

Folding coloured plan, and plate of details. 
Great Somerford Church. W.A.M., xxxi. 314—316, 1901. 
Watton Priory, Yorkshire. By W. H. St. J. Hope, plan by H. Brakspear. 

E. Riding Antiq. Soc Trans., 1901. 
Plan of Beaulieu Abbey. Arch. Journ., 1902, lix, 372. 
Burnham Abbey, Bucks. Records of Buckinghamshire, No. 6, viii, 

517—540, 1903. Also printed in Arch. Jour., Ix, 294—317. Folding 

plan, 2 coloured plates, 8 process and 6 cuts in text. 

1 I am indebted to Mr. Oswald Brakspear for several of the items of 
this hst.— E. H. G. 

Wilts Obituary. 125 

Rodbourne Clmrch. [Architecture.] Devizes Gazette, June 4th, 1903. 
Malmesbury Abbey Ch.urch.. [Architecture.] Bristol and Gloucestershire 

Arch. Soc. Trans, for 1903, xxvi, 1 — 16. Programme of Spring 

Meeting, pp. 7 — 17, 6 illusts., 8vo. 
The Roman Villa at Box. Arch. Journ., Ixi, 1 — 32, 2 coloured folding 

plates, 8 plates, 7 cuts in text. Also printed in W.A.M., xxxiii, 

236 — 262, folding coloured plate of floors, folding plan, plates, 1904. 
Notes on. the Architecture of Calne Church, Lacock Abbey, Bradenstoke 

Priory, &c., in " A History of the Borough and Town of Calne with some 

account of the villages, 6-c., in its vicinity, By A. E. W. Marsh, Calne, 

1904. [Calne Church Chap, xi, pp. 150—167.] 
Waver ley Abbey. Surrey Arch. Soc, London, 1905, cloth 8vo., pp. viii 

+ 101. Folding coloured plan, 19 plates. 
Jervaulx Abbey, Yorkshire. By W. H. St. J. Hope and H. Brakspear. 

Yorkshire Arch. Soc. Journ., xxi, 303 — 344, coloured plan and plates, 

Malmesbury Abbey in M^mona/s o/ o/^ Wiltshire, 1906, pp. 147 155 

2 plates. 
The Cistercian Abbey of Beaulieu in the County of Southampton. 

[W. H. St. John Hope and H. Brakspear.] Arch. Journ., Ixiii, 129 

186, 1906. Coloured folding plan, 2 folding plans, 17 plates, folding 

sheet of drawings, 1 cut in text. 
Notes on the History of St. Peter's Church, Langfley Burrell. By A B 

Mynors, Rector, and Harold Brakspear, F.S.A. Pamphlet 1907 

8iin. xSi^in., pp. 11. 
Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire. By Harold Brakspear, F.S.A. and 

Morton Evans. Guide book pp. 60, folded plan, 1908. 
Stanley Abbey. Wilts Arch. Mag. xxxv, 541 — 581. Folding coloured 

plan, another plan and plates, 1908. 
Malmesbury Abbey. [Abstract of Lecture on Architecture on the 1200th 

anniversary of the death of St. Aldhelm.] Devizes Gazette, May 27th 

Pipewell Abbey, Northamptonshire. Folded plans and plates, 1909. 
The Washingfton Monument at Garsdon. Wilts N. &> Q., vi, 482 484 

Haug-hmond Abbiey, Shropshire. By W. H. St. John Hope, M.A. and 

Harold Brakspear, F.S.A.. Yorkshire Arch. Journ., Ixvi, No. 264 

2nd series xvi. No. 4, 281 — 310, 1910. Coloured plans and plates. 
Bewley Court, Lacock. W.A.M., xxxvii, 391 — 399, 1912. 12 plates 

one folding. 
Garsdon Old Manor House. Wilts N. 6- Q., vii, 338 — 341, 1912, 1 plate 
Dudley Castle Arch. Journ., Ixxi, pp. 1—24, 2 folding coloured plans 

and 11 plates, 1914. 
Malmesbury Abbey. ArchcBologia, Ixiv, 399—436. Read 3rd April, 1913. 

Folding plan, 10 plates, 5 cuts in text. Reprinted with' some 

additions in W.A.M., xxxviii, 458, 1914. 

126 Wilts Obituary. 

On the Dorter Rangfe at Worcester Priory. Read 17th Feb., 1916. 

Archcsologia, Ixvii, 189 — 204, 1916. Folding coloured plan, 9 plates. 
Notes on the Excavations carried out on the site of the Palace of the 

Bishops of Salisbury at Sonningf. By C. E. Keyser, with an account 

and history of the buildings by Harold Brakspear. The Berks, Bucks 

and Oxon Archceological Journal, April, 1916, pp. 8 — 20, 20 plates and 

Dudley Castle. Notes on Architectural History in Guide Book, 8th 

ed., plan and plates, 1916. 
The Mediaeval Tithe Barn, Bradford-on-Avon. Report on the work of 

repair. W.A.M., xxxix, 485—488, 1917. 
St. Nicholas Priory, Exeter. Historical summary by H. Lloyd Parry ; 

description of building by H. Brakspear. Guidebook. Folded plan 

and plates, 1917. 
Bardney Abbey. Arch. Journ., Ixxix, 1 — 92, 1922. Folding coloured 

plan, 18 plates, 11 cuts in text. 
St. Mary's Priory, Nuneaton. [Chapter on the building, in small book.] 

The Church of St. Bartholomew at Corsham, in Wiltshire. Devizes, 

Printed by Geo. Simpson & Co., 1924. 8vo. pp. ix + 148, price 12s. 6d. 

Noticed W.A.M., xliii, 126—129. 
Letter. [Contending that Amesbury Church is not the Monastic 

Church.] Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 18th, 1924. Noticed W.A.M., 

xliii, 134. 
Excavations of the Priories of Bradenstoke, Monkton Parleigh and 

Kington. W.A.M., xliii, 1—25, 1925. Folding plan, 9 plates. Scuts 

in text. 

Presidential Address to the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch. Soc. at 

their meeting* at Stow-on-the-Wold, 7th July, 1925. Trans., xlvii, 

13 pp. 
Report on Condition of Roof of Calne Church. [An appeal for funds for 

repair.] Wiltshire Gazette. 
Corsham. W.A.M., xliii, 511—539, 1927, 11 plates. [History.] 
Report on Chapel on the Bridg-e, Bradford-on-Avon. [An appeal for 

subscriptions.] Wiltshire Times, Oct. 29th, 1927. 

St. Georg-e's Chapel in the Castle of Windsor. By Harold Brakspear, 
Esq., F.S.A., F R.I.B.A., Consulting' Architectto the Dean and Canons 
of Windsor. The National Ancient Monuments Review, vol. ii. 
No. 6, 1929, pp. 280—285. Ground plan. [History of the building 
and work of repair.] 

A West Country School of Masons ArchcBologia, Ixxxi, 1 — 18, 1931, 
18 plates and cuts. Noticed W.A.M., xlvi, 134, 1932. 

Architecture in Wiltshire throug-h the Ag'es. Survey by Sir H. 
Brakspear. [Lecture at Corsham. Abstract in Wiltshire Gazette, 
Feb. 4th, 1932.] 

Wilts Obituary. 127 

St. George's Chapel, Windsor. [The works of repair.] Journal of the 

Royal Inst, of Bristol Architects. Plates, 6th Feb., 1932. 
Bath Abbey Guide. 1932. 
Worcester Cathedral Guide. 1932. 
Battle Abbey Guide. 1933. 
The Abbots' House at Battle. ArchcBologia, Ixxxiii, 139 — 166, 12 plates, 

7 cuts in text, 1934. 
Wig-more Abbey. Arch. Journ., xc., 26 — 51. Folding plan and 5- 

plates. 1934. 
The Monasteries of Wiltshire. Presidential address. Wilts Arch. Mag., 

xlvi, 417—432, 1934. 
Ivyehurch Priory. Wilts Arch. Mag., xlvi, 433 — 440, plan, 1934. 
Edingrton Monastery. W.A.M., xlvii, 7—19, 1935. 
Worcester Cathedral. By H. Brakspear, J. K. Floyer and Canon 

Wilson. Worcestershire Arch Soc. Journ. Folding plan, (Discussion 

on arrangement of E. End.) (? date.) 
St. Mary, RedcliiFe, Bristol. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Soc. Trans., xliv, 

folded plan, (? date.) 

John Cattell Hudson, died suddenly January 28th, 1935, aged 
66. Buried at Devizes Road Cemetery, Salisbury. Born at Banbury, 
where he had his first journalistic experience, he came to Salisbury as 
Editor of the Salisbury Times and S. Wilts Gazette in 1900, a work that 
he carried on in full vigour up to the day of his death. He has left the 
paper in a very different position from that in which he found it, and 
the great improvement in its quality has naturally resulted in its 
increased influence and circulation. He was devotedly attached to 
Salisbury and had represented the Fisherton Ward on the City Council 
ever since the Great War, and became an Alderman about a year ago. 
The amenities of the City were especially his care. He was the 
Chairman of the Ancient Buildings Committee, and on the formation 
of the Wiltshire Branch of the C.P.R.E. he became a member of the 
Executive Committee. He was also a member of the Town Planning 
Committee and a governor of the Infirmary. In all matters where mere 
commercial interests threatened to injure the beauty or the interest 
of the City and its surroundings, he used all his influence against any 
such proposals. He was one of the first to move in the defence of the 
surroundings of Old Sarum against the plague of mean buildings which 
threatened to engulf it. He did all in his power to help on the 
acquisition of Pepper Box Hill by the National Trust, and his paper 
was one of the chief forces on the victorious side in the " Battle of the 
Exeter Street Railings." It was in such matters as these which seem 
small beer to the business man perhaps, but count for so much in the 
future life of the City, that his loss will be chiefly felt. His Mayoralty 
in the year of the 700th anniversary of the granting of the City's 
charter was a great success. He married, 1907. Eliza Robertson Miller, 
the daughter of a Glasgow doctor, who predeceased him. She was 

128 Wilts Obituary. 

well-known as a social worker, and became a J. P. In politics he was 
of course a Liberal, and his paper was the chief support of the Liberal 
side in S. Wilts. He leaves no children. 

Long obit, notice and appreciations, with portrait, Salisbury Times, 
February 1st, 1935. 

Thermuthis Mary Ashe, died January 24th, 1935, aged 78. 
Buried at Langley Burrell. Daughter of the Rev. Robert M. Ashe and 
his wife Letitia, d. of Capt. Daly, of Dublin. The Rev. Robert Ashe 
died 1885 and was succeeded by his eldest daughter Thermuthis, who 
has since occupied Langley House. She was a great benefactor to 
Langley Church, which adjoins the house, and was for many years 
churchwarden. She also took much interest in all parish matters as 
well as in Church affairs in the Diocese of Bristol. She never married. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, 31st January, 1935. 

lit. -Col. Stephen Hungerford Pollen, C.M.G., died 

March 25th, 1935, aged 66. Seventh son of J. Hungerford Pollen, 
educated at the Oratory School and Royal Military College. Joined 
Wiltshire Regt. 1888, A.D.C. to Ld. Lansdowne and Ld. Elgin, Viceroys 
of India. Served in the Tirah Expedition 1897. He was on the Head- 
quarters Staff of Sir Redvers Buller in the Boer War, and was present 
at Spion Kop, the Relief of Ladysmith, etc. He retired 1902, but 
rejoined in 1914 and was Military Secretary to Sir Ian Hamilton at 
Gallipoli, and to the Commander-in-Chief in Egypt till 1917. He was 
made a C.M.G., and gained the Cross of the Legion of Honour, the 
Order of the Nile, and the Order of the Crown of Italy. He was a 
member of the Royal Bodyguard, the Hon. Corps of Gentlemen at 
Arms, and was Gold Stick Officer in waiting at the Coronations of K. 
Edw. VII and K. Geo. V. He was Chairman of the British Aluminium 
Company and Director of other companies. He married Catherine 
Hetherington, d. of Sir John Muir, Bart., and had one son and two 

Obit, notice, Times, March 26th, 1935. 

Mrs. R. Forestler Walker, died suddenly whilst on a 
cruise Feb. 22nd (?) 1935. Norah Jacintha, 2nd d. of C. N. P. Phipps, 
of Chalcot, Westbury. Married, 1898, John M. F. Fuller, the Liberal 
candidate for West Wilts, whilst her father was President of the Con- 
servative Association. Mr. Fuller represented the Westbury Division 
from 1900 to 1911, and was greatly assisted by his wife, who in addition 
to her personal charm was a very effective speaker and an active 
organiser, not only in politics but in many other county matters. Mr. 
Fuller was made a Baronet in 1911 (K.C.M.G.) when he became 
Governor of Victoria. He returned to England in 1913 and died in 1915. 

In 1921 she married, secondly. Col. R. S. Forestier Walker and left 
Jaggards and went to live at Cottles in Atworth parish, where both her 
husband and herself were active and regular members of the Bradford 

Wilts Obituary. 129 

Rural District Council. She leaves two sons, Sir Gerard Fuller, and 
Mr. Chr. Fuller, and four daughters, by her first marriage. 

Long obit, notice with portrait in Wiltshire Times, 2nd March, 1935. 

Major Eustace Richardson-Cox, died on a cruise Feb. 

28th, 1935, aged 73, and was buried at Genoa. Born 1862, 3rd s. of 
G. H. Richardson-Cox, of Spondon, Derbyshire. Educated at Marl- 
borough. Married, first (1894), Rachael Hay, widow of Thurburn 
Maclaine, of Myrtle, Aberdeenshire, who died 1907, and, secondly (1912), 
Charlotte Elizabeth, only d. of W. Maxwell Kennedy, of Pennsylvania, 
U.S.A., who survives him. In Wilts Yeomanry 1900 — 1916, served 
with Australian Artillery in the Great War in France, 1916, and. in 
Aeronautical Inspection Department 1918 — 19, J. P. for Cheshire and 
Wilts, and D.L. for Wilts. He came to Wiltshire in 1899 and rented 
S. Wraxall Manor House from the I>ong family, who still retain the 
ownership. This fine example of domestic architecture he restored and 
made habitable, spending a large sum of money upon it, and carrying 
out the work very largely from his own plans. 

He was greatly interested in domestic architecture, and filled the 
house with a fine collection of furniture, &c. He was elected F.S.A. in 
1928. He took no large part in public affairs but he will be remembered 
gratefully for his work in the preservation of S. Wraxall. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, March 9th, 1935. 

Canon Auriol Criffard Ruddle, died January 29th, 1935. 
Buried at Durrington. Born 1875, s. of Rev. Charles Snelling Ruddle. 
A.K.C. 1900, Deacon 1900, Priest (St. Albans) 1901. Curate of 
Springfield 1900—1904; Holy Trinity, Cowes, 1904—11; Rector of 
Durrington 1911 to his death ; Temporary Chaplain to the Forces 1917 — 
18 ; Rural Dean of Amesbury 1920 — ^35 ; Canon Non-Residentiary of 
Salisbury 1930 until his death. He married Annie L., d. of Major 
A. P. Robertson, R.A. He was a member of the Amesbury Rural 
District Council for many years, and was widely known and respected 
in the Amesbury district. He took an active part in many Diocesan 
Societies and Institutions. " Canon Ruddle did a great many things, 
and he did them all well, he served his parish, his deanery, and his 
diocese as a great christian." 

Obit, notice, Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, March, 1935. 

Edward Montagu Farken, died Jan., 1935. Clare Coll., 
Cambs. B.A. 1889, M.A., 1893. .Deacon 1890, Priest 1892 (Winchester). 
Curate of Frimley, 1890—95; Freemantle (Hants), 1895—97; Wilton, 
1897—1905 ; Rector and Vicar of Stanton St. Bernard, 1905—12 ; 
Rector of Wylye, 1912, until his death ; Rural Dean of Wylye, 1920, 
until his death. 

Edward McNiveU , died September 22nd, 1934, aged 74. Buried 
at Manningford Abbots. Born 1860, youngest son of the Rev. Charles 
Mannoir McNiven, formerly Rector of Patney. Educated at Clifton Coll. 


130 Wilts Obituary. 

and Royal Agricultural Coll. at Cirencester. He began farming at 
Oxted (Surrey), returned to Wiltshire, at Puckshipton 1887, removed 
to Beechingstoke 1894, to Conock Manor 1902, and to Manningford 
Abbots 1920, where he lived until his death. He married, 1886, Ellen 
•Gertrude, d. of the Rev. E. Everett, Rector of Manningford Abbots, 
who with a son and daughter survives him. He was well-known in 
hunting circles as one of the oldest and most enthusiastic members of 
the Tedworth Hunt, for which he acted as secretary. 
Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 27th, 1934. 

Sir Cecil Herbert Edward Chubb, Bart., died Sept. 

22nd, 1934, aged 58. Born April 14th, 1876, s. of Alfred Chubb, a 
saddler, of Shrewton. Educated at the Elementary School, Shrew^ton, 
and Bishop Wordsworth's School, Salisbury. M.A., L.L.B., Christ's 
Coll., Cambridge. Called to the Bar 1907. J. P. for Salisbury. He 
married, 1902, Mary Bella Alice Fern, d. of John Fern, of Ferndown, 
and niece of Dr. Corbin Finch, the owner of Fisherton House Asylum, 
now known as the Old Manor. Of this Sir Cecil became proprietor, and 
was a Director at the time of his death. His son, John Corbin Chubb, 
born 1904, succeeds to the Baronetcy. He also leaves a daughter. 

In 1915 he bought Stonehenge for ^6,600 and presented it to the 
nation in 1918. His coat of arms and crest, a lion's jamb grasping two 
branches of misletoe, and the motto, " Saxis condita, " all refer to 
Stonehenge. He was made a Baronet 1919. He was the owner of 
several racehorses but was better known as an enthusiastic breeder of 
Shorthorns and the Bapton (in Codford) herd won many prizes at the 
great shows. 

Obit, notice, Salisbury Times, Sept, 28th, 1934, which reprints from 
its issue of Sept. 24th, 1915, the account of the purchase of Stonehenge. 

William Rozet Harper Martin. Son of L. Trowbridge 

Martin, of Seend House, Seend, was educated at Sherborne School and 
St. John's Coll., Oxon, where he took his degree in Forestry, and later 
joined the postgraduate School of Yale University, U.S.A., taking the 
degree of Master of Forestry, He also studied Forestry in the Southern 
States of America and in the Black Forest in Germany. He was a 
first-rate rifle shot, oarsman and ski-runner, and hunted regularly with 
the Avon Vale Hounds, He was selected as one of the six experts for 
the expedition sent by the Royal Geographical Society to explore Lake 
Rudolph and the Rift Valley in East Africa. He was keen on botany 
and ornithology, but it was as a surveyor that he accompanied Dr. W. 
Dyson in the exploration of South Island in the Lake, Their signal 
fires were seen from the mainland for four nights, after which they did 
not appear, and in spite of searches both by land and by aeroplane, no 
trace of either of the explorers was found, and it was concluded that 
they must have been drowned in attempting to return to the mainland. 
Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 13th, 1934. 

Wilts Obituary. 131 

Henry Ryoroft G-ifFard, died Sept. 4th, 1934, atLockeridge 
House, aged 85. Buried at Overton. Son of Capt. H, W. Giffard, 
R.N. Educated at Eton. Married, 1878, Cecilia Martha, d. of Capt. 
H. G. Hamilton, R.N. He was for 25 years Chairman of the Marl- 
borough County Magistrates, for 15 years a member of the County 
Council, and for many years Chairman of the Governors of Marlborough 
Grammar School, also a Land and Income Tax Commissioner. He 
was a Captain in the Marlborough Company of the old Wilts Volunteers. 
Three of his sons were killed in the Great War and three survive him, 
Capt. H. Giffard, R.N., Lt.-Col. J. Giffard, R.A., and Walter Giffard, 
of Locke ridge Farm. 

Obit, notice, N. Wilts Herald, Sept. 7th, 1934. 

Major James Archibald Morrison, D.S.O., died Oct. 

27th, 1934, aged 61. Buried at Fonthill Bishop. 2nd son of Alfred 
Morrison, of Fonthill, brother of Hugh Morrison, of Fonthill, who died 
1931. Educated at Eton, 1887, and New Coll., Oxford. Joined 
Grenadier Guards as Lieutenant, 1898. Served in the Soudan and 
Khartoum. He was on special serv^ice in the South African War, 1899 
— 1900, and was present at Modder River and Magersfontein, and was 
invalided home with enteric fever. He afterwards held a commission 
in Lovat's Scouts, He was Conservative M.P. for S. Wilts, 1900 — 1906. 
M.P. for East Nottingham 1910 (at both elections). He resigned his 
seat in 1912 from ill-health, receiving a testimonial of a silver vase, the 
gift of 12,897 penny subscribers. In the Great War he rejoined the 1st 
Grenadier Guards, was wounded, gained the D.S.O., and was promoted 
Major. The death of his uncle, Charles Morrison, of Basildon Park, 
Reading, in 1909 at the age of 91, gave him that property and a great 
access of wealth. He took up stockbreeding on a most extensive scale, 
and his cattle, horses, sheep, and poultry, carried off prizes everywhere. 
His Basildon Hampshire Down sheep. Beef Shorthorn, Aberdeen Angus, 
Red Poll cattle, Berkshire and Tamworth pigs, and Shire horses became 
famous. In 1921 he inherited from his uncle, Walter Morrison, the 
Malham Tarn Estate in Yorkshire. " He was devoted to sport, was a 
fine shot and a consummate fisherman." At Eton he rowed in the 
eight at Henley, and at Oxford he rowed two years against Cambridge. 
He married, first, in 1901, the Hon. Mary Hill-Trevor, d. of the 1st Lord 
Trevor, by whom he was divorced in 1913 ; secondly, in 1920, Dorothy 
Halton ; and thirdly, Gwendoline Phyllis Talmage. He leaves a son 
and two daughters by his first marriage. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 1st, 1934. 

Col. the Hon. Walter Philip Alexander, died Oct. 

30th, 1934, aged 85. Buried at Sutton Veny. Born 1849, 2nd son of 
the 3rd Earl of Caledon. Educated at Harrow, Adjutant of Scots Greys 
1875 — 77, and of the Royal East Kent Yeomanry 1884 — 89, command- 
ing the Scots Greys 1896 — 1900. He commanded the 1st Cavalry 
Brigade during the Boer War, He retired in 1904 and came to live at 

K 2 

132 Wilts Obituary. 

Polebridge, Sutton Veny. During the Great War he was chairman of 
many local committees He was Master of the South and West Wilts 
Hounds 1909 — 10, and Field Master 1910 — 14. He was churchwarden 
for fourteen years, and was greatly interested in the local Ex-Service 
Men's Organisation. J P. for Wilts He married, 1882, Margaret 
Catherine, d. of the Rev. the Hon. Francis Grimston. He leaves a son, 
Capt Philip Alexander, of Lismore, Co Waterford, and a daughter. 
Miss M. C. Alexander, a member of the Warminster- Westbury R D. 
Council and J P. for Wilts. 

Obit, notice, Wilts Times, Nov. 10th, 1934. 

James Henry Starkey, died November 3rd, 1934, aged 69. 
Buried at Trowbridge. Born at Sheepsbridge, nr. Huddersfield, s. of 
Tom Starkey, woollen manufacturer. Educated at Thomas's Academy, 
Huddersfield. In 1897 he joined the firm of W. H. Tucker & Co., 
woollen merchants, of Trowbridge, and took over the proprietorship 
from the late William Mackay in 1912. He was one of the founders of 
the Trowbridge Foot Beagles A Conservative and Churchman, he sang 
for many years in the Parish Church Choir. He became J. P. for Wilts 
1922, and sat regularly on the Trowbridge bench. He was a prominent 
and enthusiastic Freemason. In the Cottage Hospital, the Red Cross 
organisation during the War, and the Territorial Force, he took a very 
keen interest. His wife, with one daughter, and one son. Major H. S. 
Starkey, 4th Wilts Regt., survives him. 

Obit, notice with portrait, Wilts Times, November 10th, 1934. 

Rev. Francis Gater, died Oct. 13th, 1934. Buried at 
Figheldean. B.A. and B.Sc. of London, 1910 ; Deacon, 1922 ; Priest, 
1923 (Peterborough). Headmaster of the City Boys' School, Leicester, 
for many years ; Incumbent of Syston, Leicester, 1922 ; Vicar of 
Figheldean, 1930 until his death. Diocesan Inspector of Schools for 
Enford Deanery. 

Obit, notice and portrait, Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 25th, 1934. 

Joshua Smith, died Oct. 29th, 1934. Buried at Potterne. Son 
of T. Smith, shoemaker, he lived all his life at Potterne, having been 
educated at the Elementary School which he left at the age of eleven, 
his father having died three years before, and was more or less adopted 
by Mr. N Hix, ironmonger, of Devizes, with whom he spent the early 
part of his business life. Of late years he had lived in quiet retirement 
at Potterne in a part of the Porch House. He was known as " Josh " 
to everyone in Potterne and also widely in Devices, and was looked up 
to by the poorer folk with affectionate regard. No one knew so much 
about Potterne and its inhabitants as he did, and for years he had acted 
as correspondent of the Wiltshire Gazette. As ,a Wesleyan, ,he had 
formerly charge of the Devizes Wesleyan Choir. He had a remarkable 
memory, and the pen of a ready writer. He never married. By his 
will he left to the Museum Library the remarkable note book of 
T. Smith describing the life of the village of Potterne as it was cir. 1870. 
Long Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 1st, 1934. 

Wilts Obituary. 133 

Walter Wadman SnailUIU, died Dec. 7th, 1934, aged 67. 
Buried at Trowbridge. 2nd son of George Snailum, auctioneer, he 
became an architect and was largely employed by the Urban and Rural 
District Councils of Trowbridge, Melksham, Westbury, Warminster, 
&c., in carrying out schemes for the erection of council houses and 
workmen's dwellings. He also built several Free Churches, the Pioneer 
Society offices, Ushers' Brewery, and many other buildings in Trow- 
bridge and the neighbourhood. He did much public accountancy work 
in connection with the firm of G. Snailum & Sons, was a Director 
of many local companies, and was all his life an extremely busy man, 
well-known in Trowbridge and the neighbourhood. He married 
Margaret Lansdown, who survives him with two sons, Philip and 
Terence Walter, A.R.I. B.A. The latter will carry on his architectural 

He was the author of Fifteen Studies in Book Keeping-, which is 
still regarded as a text book of its subject. 

Obit, notice with portrait, Wiltshire Times, Dec. 15th, 1934. 

Edmund Clarke SchombergT. died Dec. 26th, 1934, aged 82. 
Born June 17th, 1852. 3rd and youngest son of Joseph Trigge 
Schomberg, Q.C. Educated at Winchester. He was a member of the 
Stock Exchange, J P. and D.L. for Wilts 1899, High Sheriff 1902. He 
married, 1894, Violet Louise, d. of Martin Bryan Stapylton, of Myrton 
Hall, Yorks, who survives him. From Seend House he moved to 
Seend Lodge 34 years ago, and shortly afterwards to Clyffe Hall, 
Market Lavington, formerly the residence of the Hon. Mrs Hay, where 
he added very largely to the house and brought it to its present con- 
dition. He left Clyffe after a few years and lived at Browfort, Devizes, 
for a time, removing thence to his old home, Seend House, and again 
later to Seend Lodge, where he died. His older brother, Arthur, 
also of Seend, died in 1924. He was much interested in local 
agricultural and poultry societies, and was a member of the Beaufort 

Obit, notice (with some account of the Schomberg family and their 
connection with Seend), Wiltshire Gazette, December 27th, 1934. 

Major Cecil George Bennett, died Jan. 7th, 1935, aged 

64. Buried in Salisbury Cathedral Cloisters. 2nd son of E. Grove 
Bennett, of Salisbury, educated at Honiton Grammar School. Trained as 
a solicitor, but as a young man he took over from his father the manage- 
ment of the Salisbury Journal, which he continued to hold, except 
during the war years, until his death. In 1897 he became Lieutenant 
in the Wiltshire Volunteers, and was Captain in the 4th Batt. Wiltshire 
Regiment at the outbreak of war in 1914, going with the battalion to 
India for garrison duty. He was second-in-command of the battalion 
during severe fighting in Palestine, retiring from the regiment after the 
war. In his early life he had taken an active part in the work of 
Oxford House, Bethnal Green, and afterwards in Salisbury he continued 

134 Wilts Obituary. 

his welfare work for young people. At Salisbury he took a deep interest 
in the affairs of St. Thomas's parish, and in the welfare of Sahsbury 
Infirmary, for which he raised large sums of money through the 
Journal. He was a member of a great number of local committees for 
charitable and other purposes. He maintained the high traditions of 
one of the oldest newspapers in the country, and had a high conception 
of his duty as its manager. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 10th, 1935. 

William Henry Iiaverton, died January 12th, 1935, aged 
89. Buried at Westbury Cemetery. Born June 4th, 1845, Son of 
Frederick Laverton, of Clifton. Educated privately. Began life in the 
cloth mills of his uncle, Abraham Laverton, at Westbury, at whose 
death he inherited the business. In 1888 he bought Leighton House 
from Mr. R. L, Phipps and greatly enlarged it, and lived there until a 
few years ago when he retired to Leighton Cottage and the house 
became Victoria College. Leighton was well-known for many years as 
one of the country houses, where cricket elevens were entertained and 
matches played regularly, Mr. Laverton himself being an enthusiastic 
cricketer. He was J. P. (1884) and D.L. for Wilts, and High Sheriff in 
1894. As a Conservative he unsuccessfully contested West Wilts in 
1892. He had been a member of the County Council from its beginning 
until about five years ago, and was always most regular in his 
attendance, as he was also as a Magistrate, in which capacity he was 
Chairman of the bench for 21 years. 

He served for nearly 30 years in the 1st Wilts Rifle Volunteers, retiring 
with the rank of Captain and Hon. Major in 1891. At Westbury he 
took a leading part for more than half a century in every organisation 
and movement for the benefit of the town and its people. He built the 
Baths, and was a generous benefactor to the District Hospital and the 
Parish Church. He married three times ; (1) Helen, d. of Isaac 
Clementson Sanderson ; (2) Sarah Jane, d of Robert Langridge, of 
Bath ; (3) Anna, d. of Felix Bourne, of Clifton. He leaves five sons 
and three daughters. 

Long Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, Jan. 19th, 1935, with portrait. 

Canon Frederick Phipps, died October 9th, 1934, aged 76. 
Buried in Devizes Cemetery. Son of George Phipps, of Buckden, Hunts. 
Educated at Pembroke Coll., Cambridge, B.A. 1881, Deacon 1881, 
Priest 1883 (Norwich). Curate of Heighham 1881 — 84; Ringwood 
1884 — 85 ; Rector of Frome Vauchurch with Batcombe (Dors.) 1885 — 
1901 ; Organising Sec. for S.P G. for Archdeaconry of Dorset 1891 — 1908 ; 
Vicar of St. Peter's, Devizes, 1901 until his death; Canon non- 
residentiary of Salisbury 1921. He married a daughter of Frederick 
Cawkutt, of Trumpington, Cambs., who with a son and five daughters 
survives him. A decided High Churchman, he was especially interested 
in the religious education in the schools, and in the support of Foreign 
Missions. He was widely esteemed in Devizes. 

Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, October 11th, 1934. 

Wilts Obituary. 135 

John Uudershell Powell, died suddenly March 24th, 1935, 
aged 80. Buried at Oxford. Born Oct. 4th, 1855, s. of the Rev. John 
Powell, Vicar of Hill Deverill. Educated at Cheltenham and Ball Coll., 
Oxford. B.A., Craven Scholar, 1888. He was a master, first at 
Cheltenham and then at St, Edward's, Oxford, and in 1890 he was 
elected Fellow and Lecturer at St. John's Coll., Oxford, and from this 
time he devoted his life to the work of the college of which he twice 
acted as Vice-Principal. He inherited from his father a small property 
at Boreham, Warminster, where for many years he spent his vacations. 
He married, first, 1903, Mabel Howard Leather, who died 1933 ; and 
secondly, Alice Hutchinson, who survives him. He was greatly 
interested in the history of the Wylye Valley and in Wiltshire matters 
generally The Times of March 25th, 1935, under the heading, " Greek 
Scholarship at Oxford," had a most appreciative notice of his work and 
influence as a Greek scholar : — " For many years before and after the 
war Powell had been gathering material for what is undoubtedly 
his magnum opus, a collection and critical edition of the widely 
scattered remains of the post-classical Greek poets. This appeared 
in 1925 under the title " Collectanea Alexandrina " and was at once 
recognised as indispensable for all serious study of the literature 
of this period. It is greatly to be regretted that the second volume 
to contain the bulk of the Alexandrian Epigrammatists . . . has 
not been published . . . But Powell's services to classical 
scholarship are not to be measured by his published books, 
important though these are. For many years he had been an in- 
valuable source of inspiration and encouragement to his younger 
classical colleagues in the University, directing them to problems 
which needed solution, and letting them draw freely on his general 
learning . . Powell was one of the fortunate scholars who enjoyed 
teaching as much as research. . . . He was a man of irresistible 
personal charm. . . . His innumerable friends will grieve deeply 
for the loss of a don of the old school who combined an unflinch- 
ing sense of personal duty with a rich and genial humanity." 
He was the author of : — 
A Sketch of the History of Hill Deverill. W.A .M., xxviii, 235 — 252. 
On the Derivation of the Name Warminster W.A.M., xxix, 191 — 2. 
Wiltshire Words. W.A.M., xxx, 117 — 125. 

The Early History ofthe Upper Wylye Valley. IF.^ .M., xxxiii, 109 -131 ' 

South Wilts in Romano-British Times, with an Appendix on Mr. W. H. 

Stevenson's view of Egbert's Stone. W.A.M., xxxiv, 271 — 294, 433. 

The Norman Tympanum of Little Langford Church. W.A.M., xxxvi, 

Polk Lore Notes from South Wilts. Folk Lore, Mar., 1901, vol. xii, pp.. 

71—83. [Noticed W.A.M., xxxii, 244.] 
Polk Lore Notes from South-West Wilts. Folk Lore, xii, 326—329. 
The Derivation of Imber W.A.M, x\, 362. 

■{With E.A. Barber.) New Chapters in the History of Greek Literature. 
8vo.. Oxford, 1921. 



[N.B. — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The 
Editor appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or 
views, in any way connected with the county, to send him copies of 
their works, and to editors of papers, and members of the Society 
generally, to send him copies of articles, views, or portraits appearing 
in the newspapers.] 

Registrum Simouis de Gaudavo. Biocesis 
Saresbiriensis, A.D. 1297 — 1315. Transcribed 
and Edited by C. T. Flower and M. C. B. Dawes. 

[Issued by the Canterbury and York Society in 8 parts. 1914 — 1934.] 
University Press, Oxford. 1934. lO^in. x 6|in. 2 vols, bound, pp. 
Ixviii + 995. 

The Introduction, which fills 57 pages, begins with a life of the 
Bishop " He was generally acknowledged to be a man of great learn- 
ing and sanctity ; yet the record of his episcopal life is one of continuous 
and varied disputes with the King, the Pope, the Archbishop, his Dean 
and the chief members of his chapter, and the citizens of Salisbury." 

Simon of Ghent was born in London of a family who apparently 
came from Ghent, and a number of persons are quoted as merchants in 
London who, it is suggested, belonged to his family. 

Simon held the living oi Wilford (Notts), a Canonry in York and 
and another in Salisbury, and became Archdeacon of Oxford, 1284, and 
Chancellor of Oxford University, 1291 — 93. He was, also, as has 
been stated, a Cardinal. He became Bishop of Salisbury in 1297. In 
1300 he regained from the King the use of the Chace of le bishopsber 
in Windsor Forest (then in Salisbury diocese) which had been taken 
from the See. He was most earnest in his resistance to the abuses of 
ecclesiastical patronage. He protested to the Pope against the 
appointment of foreigners to Prebends and dignities in Salisbury 

Though he was one of the three Bishops who crowned Ed. II, he 
opposed the promotion of his unworthy favourites in the Church, and 
joined the Barons with the Archbishop and five other Bishops in their 
struggle against the King and Peter de Gaveston, and refused to supply 
victuals for the proposed expedition to Scotland. He died in 1315. 
His tombstone in the choir was the scene of miracles and pious offerings. 
He gave in 1314 to the Dean and Chapter some tenements in the Close 
and shops in the fish market for the maintenance of 14 choir boys and 
a choirmaster thus founding the exis'ting Choir School. " The Bishop 
probably received hindrance rather than help from the senior members 
of his chapter. The Dean was an absentee, probably until 1311. The 
chancellor and treasurer had to be recalled to their duties. The Arch- 
deacon of Wilts had to be removed from office. Later appointments 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 137 

to the offices of Dean and Chancellor made by the Pope were unwelcome 
to him." "The Reforms which occupied these first eleven years were 
various. Churches were unrepaired or unconsecrated ; absenteeism was 
rampant in high places ; Incumbents were pluralists, in minor orders, 
or of bad moral character. Nowhere were matters worse than in the 
remoter parts of Dorset, which Simon took special pains to visit." 
" Simon was essentially a diocesan Bishop. Political reasons compelled 
him to go to London from time to time. Apart from this he seldom 
left his three counties, and his Itinerary is in consequence monotonous 
. . . Out of these prosaic wanderings a picture emerges that is 
probably more typical of the mediaeval bishop than is commonly 
imagined, the picture of a faithful servant who realised that his duties 
to his King and his Metropolitan could not be neglected, but who had 
chiefly at heart the wellbeing of the many parishes which constituted 
his diocese." 

The Bishop's chief residences in the diocese were Ramsbury, Sonning, 
Potterne, Chardstock and Woodford, and it is noted that the site of his 
house in London, destroyed by the great fire, is still commemorated by 
the name Salisbury Square. 

The text of this, the earliest surviving register of the bishopric of 
Salisbury, is printed in the original Latin. It is doubtful whether an 
English translation would not have been of wider and more general 
use, in view of the fact that a knowledge of Latin is not very common 
now, and is likely to grow still more uncommon in the future. There 
is a good index of personal and place names. Reviewed by W. G. Clarke 
Maxwell Antiq. Journ., April, 1935, pp. 215 — 217. 

Catalogue of the Antiquities in the Museum of 
the Wilts Archseological and Natural History 
Society at Devizes. Fart II. 2nd Edition. Com- 
piled by Mrs. M. E. Cnnnington and the Rev. Canon 
E. H. Goddard. Published by the Society at the 

Museum, Devizes, 1934. 8vo., stiff board covers. Fully 
iliustrated, pp. xiv + 294. Price 2s. 6d., by post 3s. 

As Part II of the Catalogue of Antiquities originally published in 
1911 was sold out (the Stourhead Collection is described in Part I) the 
Society determined to print a second edition which should contain an 
account of such additions as had been made to the collections from 1911 
to the present time. Mrs. Cunnington has now completed her arduous 
work and the letterpress of the original edition has been revised through- 
out and brought up-to-date, and some additional matter has been 
added. In this edition also the very numerous illustrations which in 
the 1st edition had been collected together in plates at the end, have 
now been placed as far as possible with the notices of the objects which 
they illustrate in the body of the work. Mrs. Cunnington is to be con- 
gratulated on the excellent appearance of the catalogue which need not 
fear comparison with that of any other provincial museum in the 


Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Salisbury. Some Architecture in the City and 
the Close, illustrated and described by R. Crrundy 
Heape. Methuen & Co., 1934. Boards lOx 7i pp. 53. 

28 illustrations. 

The author writes : — " It does not come within my province to deal 
in detail with matters of antiquarian interest in connexion with the 
domestic architecture of Salisbury. My object is to survey the archi- 
tecture of those houses which are of architectural interest, are 
prominently situated, and are seen by visitors who come to see the 

The illustrations are all of them charming pencil drawings beautifully 
reproduced, and only two or three of the whole number can be said to 
deal with hackneyed subjects, the Poultry Cross, Audley House, and 
the Cathedral Spire from the North Canonry Garden, and even so this 
last is delightful. Thus the book covers ground which has never been 
covered before at all in the same handy and tasteful way, and makes 
a worthy souvenir of the many buildings in Salisbury of the 16th to 
the 18th century, which richly deserve to be noticed, but are generally 
passed over, because they are entirely overshadowed by the Cathedral 
and its spire. As the author says, people come to see the Cathedral, 
but they should not forget that the houses of the city and more 
especially of the Close are well worth time spent upon them also. 
Doorways seem especially to attract the author and he gives us five, 
Nos. 9, 14, and 48, in the Close, and Nos. 54 and 68 in St. Ann's Street. 

In the Close the following are given : — The College of Matrons ; Nos. 
36 and 38; Mompesson House; Mrs. Jacob's house; The Walton Canonry; 
The Choristers' School, exterior and the Headmaster's desk ; The King's 
House (2) ; Entrance to the North Canonry ; and Hemyngsby (2) . Of 
houses in the city there are the entrance to the Plume of Feathers ; the 
house of John Hall, exterior and interior ; Mitre House ; Audley House ; 
the Hall in New Street; the King's Arms ; the Old George Inn. This 
latter has the lower story " restored " from an old print, which seems 
rather a pity. 

The Close houses are more especially dealt with in the letterpress. Of 
No. 9, a Tudor House behind its Georgian exterior, the author tells a 
story of a secret chamber off an attic, with access to the roof which was 
actually used to conceal a little girl, who afterwards became Mrs. Purvis, 
during the Corn Law Riots (?) of the early 19th century. There is no 
sign of it now, but 30 years ago when the house was empty, the old 
lady visited the spot and opened the secret panel and showed the little 
room with a table and chair in it ; so says her daughter, Miss Purvis, of 

The author is enthusiastic over Mompesson House — " A perfect 
specimen of a country town house of the Renaissance period." After 
this comes Mrs. Jacob's house, No. 68, built by Dr. Heale in 1720 and 
inhabited by six generations of the Jacob family. No. 69 was built by 
Isaac Walton early in the 18th century. All these houses as well as the 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 13^ 

Choristers' School show the influence of Wren who surveyed the 
Cathedral in 1668. 

Of the King's House he tells as that it is first mentioned in 1446 
when it wanted repair. Hugh Powell lived here and perhaps altered it 
in 1569, and Thomas Sadler added several rooms in the 17th century. 

"Hemingsby," in the corner of the Close, named after Alex, de 
Hemingsby, is built of materials from Old Sarum. It retains its Chapel 
intact, but ceased to be a canonical residence after the death of 
Matthew Marsh in 1848. An account of it from a M.S. Survey of the 
Close in 1649 is given. 

The author reminds us that it is to Bishop Barrington that we owe 
the Close lawns as they now exist as " The finest Cathedral setting in 
the world " in the place of the common cemetery that existed round the 
Cathedral before his time. 

A more charming memento of Salisbury does not exist. 

Stonehenge and its Date. By R. H. Cunuing^ton. 
Methuen & Co. (1935). Cloth, cr. 8vo., pp. vii + 135. 14 

illustrations. Price 5s, 

This book begins with a general description of the structure, and the 
methods employed in its erection, the author dwelling especially on the 
accuracy and refinement of its plan as showing a probable knowledge 
of Greek and classical architecture. He dwells for instance on the fact 
that the inner face of the outer sarsen ring is a true circle in spite of the 
difference in the thickness of the stones, and that the circle is most 
accurately divided into 30 equal parts except that the two stones at the 
entrance are 12in. further apart than any of the others, and were 
obviously so arranged on purpose. Again the shaping of the lintels, 
with a convex curve on the side, and 6in. wider at the upper than on 
the under surface, with the obvious desire to " eliminate the effect of 
perspective," seem to argue a knowledge by the builders of Greek 
principles of building. Of the two Bluestone lintels he does not think 
that they ever formed part of a lintel circle elsewhere. None of the 
circles in the Prescelly neighbourhood are of an advanced type, and no 
lintels are known anywhere in England. " It is much more likely that 
they were cut at Stonehenge with the intention of using them as lintels, 
and that they are now amongst the circle stones in consequence of a 
change of plan or reconstruction." As to the altar stone he considers 
that the evidence on the whole supports the idea that it was always 
prostrate and never stood upright, and instances the occurrence of the 
child's grave at Woodhenge across the axis of orientation as analogous. 
Of the " Four Stations " he remarks that the explanation given of them 
in the official guide book is " certainly wrong, the stones do not mark 
the rising of the sun at the winter solstice or its setting at the summer." 
He points out that Stone's idea that a layer of tabular sarsen occurred 
on the Plain and not on the Marlborough downs, is negatived by the 

140 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

fact that at Avebury many of the stones are large masses of tabular 
sarsen. He regards Woodhenge as probably the prototype of Stone- 
henge, the first in wood the latter in stone. He thinks that the Blue- 
stone horseshoe is later than the sarsen circle. 

He regards the axis of the monument as well as that of the Avenue 
as intentionally aligned on the mid-summer sunrise, but the notion 
that such an elaborate structure should be set up as a Farmers' Guide 
to the Seasons, is absurd. If it was for dating purposes at all, it was most 
likely for the correction of the calendar, caused by the difficulty of 
reconciling the lunar month with the solar year. But if this was its 
purpose, a very primitive age would have no use for such refinements, 
and its date must be brought down to nearly classical times. 

An interesting section deals with the position from which the observer 
saw the sunrise. The common supposition is that he stood and looked 
through the central trilithon and the entrance, but as Col. Cunnington 
points out the central stone of the Bluestone Horseshoe, now fallen, 
stood at least seven or eight feet high and would have hidden the sun- 
rise from the observer. He suggests that he stood on the bank whence 
he could see over the Bluestone, l^ut could not see the sides of the 
entrance stones. This might have been got over, however, by a rod 
across the entrance with the centre marked on it. He concludes, how- 
ever, that Lockyer's calculations were unsound, and that the central 
axis cannot be determined with the necessary accuracy, for an error of 
one inch in the position of the centre of the sarsen circle would mean a 
difference of 400 years in the date. He suggests the use of the Friar's 
Heel stone as the pointer. It cannot indeed ever have pointed to the 
actual sunrise (i.e. the first flash) but it may have done so to the fully 
risen sun. The only position for an observer in this case would be 
standing on the altar stone itself. The date calculated by this method 
is 400 or 500 years later than that given by the central axis. " The 
Friar's Heel alignment gives a date anywhere between 500 B.C. 
and 500 A.D. and since for other reasons a date after the Roman 
Conquest is impossible, the date must be roughty between 500 B.C. 
and our era." His measurements are based on Petrie's and 
Lockyer's. The- argument as to the date takes up the latter half of the 
book. The ditch must have been laid out first, because it is a true 
circle, made no doubt by a picketed cord, which could not have been 
used if any of the stones had been on the ground at the time. Probably 
the Aubrey holes came next. As regards the bearing of Woodhenge on 
the date of Stonehenge, he regards the former as the prototype of the 
latter, and considers the orientation of Woodhenge as proved. Its 
date cannot be fixed until more is known about its peculiar pottery, 
but it is probably about 1500 B.C. If this is so, its wooden pillars could 
not have lasted more than say 200 — 300 years. Thus if th'e Stonehenge 
builders saw and copied it, the date of the latter must have been not 
later than 1300 or 1200 B.C. But Col. Cunnington is obviously inclined 
to throw over Woodhenge, as well as Boles' Barrow, and to rely on the 
other evidence which points to a later date. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 141 

Of the ditch of Stonehenge, regarded by many as NeoUthic, he says 
that nothing characteristic of that period, either in flint, bone or pottery, 
was found in it. He even goes so far as to suggest of the stone mace 
head found with a cremation (of the Bronze Age apparently) — •" May 
have belonged to a modern Druid with antiquarian tastes." This bit 
of special pleading is a pity. 

As regards the Z and Y holes, which it is agreed were dug to contain 
stones, but were filled in again without the stones having been erected 
in them, owing apparently to some alteration of plan, it is not disputed 
that they contain a considerable amount of pottery identified as of La 
Tene or late Early Iron Age date. Mr. Newall considered that these 
holes were dug in the Early Iron Age after the completion of the rest of 
the monument. Col. Cunnington on the other hand argues that the 
holes would not have been dug unless the stones they were intended to 
contain had been on the spot to begin with. If so what became of 
these stones ? He notes that there were about 60 holes for stones, and 
originally there were about 60 stones in the Bluestone circle (not horse- 
shoe) which would have fitted them. " It seems safe to conclude that 
the Bluestone circle stones were originally intended for the Z and Y 
holes, and that they were put up soon after these holes w^ere dug, that 
is to say, late in the Early Iron Age." 

" The evidence of the Z and Y holes points to a late date in the Early 
Iron Age for the Bluestone circle, but does not bear directly on the 
rest of the monument. All that can be said is that it was then a going 
concern." As to the blue stone in Boles' Barrow, that cannot be cited 
as evidence of the Neolithic date of Stonehenge. All that it proves is 
that blue stones from Prescelly were brought to Wiltshire in that age. 
Probably the stones of the Bluestone Circle and Horseshoe came at the 
same time and were in Wiltshire, possibly as a circle, long before they 
were used in Stonehenge. 

Col. Cunnington claims also that the snail evidence is in favour of a 
late date. Samples from the ditch and elsewhere, all showed that the 
conditions and climate were those of to-day, i.e. were not those of the 
much wetter climate of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age times. He 
claims also that the astronomical calculations point to a date of between 
500 and 400 B.C., that Hecateus' reference (cir. 320 B.C.) may really 
have been to Stonehenge, and that the evidence on the whole, as he 
sees it, tends to the same conclusion. He even has the courage, follow- 
ing Mr. Kendrick, to hint that the Druids in spite of the obloquy that 
has been poured upon them, may after all have had a hand in the 
planning and building of Stonehenge. The book is written in simple 
language, which will appeal to the man in the street, and the arguments 
are given as a rule concisely and not unfairly. It is, that is to say, a 
clear and straightforward presentment of the case for the later date of 
the monument, as favoured by what has been called in derision the 
" Devizes School." Noticed Wiltshire Gazette, April 11th, 1935. 

142 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

On the nature, origin, and climatic significance 
of the Coral Reefs in the vicinity of Oxford. By 

W. J. Arkell, D.SC , F.G.S. Quart, jour. Geolog. Soc, vol. xci, 
pp. 77 — 110, with folding map, 1935. The author sums up the object 
of this paper thus. 

" The object of the paper is to discuss afresh, and if possible to 
clarify by a study of a particularly favourable area, the disputed 
questions as to the reef origin of the Coral Rag, and the conditions 
under which it was formed. A stretch of outcrop west of the 
Thames near Oxford, lying in Berkshire . . . has been mapped 
on the 6 inch scale with special reference to the distribution of the 
Coral Rag and the bedded detrital deposits called Wheatley Lime- 
stones, Nodular Coralline Rubble, Headington Hard, Pendle, &c. 
The conclusion is reached that all these deposits are interchangeable, 
and that those of like facies are not necessarily more nearly 
contemporaneous than are those of unlike facies. A large number 
of temporary exposures afforded by the " development " of the area 
are recorded and their essential features briefly summarised. The 
resulting map shows that the Coral Rag is distributed in irregular 
patches, which are interpreted as reefs in position of growth, 
separated by tongues and strips of the bedded detrital Wheatley 
Limestone types of deposit, which are interpreted as channels 
iilled with, current-bedded debris. The peculiar features of the 
Coral Rag and its fauna are pointed out, with the evidence for its 
being in situ ; and the view expressed from time to time that it 
represents merely ' beds of rolled ' or ' drifted ' corals is shown 
to be untenable. The coral leefs of which the Coral Rag is held 
to comprise the fossilized remains are compared with living reefs 
at the present day, in regard to form and mode of growth, numbers 
of species of corals and other reef-dwelling fauna, and luxuriance of 
growth of individual corals. The conclusion previously formed 
that they represent fringing reefs (in Darwin's classification) grown 
in a shallow sea, is confirmed. An attempt is made to deduce 
something of the climatic and tectonic conditions under which the 
reefs arose. Emphasis is laid on the connexion between the 
occurrence of corals and calcareous sedimentation at all geological 
periods and partly on this account the view is put forward that the 
fossil fringing reefs like the living, grew on a rising sea-bed. . . . 
Support is given to the opinion of the early geologists such as Lyell 
and Wright, who inferred a subtropical if not tropical climate for 
the Corallian period and most of the Jurassic time in Britain." 

This is a very important paper, and its arguments and conclusions 
apply to the Corallian of N. Wilts, of Highworth, Wootton Basset, and 
Calne as well as to the beds of the Oxford neighbourhood. 


Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 143 

Parson's Pleasure by W. S. Swayue, sometime 
Bishop of Iiincoln, with Portrait. Wm. Blackwood 
& Sons, Edinburgh & London, 1934. Cloth 8vo., pp. 

ix + 319. 

This book is an autobiography of its author and the first half of it is 
largely taken up with memories of Wiltshire places and Wiltshire people. 
The author was the son of William John Swayne, Curate of Whiteparish, 
and his wife, Diana, daughter of William Pigott Shuckbargh, of the 
Moot, Down ton. The Vicar of Whiteparish and of Sherfield English 
lived at Torquay and each of his parishes was served by a Curate. The 
author writes interestingly of his childhood's reminiscences of 
Whiteparish Vicarage where he remembers the restoration of the Church 
by Butterfield. Of his first school, St. Mark's, Windsor, he has some 
excellent stories to tell, especially those of the " cock " and the " sneak " 
of the school, and the catapulting of Prince Christian's horse in Windsor 
Great Park. In 1874 his father became Vicar of Chitterne, where he 
imbibed a love of the Plain and the sports connected with it, 
including hawking, with peregrines by Major Fisher, and with merlins 
by Mr. Mitchell. He recalls the many families of the Wylye valley, 
the Fenwicks at Fisherton Delamere, the Wynne Wilsons and 
Wightwicks at Codford St. Peter, the Eliots at Norton Ba'vant, Holmes 
a Court at Heytesbury, Col. Everett at Sutton Veny, Canon Bennet at 
Maddington, the Rev. G. Hext at Steeple Langford, and Mr. Powell at 
Brixton Deverill. Of old Mr. Wlghtwick he remembers the gamecocks 
who fought in his yard, and the story of how, when one of his 
parishioners was summoned for milking his cow on the sly, he overtook 
him on the road to the Petty Sessions, and not only gave him a lift but 
also a guinea to pay a lawyer to defend him, because " he liked to see 
fair play." At Chitterne, too, he remembers a meeting where Walter 
Long and Arch, the founder of the Agricultural Labourers' Union held 
a public discussion. At the village feast there a folk dance called 
Bricks and Mortar which he says has never been " revived " was part of 
the regular proceedings. In 1875 he left Windsor and went to St. 
Paul's College, Stony Stratford. Thence he went on to New College 
w^here he gained a scholarship, and he has much to say of his life in 
Oxford. As his father became Rector of Heytesbury, he saw a good 
deal of Bishop John Wordsworth, and records several of his quaint 
ways. Ordained Deacon 1885 and Priest 1886, he married first in 1886, 
Louise, d. of John des Reaux, of St. Mary's Manor, Jersey, and secondly 
in 1917 after her death, Angelique, d. of Will. Walker Farquharson, of 
Edinburgh. He held curacies at Emery Down where he learnt to know 
and love the New Forest country, and at Stalbridge (Dors.). In 1890 
he became diocesan preacher and lecturer in Lichfield Diocese, then 
Vicar of Walsall, Chaplain in the S. African War, and Vicar of St. 
Peter's, Cranley Gardens. In 1914 he enlisted as a private in the Inns 
of Court Volunteers, and served in charge of a Y.M.C.A. Hut at Rouen, 
where his skill as a boxer stood him in good stead. After fifteen 

144 Wiltshive Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

months as Dean of Manchester, he became Bishop of Lincoln, an office 
which he has only recently resigned. A most readable and interesting 
book, both from a Wiltshire and from a general point of view. 

Stukeley, Avebury and the Druids. By Stuart 

FiggOtt. Antiquity, March, 1935, pp. 22 — 32, with an illustration 
of a drawing by himself, of Will. Stukeley and his wife Frances, and 
three reproductions of MS. plans of the " Sanctuary " on Overton Hill, 
and of the engraving of it in Stukeley 's Abury. This is a most interest- 
ing and valuable account of Stukeley and his work and place in the 
archaeological world. Mr. Piggott begins with the statement that 
Stukeley was the greatest of the early antiquaries of the 18th century, 
and proceeds to trace the history of his life and work as explanatory of 
the " Mixture in his published account of Avebury, of sound field work 
with so much fantastic theorising that in popular estimation the second 
characteristic has swamped the first." Mr. Piggott in this article makes 
great use of the collection of Stukeley's MSS. and drawings in the 
possession of Mr. Alexander Keiller. Born at Holbeach (Lines), the 
son of a lawyer, John Stukeley, in 1687, he was admitted as a pensioner 
at Corpus Christi Coll., Cambridge, in 1703. In 1709 he went to study 
medicine at St. Thomas Hospital, London, having already " conceived 
a passionate love for antiquitys." He practiced medicine in Lincoln- 
shire and London for ten years. In 1717 he became F.R.S. and was 
the first secretary of the Society of Antiquaries upon its foundation. 
He became a friend of Roger Gale, s. of the master of St. Paul's School, 
who had had access to the MS. of Aubrey's " Monumenta Britannica," 
whilst it was in the hands of Churchill, the bookseller. This probably 
led the two to make an expedition to Avebury and Stonehenge in 1718. 
Aubrey was the first to claim these two monuments for the Druids, and 
probably Stukeley built up his structure of fancy in after years on 
Aubrey's foundation. He spent a fortnight each year in 1721, 1722, 
1723, and 1724, at Stonehenge and Avebury. In May, 1719, he made 
his first " Rude General Sketch " of the circles and head of the Kennet 
Avenue in his common place book. In 1722 he made a first draft of a 
large scale plan of the circles, and discovered the problematical Beck- 
hampton Avenue. In 1723 he made a drawing of the circles of the 
" Sanctuary " on Overton Hill, and called it the " Temple of Ertha." 

Mr. Keiller also has a panoramic view of the whole of Avebury made 
in 1723 showing a hypothetical circle at the end of the Beckhampton 
Avenue to balance that on Overton Hill, and called " The Temple of 
the Infernal Regions," a title afterwards erased. 1724 was his last year 
at Avebury, when he abandoned the theory of the Solar and Lunar 
Temples at Stanton Drew and the Temple of the Earth'. It seems it 
was his custom to have his drawings engraved at once, and then to 
c@rrect the proofs on the spot on his next year's visit. In this way the 
Temple of Ertha and the Temple of the Infernal Regions were erased, 

" Despite his scientific training it is clear that there had always been 
a strong underlying vein of mysticism in Stukeley's character, increasing 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 145 

as the years went by . . . and once he had begun to think about 
Druids his fancy led him into strange paths. He laid out ' a Druidical ' 
grove and temple in his garden at Grantham and in 1728 he buried a 
stillborn child ' ' under the high altar in the Chappel of my hermitage vine- 
yard . . . there we enterred it, present my wives mother and aunt, 
wdth ceremonys proper to the occasion." He had decided that every 
Pagan religion, particularly that of the Druids, was a foreshadowing 
not only of Christianity but of the doctrine of the Trinity. In 1729 he 
was ordained to the living of All Saints, Stamford. In that year he 
writes to Gale — " The form of that stupendous work (Avebury) is the 
picture of the Deity, more particularly of the Trinity ... a snake 
proceeding from a circle is the eternal procession of the son from the 
First Cause. . . . My main motive in pursuing this subject is to 
combat the deists from an unexpected quarter, and to preserve so noble a 
monument of our ancestors' piety, I may add orthodoxy.' " In his pre- 
face to Stonehenge, published in 1740, he explains that this and A bury 
are to be considered parts of a great work " Patriarchal Christianity, or 
a Chronological History of the origin and progress of true Religion and 
of Idolatry." Happily the only known instances in which he seems 
deliberately to have altered his field sketches to suit his theories, is that 
of the circles of the Sanctuary at the head of the Kennet Avenue. In 
Abury these appear as ovals, whereas in his original field plans preserved 
in the Bodleian and here reproduced, they are shown correctly as circles. 
Mr. Piggott suggests that this ' correction ' was made because the oval 
rather than the circle suits the theory of its being a representation of 
the serpent's head. Mr. Piggott sums up thus : — " His work during 
the ten years from 1718 shows him to have been the finest field 
archaeologist that England had so far seen, or was to see for a century ; 
for the next thirty -five he was instrumental in propagating theories the 
very imbecillity of which seems to have endeared them for ever to the 
public mind. Who shall apportion praise or blame to so contradictory 
a character ? " 

The Earthen Hill Top Camps of Wessex. By 
A. D. Fassmore. Swindon. Feb., 1934. Pamphlet 

8vo., pp. 7, unnumbered. 

This paper sets out to prove that the prehistoric camps of the down- 
land are strung out at regular distances apart round the edges of a 
certain area, and that inside this area there are no camps except 
j possibly one near the centre to act as capital. As an example he takes 
j the area of the high upland plateau with Swindon, Wantage, Newbury, 
j and Devizes at its corners. Why, he asks, are there, with one exception, 
I no camps in the interior of this area, whilst a number are set at regular 
j intervals round its edges, unless these latter were intentionally arranged 
l to guard the frontier of the space they enclose. He suggests that this 
area was that occupied by a single tribe or kingdom. He suggests that 
if measurements are taken it will be found that other similar areas in 
Wessex will be found to be marked out by similar lines of frontier 


146 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

camps. There should by rights, he maintains, be one strong camp near 
the centre of each of these areas, which stood for its capital. In support 
of his theory he maintains that the large camps show no signs of 
habitation and that the marks of Celtic fields, and the sites of the 
villages, are found in the interior of the areas and not in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the frontier camps. But surely such of the larger 
camps as have recently been excavated have shown that they had in 
most cases numbers of pit dwellings in them, and the fact that the sur- 
face even when ploughed shows no pottery or signs of habitation is no 
proof at all that pit dwellings lying below the surface are not actually 
there. Moreover, in the lines of camps on which he relies, he seems to 
include various earthworks such as Codford Circle, which apparently 
were not really camps, and others which have been proved to be of 
widely separated ages between the Neolithic and the Early Iron Age 
periods. It will, however, be interesting to see whether Mr. Passmore 
in his further investigations will be able to find other instances in 
Wessex where tribal areas appear to bounded by a ring of camps. 

The origin of the West-Saxon Kingdom, a lecture 
delivered on July 17th, 1934, at Wilton House. By 
G. M. Young in aid of the Wiltshire Branch of the 
Council for the preservation of Rural Bngland, 
Oxford University Press, 1934. Pamphlet 9in. x6in., 

price 2s., pp. 36. 

This is a picturesquely written essay, possibly indeed rather too 
picturesquely, for it is rather difficult at the first reading to see what 
the writer is really driving at. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the early 
charters, and the place names are all called as evidence, but it is a good 
deal of it evidence upon the value of which only an Anglo-Saxon scholar 
could express an opinion. He maintains that Wilton not Winchester was 
at first the real capital of the W^est Saxon Kingdom, and that it was the 
union of the two upon which that Kingdom was founded. " Winchester 
is never in the early centuries styled Villa Regia, it is the Bishop's town 
not the King's. They are twin capitals, religious and secular, an 
arrangement which seems to point to a very early union of two tribes, one 
contributing a Royal House and seat, the other centring on its principal 
Church. It suggests, almost, that the concordat of Wessex and Kent 
had been preceded by an earlier concordat of Wilton and Winchester, 
and that this forgotten transaction was the foundation of the West 
Saxon Kingdom." The Jutes in the south of Hampshire "belong to 
the Region of the Gewissas." Who are the Gewissas ? "They are 
the Royal tribe, the King's own people because the name Gewis occurs 
in the royal pedigree some steps above Cerdic the reputed founder of 
the Kingdom." The King's people round Wilton are "in many 
ways a race apart, distinguishable not only from the Jutes of Hampshire, 
but from the Saxons of the Thames Valley, and even of North 
Wiltshire." Birinus who worked in the Thames Valley, found the 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 147 

people a gens paganissima, and Mr. Young finds confirmation of this 
in the number of place names derived from the heathen gods in the 
N. Wilts charters of Froxfield, Avebury, Alton, Hardenhuish, Purton, 
and Ham. There are, he says, no such evidences of heathen worship and 
sanctuaries in the charters of South Wilts. He also lays stress on the 
use of the word landshare for " boundary " occurring eleven times in 
S. Wilts charters, as it does commonly in Devon, Dorset, and Somerset, 
but hardly ever in the rest of England. This he regards as showing a 
destinction between the Saxons of the north and the south of W^ilts, 
as does also the occurrence of the saucer brooch in the north and not 
in the south. 

Mr. Young sums up his contentions thus : — 

" What we set out to account for, if we could, was : the twin 
capitals, the union of Jutes and Gewissas, the sharp differences 
between north and south, the Kentish or Frankish affinities of the 
Southerners and the secular primacy of W^ilton. All these things 
are explicable on one assumption only, that the homelands of the 
West Saxon Kingdom are the valleys radiating from Britford, for 
which Wilton is the natural centre, and that they were occupied 
by a closely related group of kindreds coming from the sea. Once 
established, they spread by natural diffusion over the chalk country 
with which they had become familiar, dominating or absorbing the 
Jutish settlements round Winchester, and the British survivors of 
those Western Uplands, which in due course became the two 
Fonthills and the five Deverills. This reading of the story explains, 
too, why the chronicler having planted his West Saxons in Wilt- 
shire goes wandering off to the Thames Valley. He is reporting a 
different set of traditions relating to the expansion of the inland 
Saxons, the saucer brooch pagans, under their famous war-lord, 
Ceawlin. . . . At some date about the end of the sixth century, 
the clash came. Marching south along the Ridgeway, the Saxon 
was brought to battle on the downs above Alton Priors, by the 
Gewissas fighting for their own land, and embedded in the curt 
prose of the Chronicle, we have, I believe, a strain of their triumph 
song. ' Never,' it ran, ' since the English came to Britain, was 
there a slaughter like the slaughter round the Great Barrow, when 
Ceawlin was driven out ? ' The barrow yet stands, looking out 
over the vale of Pewsey. . . . Between Charford and Alton is 
the kingdom of the Gewissas. The victory at Alton established 
the house of Cerdic as the acknowledged heads of the Saxon con- 
federacy. For a generation we can trace them, very faintly, 
guarding their new-won lands against South Saxons and East 
Saxons. Then they begin to relax their hold, in face of a counter 
federation, the Mercians or South Angles. First the upper Thames 
valley goes, then the middle Thames, and the new bishopric is 
withdrawn from Dorchester to Winchester. The kingdom is con- 
centrating behind its natural frontier, the escarpment of the downs, 

L 2 

148 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets , and Articles. 

and wheeling from north to west. Historic Wessex is coming into 

shape. The King is at Wilton: his own people are now the 

Wilssete. As they expand, new groups take similar names, the 

Dorsaete drawing their landshares round Dorchester, the Fromsaete 

beyond Bradford. Then the frontier goes forward again and the 

Fromsaete are absorbed in the Sumorsaete. Eastward, the mixed 

territory is governed from Hampton, Winchester being the bishop's 

city, and therefore is called Hampshire. In the far west Devon is 

opening to colonisation. We recognise the five shires of Wessex. 

But at Rome they . . . will continue to speak of them as the 

Five Tribes of the Gewissas . . . and in the Welsh annals it 

is written — ' This year died Alfred, King of the Gewissas.' " 

There are a series of appendices on " The origin of the Landbook," 

he argues on the ground of the use or non-use of certain phrases in the 

charters that " on the whole, it seems to me that the conditions are 

best satisfied if we assume that Canterbury had a formulary of 

Italian origin brought by Augustine ; while, in the west, formularies 

were current, based on Welsh books which themselves reflected 

Roman gromatic practice." 

As to " The extent of the Jutish settlements," he says, " Good reasons 

can I think be given for supposing that Jutish settlements stretched, not 

necessarily, continuously, as far north as the Kennet Valley." This 

also is founded on certain phrases in the charters and on the existence 

at Overton of " Silvae forinsecae." 

There are further appendices on " The Archaeology of S. Wilts," 
" Related Personal Names in the Gewissan Area," and " The Double 
Tradition in the Chronicle." The whole of this paper is founded upon 
a wide study of the Anglo-Saxon charters and place names, and its 
conclusions can only be judged of by a specialist in these subjects. 

Superimposed cultivation systems by O. G-. S 

Crawford. Antiquity, March, 1935, pp. 89, 90, with air photo and 

" The area is on Thornham Down, and includes the south-western- 
most portions of Rushall, Upavon and Enford . . . 1^ miles S.W. 
of Casterley." 

" The older system consists of a series of ' ladders ' standing, so to 
speak, upon Old Ditch. The component parts were small rectangular 
fields of a common type, with some very pronounced lynchets. The 
biggest of these still stand out very clearly, throwing a strong 
shadow. They have survived even when the long swathe-hke 
ridges of the later system have obliterated the others ... at 
certain points the intersection of the two is very plain, both on the 
photograph and on the ground ; on the ground the later age of the 
'swathes ' is very plainly seen, for they cut right into the older 
lynchets. There can be little doubt that the later 'swathe ' is of 
Saxon or mediaeval date. The strip-like character of the cultivation 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 149 

alone would suggest this ; but even stronger evidence is to be 
found in the fact that genuine strip-lynchets occur on the slopes of 
Water Dean Bottom, extending almost continuously as far as the 
mouth of the Dean at Compton. It is difficult to dissociate these 
from the cultivation system here shown, which seems to be an 
extension of the Compton group. If they are Saxon or mediaeval 
then this photograph is an example of what has long been desired, 
namely, of the strip-system superimposed upon an earlier Celtic 
one. Evidence of early Saxon occupation has been found at West 
Chisenbury in the Avon Valley, only 2| miles to the north-east of 
Thornham Down. Here finds indicating a pagan Saxon cemetery 
were found in July, 1928. (PF..^ .M., xlv, 84.) . .• . It will be 
noticed that the Celtic system is aligned upon Old Ditch, a linear 
earthwork, consisting, where best preserved, of a low bank between 
two ditches." 

Salisbury Museum. The Salisbury Times, 30th November, 
1934, has a long article describing the developments which have taken 
place in the Museum during the last 21 years, since Mr. F. Stevens 
became controller. "Few local institutions have been so thoroughly 
changed for the better. ' ' Three new galleries now in use have been added 
through the generosity of Mr. William Wyndham, formerly of Din ton. 
The various collections are now admirably displayed and labelled. The 
collection of British birds, with the fine case of Bustards at their head, 
has been entirely re-organised with great advantage. Mention is made 
also of the other chief collections, of objects found during the drainage 
operations and iu other excavations, in Salisbury ; the large series of 
tobacco pipes from 1575 to the 19th century ; the British china in the 
circular room ; the remarkable collection of mediaeval pottery from Old 
Sarum and elsewhere ; relics of the Salisbury Guilds ; the cottage interior 
of 100 years ago ; objects from Old Sarum, from Stonehenge, from the 
barrows and flint mines of S. Wilts ; the collection of objects found in 
the Highfield pits many years ago ; and the recently acquired Wilton 
Hanging Bowl. Mr. Stevens's work for the last 21 years which now 
miakes so brave a show is justly praised. 

Devizes Corn Exchange. Capt. B. H. Cunnington in the 

Wiltshire Gazette of 5th April, 1934, gives from old records an account 
of the building of the present Corn Exchange. Previous to this " The 
corn market was held in the Market Place, the sample sacks of corn 
being placed against railings erected for that purpose and surrounding 
the Market Cross, illustrations of which are still extant. On October 
25th, 1855, a pubhc meeting was called by the Mayor, J. E. Hay ward, 
in the Town Hall to- consider the desirability of providing a covered in 
building for the corn market. A committee was appointed to carry 
out this proposal, which reported on three possible sites in April, 1856, 
and the site in the Bear yard was decided on. A subscription list was 

150 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

opened, and by August, 1856, ^2,072 had been promised. The Town 
Council adopted the report, and advertised for plans and designs. More 
than 50 designs were received, and that of William Hill, of Leeds, 
estimated to cost about ^1,500, was chosen. An illustration of this 
design, which is substantially that of the existing Corn Exchange, and 
another of the building which stood on the site it now occupies, accom- 
pany Capt. Cunnington's paper. The total cost of the building, 
including the site, amounted to ^3,456. The subscriptions amounted 
to ^2,652, and the balance of ^625 was raised by a mortgage on the tolls. 
The building was formally opened December 3rd, 1857. The figure of 
Ceres was the gift of Mr. C. Darby Griffith, M.P. for the Borough. 
Capt. Cunnington gives the regulations for the use of the Exchange, and 
adds full particulars of the tolls, etc., levied on various commodities at 
the markets and fairs. 

A Wiltshire Villag^e in the Eighteen Seventies. 

By William Henry Swift. The Salisbury journal of Sept. 
28th, Oct. 5th, 12th, and 19th, 1934, prints under this heading a series 
of reminiscences of life in Newton Toney as a boy, by the writer, whose 
aunt was the housekeeper at the Rectory, whilst his uncle was the 
village carrier, shopkeeper, farmer, and churchwarden of that time. It 
is a well-written simple account of the ordinary life of a Wiltshire 
village of the period. The school and its scholars, and the school treat 
at the Rectory ; the Church, the Village Hall and its entertainments, 
the tailor and the shoemaker, the village feast on Trinity Monday, &c. 
All these are described. It is all very humdrum and not in the least 
exciting, but it has the great merit of being an absolutely true picture 
and differs absurdly from the lurid descriptions of the villages peopled 
by brutal degenerates, which popular novelists of village life, for the 
most part nowadays prefer to depict. The Rector, the Rev. John 
Newton Peill, B.D., a fellow of Queen's College, Cambridge, is spoken 
of with most affectionate gratitude, and the reader gathers that it was 
owing to his teaching that the writer was able to go up to Cambridge 
himself in his turn. 

Malniestaury Abbey Church. Sir Harold Brakspear's 
detailed report on the condition of the vaulting of the eastern bays of 
the roof, which of late has caused alarm, gives a very full account of 
the building of these bays at the beginning of the 14th century, and of 
the various causes which have affected their stability, as well as the 
steps which are now imperatively necessary to secure the safety of the 
roof. These repairs are calculated to cost ^1000 to ;/^1500 and an appeal 
for this sum is being made. The report is printed in full in the Wiltshire 
Gazette, Oct. 18th, 1934. 

The Mummers of Potterne. The Wiltshire Gazette of 
Sept. 6th, 1934, contains a full account of the old mummers' play, as 
performed at Potterne cir 1860, by the Rev. Alfred Buchanan, son of 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 151 

Archdeacon Buchanan who was Vicar of Potterne for many years. The 
parts of K. George, Old Almanack, Valiant Soldier, Father Christmas, 
Little Man Jack, and Little Man John, are all recorded, and the musical 
setting of the lines which formed the original end of the play " Once 
we was wounded but now we're brought to life," &c., is given, as well as 
an illustration of the costumes worn by the performers. 

The Tenant of Sloperton Cottag^e : a Retrospect. 

By B. M. Gough. An article with illustrations of the Celtic 
Cross, and Sloperton Cottage, in the Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 6th, 1934. 
The Moores came to Sloperton in 1817. Some account is here given of 
Tom Moore's family life at Sloperton, and of his constant round of 
dinners at Bowood and other great houses in the neighbourhood, cul- 
minating in the invitation to stay at Erlestoke to meet the Duchess 
of Kent and the young Princess Victoria who came on there after she 
had opened the Victoria Park at Bath. 

Malmesbury Guardians and Workhouse, 1835— 

1850. Three articles in the Wiltshire Gazette in January and 
February, 1934, give a number of interesting extracts from the minute 
books. In January, 1850, there were 251 paupers in the workhouse, 
and out-relief was being given to many others in consequence of the 
severe weather throwing men out of employment. In March of that 
year the building of an infirmary at a cost of ^630 was decided on. In 
1837 it was decided that " Every two parishes if small and contiguous 
and every large parish shall provide a pall for the decent interment 
of the poor persons dying in such parishes . " In 1 839 a schoolmistress was 
appointed to the workhouse at £25 a year, and in 1847 a schoolmaster 
received ;/^35. The winter of 1838 was a very severe one and extra 
relief was given to 1069 outdoor paupers. From 1842 to 1850 numbers 
of paupers were emigrated to America. Thirty-five w^ent from 
Brinkworth in 1842 ; others from Charlton to Quebec in 1843 ; eighteen 
from Brinkworth in 1847 ; and fourteen from Somerford Magna in 1849. 
The workhouse was finally closed in 1933. 

The Chamberlains and Wiltshire. The Wiltshire 

Gazette, May 24th, 1934, quotes the following from the official organ of 
the National Federation of Boot Trades Association, at whose annual 
dinner Sir Austen Chamberlain had been the principal guest. 

"It is but fitting that the occasion should be represented by a 
member of a Cordwainer's family that has an unbroken record with 
the Cordwainers' Company for 200 years. Sir Austen himself 
became a liveryman in 1896, and is an honorary member of the 
Court of the Company. The first Cordwainer in the family was 
William Chamberlain, who came to London from Lacock, in 
Wiltshire. He was admitted to the Freedom of the Company in 

152 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

1740, and became Master in 1769. He was a shoemaker in Cheap- 
side, and had three sons, John, Wilham, and Joseph, all of whom 
were apprenticed to their father. William was Master in 1794, and 
Joseph in 1803. 

There were three grandsons of the original William Chamberlain, 
namely William, who became Master in 1825, Joseph, who became 
Master in 1848, and Richard, who became Master in 1848. (?) In 1848 
Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, the late Secretary of State for the Colonies, 
was the son of the last-named Joseph, and became a Liveryman in 
1863. Sir Austen Chamberlain, K.G., M.P., is his son. Altogether, 
the family has provided no less than six Masters of the Cordwainers' 
Company, which is unique in the history of the Company." 
Sir Austen said that his ancestor had been a malster at Lacock, and 
according to family tradition, his son was sent to London and appren- 
ticed at first to a pastrycook, but as that did not suit him, he was 
apprenticed to a Cordwainer, and in 1739 became a freeman of the 
company, and established a business in Milk Street in the City of 
London, and for four generations the business was carried on in the 
same premises by the same family. 

The Lake House Shoot. Article by Adam, Country Life, 
Oct. 27th, 1934, pp. 448 — 450, 8 illustrations. A day's shooting is 
described, with the various drives, Boreland Hill, Rox Hill, Scotland, 
Westfield, and Normanton Hill. 

The death of Henry Kathway at Malmesbury. 

The Wiltshire Gazette of April 3rd, 1933, gives an account of this crime, 
the victim of which was the tenant of Tockenham Manor Farm, from 
whose farming accounts the Gazette had already printed many extracts. 
He was found lying dead in a room at the King's Arms Inn, on the day 
of the fair, March 27th (the year is not recorded), having apparently 
been robbed after being drugged with laudanum by strangers with 
whom he was seen consorting after dinner. The depositions of the 
witnesses are very incomplete, but are given here as far as they are 

The Bright family and its connection with 
Lyneham and Christian Malford. This matter is discussed 

in the Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 30th, 1934, under the title, " Under the 
Old Apple Tree." There were Brights at Christian Malford in 1684 
but there seems to be no evidence that the family ever owned " Bright's 
Farm." There was a family of Brights at Lyneham but whether the 
great John Bright was connected with them seems doubtful. 

Wiltshire, by A. G. Street. One of the fifteen essays 
describing as many counties in English Country, edited by H. J. 
Massingham, 1934. Cr. 8vo., pp. 214—226. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 153 

Mr. Street takes the special characteristics of his own neighbourhood 
— that of Wilton and Groveley, as representative of the county as a 
whole. " The charm of Wiltshire is mainly due to two features of its 
countryside, the Downs and the water-meadows." So far as the Downs 
are concerned this is true both of the north and the south, but the 
water meads are only to be found in the south. He says again, " In no 
other county can one obtain such a view of the patchwork quilt of 
England's countryside." This again is probably true, but whether the 
fact adds to the charms of Wiltshire depends rather on the particular 
taste of the person who sees it. On the other hand most people, except 
indeed the " tidy farmer " who loves hedges only when they are straight 
and clipped, will agree with him when he writes of " these lovely untidy 
hedgerows of Wiltshire. . . . They seem to wander aimlessly across 
both valley and hillside, but at every season of the year they are 
beautiful. Wire makes a better fence, no doubt, but when biting 
winter winds sweep from the downs into the valleys the old untidy 
hedgerow has its economic value as a welcome shelter for both bird and 
beast. Let no man destroy one of these hedgerows without good 
reason, for he will find it difficult to replace." If Mr. Street had never 
written anything else, this at least would have been worth writing, and 

John Ivie, Mayor of Salisbury, 1626—27. The 

Salisbury Times of February 12th, 1932, contains an account of the 
unveiling in the Guildhall of a bronze tablet in memory of the city's 
most notable Mayor, and a long address by Mr. A. B. Lemon describing 
the work of the practical dictatorship established by John Ivie when 
almost the whole of the governing classes had fled the city, and he 
was left alone with a couple of constables to deal with the terrible 
visitation of the plague, during which the destitute unemployed 
numbered 2,700, and over 3,000 persons were in receipt of public relief . 
An excellent account of the really heroic efforts of the mayor. 

A Bibliography of William Beckford of Ponthill. 
By Guy Chapman in conjunction with JohnHodgkin. 
London, Constable & Co., Ltd., 1930 8vo., boards, pp. 

xxii + 128 [one of the series of " Bibliographic " Studies in Book History 
and Book Structure 1750—1900, Edited by Michael Sadleir]. 

This is an elaborate and scholarly bibliography of all the editions of 
Beckford 's works published during his lifetime. Posthumous editions, 
" almost innumerable " of Vathek, etc., are not dealt with. The only 
exceptions to this rule as far as Books are concerned, are the posthumous 
publications, the "Episodes of Vathek," "The Vision," and "Liber 
Veritatis." In addition to these, three other works, " Popular Tales of 
the Germans," " Repertorium Bibliographicum," and "A Dialogue in 
the Shades, etc.," attributed to Beckford, together with seven un- 
published prose writings, six translations, and published and unpublished 

154 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

pieces of music are described. At the end the seven known portraits of 
Beckford are described, with notes on their history and the known 
engravings of them. There is also a long note containing a new theory 
as to the production and printing of the original editions of Vathek. 
There are illustrations of a Beckford portrait, of a page of his very 
illegible diary, and 13 facimiles of the original title pages of his works. 

Salisbury, South Wilts and Blackmore Museum. 
Annual Report for 1933 — 1934. 

This is a record as usual of excellent work done. The total atten- 
dances were 12,970. The total number of annual subscribers was 206, 
and their subscriptions amounted to £221 Os. 6d., about seven times as 
much as the Museum Maintenance Fund subscriptions to the Devizes 
Museum during the same period. The great work of the year has been 
the completion of Wyndham Gallery No. 3, in which the casing has also 
been met by gifts from friends of the Museum. The later prehistoric 
and Saxon collections are now housed in this gallery. The insect col- 
lection has been improved and added to, and the Giant has been 
redressed. In fact the admirable arrangement, exhibition^, and labelling 
of the whole Museum which must strike everyone who visits it, is 
reflected in this full report. 

The Corallian Rocks in the New Railway Cuttini^ 
at Westbury, Wilts. By W. J. Arkell, D.Phil., P.G.S. 

Geolog. Mag., Ixxi, July, 1934, pp. 317—320. 

The loopway to by-pass the station at Westbury, begun in 1930 was 
finished in 1932, and the geology of the cutting was described by P. M. 
Matthew (" Description of G.W.R. cutting at Westbury, Wiltshire ") in 
Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc., 4, vii, Pt. v, 1932, pp. 382—7. 

" Since it affords the only complete section of the Corallian formation 
in the district, it is of great stratigraphical impDrtance. An appreciation 
of this importance prompts me to put the present account on record, 
differing as it does fundamentally from the description of Mr. Matthew." 
Dr. Arkell describes the various strata shown in the section with the 
characteristic fossils, the lower Calcareous grit at the bottom, the 
Berkshire oolite series, the Osmington oolite series, the upper Calcareous 
grit, and the Kimmeridge clay. The chief interest lay in the presence 
of the pebble bed, in the Berkshire oohte series, this being the most 
southern point at which these beds have been found. 

Wiltshire Centenaries of 1935. A long and useful 

article in the Wiltshire Times, Dec. 29th, 1934, mentioning a long series 
of notable Wlltshiremen, who were born or died, or published books, or 
occupied some important post in one ofthe previous 35s. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 155 

The Story of Bradford and its Churches. 2iid 
Edition. By Canon Harrington Clarke, B.D. [1934 ] 

Pamphlet, cr. 8vo., pp. 31. A useful little book with good illustrations 
of the Saxon Church (7), the Parish Church (3), the Vicarage, the Bridge, 
and the Barn. As regards the disputed date of the Saxon Church, 
A.D. 700 or 900, the authDr suggests that the walls may be those of the 
former date, repaired after the Daiish raids, and with the added 
ornament of the external arcading cut on the old walls, but this theory 
is surely ruled out by the fact that the courses of masonry were clearly 
built on purpose to fit the lines of the arcading. 

In the description of the Parish Church he mentions the 15th century 
reredos in the N. wall of the N. aisle, and the diverse theories as to 
what it really is, a reredos removed from its original position, or a shrine 
in its original place. The dates of the Flemish glass in a series of 
panels and medallions in the window on the south side are given, 1512 
to 1630. St. Mary's Chapel, Tory, is mentioned, as well as the old 
Church House, the Bridge Chapel, and the Barn and Barton Bridge. 

SherstOn Church. A short article by Alice C. Butler in 
A^. Wilts Herald, 21st Dec, 1934, mentions the principal features of the 
building with sketches of the corbel heads, and a good drawing of the 
" Rattlebone " chest said to date about 1300. 

Incised marks on Stonehenge Stones. The announce- 
ment that certain circles found by Mr. Alex. Keiller on a recently 
uncovered stone of the Kennet Avenue at Avebury, are difficult to 
explain as natural, and may be artificial, apparently prompted Dr. 
Ludovic McCellan Man, of Glasgow, to revive the old story of the 
incised markings on Stonehenge, ignoring the fact that Dr Thurnam 
and Mr. W. C. Kemm had dealt with these and proved them to be of 
recent origin. The editor of the Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 6th and 13th, 
1934, drew attention to this evidence, whereupon Dr. Mann declared that 
there were other markings besides the modern key-like figure on the 
same stone. The editor, however, declared that he himself and others 
had carefully examined the stone and that no such markings are visible. 

William Henry Fox Talbot of Lacock. The 

Inventor of Photography. The Wiltshire Gazette, 25th June, 
1934, contains an account of the visit of over 60 members of the Royal 
Photographical Society to Lacock Abbey on June 23rd in celebration 
of the centenary of Fox Talbot's invention. On this occasion there 
was an exhibition of early cameras used by him, and plates and prints 
from a large number of his first photographs. On this occasion his 
grandson, Preb. Clarke Maxwell, F.S.A., read a biographical paper on 
Fox Talbot which is printed in the Gazette with illustrations of Lacock 
Abbey, of Miss Talbot's reception of the members of the Photographic 

156 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Society, of the camera used by Fox Talbot, with a portrait of him, and 
reproductions of the first photograph taken by him (of a window at 
Lacock) and four other early photographs. Will. Henry Fox Talbot 
was the only child of William Davenport Talbot, of Lacock, and his 
wife, Lady Elizabeth Theresa Fox Strangways, eldest daughter of Hen. 
Thos., 2nd Earl of Ilchester. He was born at Melbury (Dors.), the seat 
of his grandfather. Lord Ilchester, Feb. 11th, 1800. His father died 
July 30th of that year, and his mother married Capt. Charles Feilding. 
He was educated at Harrow and Trin. Coll., Cambridge, B.A., 1821. He 
married, Dec. 20th, 1832, Constance, youngest daughter of Francis 
Mundy, of Markeaton (Derbys). He was High Sheriff 1840, and Liberal 
M.P. for Chippenham 1832—34. He died Sept. 17th, 1877. His 
election as F.R.S. in 1831 was in recognition not of his photographic 
discoveries but of his mathematical work. He was one of the pioneers 
in the decipherment of the Assyrian cuniform inscriptions, and through- 
out his life botany was his special hobby. At Harrow he would have 
been head of the school at 15 if he had not left. Some of his school 
letters are given as examples of his precocious knowledge. At 13^ he 
was in the 6th form. In 1821 he graduated at Cambridge as 12th 
Wrangler and obtained the 2nd of the chancellor's two medals, the 
highest classical honour then obtainable. In 1839 Talbot published 
his process of photography just before Daguerre published his. In 
1822 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society. He 
was deeply interested in Egyptian hieroglyphics. 

The White Horse of Alton Barnes (Berners) 
Wiltshire (1812). By Grey Chape. 1934. Cr. 8vo , 

pp. 9. Verses more or less descriptive of the cutting of the horse, with 
a view of it. 

Devizes Market Cross. How it came to be built. 

By B. H. Cunning^tOn. An interesting article in the Wiltshire 

Gazette, 24th Jan,, 1935, quotes a letter from Lord Sidmouth of Oct. 9th, 
1812, in answer to a letter from the Town Clerk of Devizes, William 
Salmon, reminding him of a promise which he was supposed to have 
given in 1797 — 98 to bear the whole expense of the erection of a new 
Market Cross. It seems extremely doubtful whether Addington, as he 
then was, Recorder of Devizes, gave such a promise at all, but it was 
reported that he did, and apparently he felt bound to redeem it, and 
spent ;^ 1,500 in erecting the existing Cross from the design of Ben Wyatt. 

Salisbury Museum Treasure Hunts by P. Stevens. 

In the Salisbury Times of Dec. 28th, 1934, Mr. Stevens dealing with the 
Amesbury neighbourhood, talks of the teeth of the mammoth and 
woolly rhinoceros from the gravel near the workhouse ; a large fragment 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 157 

of dolerite from a rockery at Lake House, probably brought from 
Stonehenge by Mr. Duke ; a greenstone axe hammer from Ratfyn and 
objects from the barrows on Boscombe Down and near Amesbury. 

The issue of January 4th, 1935 (No. 5), under the heading of 
Alderbury mentions a late Bronze Age chisel with socket and expanding 
blade ; an Iron Age pottery bowl ; three Neolithic axes in different 
stages of manufacture found together ; the Ivychurch sundial which is 
described at length, of a type which is much more frequent in Scotland 
than in England ; encaustic tiles, wooden roof bosses, and a stone 
capital from Ivychurch Priory. 

No. 8 in the paper of 18th January, 1935, deals with Milford Street, 
Salisbury, Palaeolithic flint implements from the gravel ; stained glass 
of the 15th century ; tablets of the wardens, the iron chest, and the 
earliest charter of the Tailors Company, as also the Giant and Hob- Nob 
which are relics of the Tailors Hall which stood in this road. There is a 
curious note of the finding of three examples of old shoes of the 17th 
century concealed in a house, apparently for luck. Two of these 
examples occurred in Milford Street, and one over the portico of 
Amesbury House. A sandbox in lieu of blotting paper which was in 
use in Milford Street from 1800 to 1927 is surely one of the latest to be 
used. In connection with it, it is remarked that the earliest mention 
of blotting paper is in 1465. 

Deu Svenska Fllckau, som blev Unglands fornam- 
sta dam. '' The Swedish Girl, who became 
England's most distinguished Lady." 

Under this title, Mr. Albert Lysander, Dean of St. Peter's Church, 
Malmo, Sweden, has contributed to Julhelg, a Swedish Christmas 
Magazine, an account of Helena Snakenborg, who with her husband, 
Sir Thomas Gorges, lies under the monument at the east end of the 
north choir-aisle in Salisbury Cathedral. The account is taken mainly 
from Canon Fletcher's paper in W.A.M., vol. xlvi, pages 15 — 34; but 
at the end of his paper the Dean has added some details with regard to 
the lady's family history which must be of considerable interest to those 
who are conversant with her story. This is what he tells us: — "Her 
father was Ulf Henriksson Snakenborg, one of Gustaf Vasas' highly 
trusted men, and a witness to Vesteras Arvforening 1544, as well as to 
the King's last will and testament 1560. He belonged to the old feudal 
family Baat, related by marriage to the Bonde family. This branch 
had taken the name Snakenborg from their mother's side, originally 
from Mecklenburg. Helena's father owned an estate in Upland, but 
spent most of his time at Fyllingerum in Ostergotland, between Soder- 
koplng and Weldemarsvik, near the present railway station Ringarum. 
Her mother, whose maiden name was Lillie, married after the death of 
her husband, an Englishman, by name Sigfrid Preston, a ship's captain 
in Sweden. This marriage probably had something to do with her 
daughter Helena's English connections. 

158 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Most of Helena's many sisters, who all stayed in Sweden, held court 
positions. One of them was married to Christoffer Gyllengrip beheaded 
by Charles IX for his loyalty to King Sigismund : another became the 
wife of Philip Bonde, the forefather of all the other branches of the 
Bonde family. She kept up a regular correspondence with this sister 
Karin Bonde, and two of her letters are still existant. The contents of 
the one, written after Queen Elizabeth's death, are purely personal. 
The other, written after James Ist's accession to the throne, contains 
some rather interesting information about the latest novelties in the 
fashions of the time. Fashion papers were as yet unknown. The 
Swedish in these papers is extremely good, considering that she had 
been nearly forty years in England. 

On the death of her parents, she inherited several estates in Sweden 
which were kept by her children right up to about 1660. The original 
documents concerning this inheritance are to be found in the collection 
of " Perme-Letters " in the University Library in Uppsala, and the deed 
of purchase, in English, in the archives at Savstaholm." 

An Introduction to the Archaeology of Wiltshire 
from the Earliest Times to the Pagan Saxons. 
By M E, Onnnington. 2nd Edition revised and 
enlarged. Devizes. Printed by C. H. Woodward, 

1934. 8vo., pp. xii + 167. Price 4s. 

The first edition of this most useful " Introduction to the Archaeology 
of Wiltshire " was published in 1933, and was noticed at some length in 
W.A.M., xlvi, 280 — 285. This edition having been quickly sold out, 
a second edition has now been printed. It is substantially the same 
as the first but contains 11 additional pages including a note on the Dew 
Pond on Milk Hill which has been identified with some certainty, with 
" Oxenmere " mentioned in a Saxon land charter of 825 A.D., thus 
establishing the antiquity of the Dew pond. In reference to the 
Chute find of British gold coins, the latest theory is mentioned, that 
the gold Macedonian Staters of which these British coins were degenerate 
copies, were current in Rome in great numbers, as spoils of war in the 
early 2nd century, and from thence found their way to Gaul and so to 
Britain. There is also a new section on the White Horses of Wilts, 
which indeed are not, except the Westbury example, of antique origin, 
but are often supposed to be so by visitors to the county. The earth- 
work enclosures are now arranged alphabetically by name. The paper 
cover hardly does justice to the value of its contents. 

The Wessex Magazine. Vol. i. No. i, April, 1935, 8vo. 

The articles touching Wiltshire in this first number of a new venture, 
are Moonrakings, March Bluster by A. G. Street ; Polo Prospects for 
the Coming Season by Col. V. N. Lockett (containing the programme 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 159 

for Norton) ; Wilton House Garden as laid out by Isaac de Caux by 
E. S. Rohde ; In Memoriam, the Rev. Gordon Soames, Rector of 
Mildenhall, by C. E. G. H. ; and the Wylye in the Drought by James 

Shell Guide to Wiltshire, a series of Views of 
Castles, Seats of the Nobility, iVEiues, Picturesque 
Scenery, Towns, Public Buildings, Churches, 
Antiquities, &c. (View of Fonthill Abbey before 
its collapse.) :Cdited by Robert Byron, London. 
The Architectural Press, Westminster. 9x7, pp. 62, 

map and plates of a Cottage at Cherhill ; Bratton Camp ; Stonehenge, 
from a painting by J. M. W. Turner ; Chapel on the Bridge, Bradford ; 
The Double-Cube Room, Wilton ; The Stourhead Nymph ; Aeroplanes ; 
Interior of Tisbury Barn ; St. John Monument at Lydiard Tregoze 
Church ; and Old Sarum by Constable from a print ; also two big 
Ammonites, presumably emblematic of " Shell." These plates with 
the cuts in the letterpress, Silbury Hill ; Saxon Church, Bradford ; 
Apostles in the porch of Malmesbury Abbey ; Roof of House, Lacock 
Abbey ; N. Front of Ramsbury Manor ; Gothic facade of Lacock Abbey ; 
Palladian Bridge at Wilton ; Woodwork at east end of Mildenhall 
Church ; Orangery at Bowood ; Entrance Gates to Fonthill ; Harden- 
huish Church ; Cherhill and Bratton White Horses ; Early 19th century 
House at Devizes ; Panorama of Industrial Swindon ; Pigs ; The 
Wiltshire Farm Labourer ; Meet of the Tedworth at Rainscombe ; Polo 
at Norton ; and Moonrakers ; are the best feature of the guide. 

The Gazetteer with short notices of the most interesting places in the 
county is uneven. Avebury for instance is up-to-date, and records Mr. 
Keiller's recent recovery of the Kennet Avenue — whilst Bradenstoke 
Priory is entered as still possessing Refectory, Cloisters, and " a great 
hall that is very fine " ! ! The notice of Cherhill perpetuates the popular 
I but unfounded error that the monument was built to commemorate the 
I birth of K. Ed. VI I. Clyffe Pypard Manor House is not of the 17th 
century, Ramsbury Church is not an Abbey, Cobshill in Berkshire should 
be Coleshill. Why is Trafalgar entered under " Silbury Hill " ? 

A very useful feature is the table of mileages to the important centres 
of England from the chief towns of Wiltshire. The most remarkable 
thing about the Guide is the cover with its " Composite photographs," 
of Salisbury Cathedral and Longford Castle joined together, and 
Longleat just below, with an immense crowd of Victorian schoolboys 
and undergrads on the roof of the castle, the Beaufort hounds in a farm 
yard between Longleat and the Cathedral, a gentleman on a hillside 
close by playing very violent golf, whilst a fox terrier smokes a pipe, 
and in the lower corner two ladies in Victorian puffed sleeves and straw 
hats make elegant butter and an old English sheep dog shakes hands with 

160 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

a young farmer of the period. On the other leaf, a young lady, a sister 
obviously of the butter makers, is playing croquet on the greensward 
just outside Stonehenge, using a Middle White Pig as the croquet hoop, 
whilst three other sisters sit waiting for her to finish her stroke, and yet 
another attends to a skep of bees, and a party of Wiltshire worthies in 
smock frocks and sunbonnets with their sheep look on, the whole scene 
being laid on the lawn of Wilton House. 



Presented by Mr. F. Porter Faussett : High Sheriff's Coach and set 

of Javelins from Hey wood. For the Bradford Barn. 

[The Javelins have been placed on loan at the Devizes 

Assize Courts.] 
,, Mr. Barclay Uncles : An old Wiltshire Plough. For 

the Bradford Barn. 
,, Mr. Iles, of Bencroft Farm : An old Breast Plough. 
,, Capt. Browne, of Aldbourne : An old Wiltshire Wagon. 

For the Bradford Barn. 
Mr. a. Shaw Mellor : Pocket Powder and Shot Flask. 
„ Mr. F. Stevens : A Plaster Model of the Highfield Pit 

Dwellings at Fisherton . 


Presented by Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot. : A collection of 
Devizes Political Squibs, 1832, &c. 

Two Pencil Drawings by Sam. Prout, of Silbury 
Hill, and the Stones at Avebury. 

Fees paid on the Translation of the Rt. Rev. the 
Lord Bishop of Oxford to the See of Salisbury. 
MS. Folio bound. (Bp. John Hume.) 

Twelve old Wiltshire Deeds. 

Mr. Ludlow goes for Old England. By R. V. 
,, Dr. G. S. a. Waylen : The Original Pen Drawing by 
L. H. Ravenhill of a Cartoon of George Wyndham in 
Punch, Sept. 14th, 1904 (framed) . George Wyndham 
is shown seated at a table as a poet ; in the back- 
ground is a bust of Gladstone with a Raven (Ld. 
Dunraven) perched on the head. Beneath are the 
words " Quoth Dunraven ' devolution ' only that and 
nothing more." 
,, Mr. B. H. Hankey : Eleven old Maps of Wiltshire, all 

new to the Society's collection. 
,, Mr. C. R. Everett : A parcel of Election Papers, Salis- 
bury 1832. 
,, Mrs. J. J. Hammond : Nineteen Wiltshire Deeds, 1614 

— 1794, various. 
,, The Author, Dr. W. J. Arkell, D.Sc, F.G.S. : " The 
Corallian Rocks in the New Railway Cutting at 
Westbury, Wilts." Extract from Geolog. Mag., 1934. 

On the Nature, Origin and Climatic Significance of 
the Coral Reefs in the Vicinity of Oxford. Reprint 
from Quart. Jour. Geolog. Soc, 1935. 

A monograph of the British Corallian Lamelli- 
branchia, Part VI II, 1934. 



Additions to Museum and Library. 

Presented by The Editor, Capt. Prest : " Journal of the Wiltshire 
Regiment," Vols. I to III, bound, and Parts 1 and 2 
of Vol. IV. Complete to date. 
,, The Author, Canon Harrington Clarke : " The Story 

of Bradford and its Churches." [1934.] 
,, The Publishers, Messrs. Methuen & Co.: " Salisbury, 
some Architecture in the City and the Close, illustrated 
and described by R. Grundy Heape, 1934." 4to. 
" Stonehenge and its Date," by R. H. Cunnington, 
' 1935. Cr. 8vo. 

,, Dr. J. F. S. Stone : Photographs of impression of hazel 
leaf on sherd of " Peterborough " pottery from 
Winterbourne Dauntsey. 

Trial Excavations in the East Suburb of Old Sarum. 
Reprint from Antiq. Jour., 1935. 
,. The Rev. B. W. Bradford : Comparative account of 
the Population of Great Britain in the years 1801, 
1811, 1821 and 1831 ; with the annual value of real 
property in the year 1815, &c. Folio, 1831. 
A large blank album. 
„ The Author : The White Horse of Alton Barnes (verses). 

Cr. Svo., 1934. 
,, Mr. R. T. H. James : " The Geology of Wiltshire," by 
H. B. Woodward. Reprint from The Jubilee Vol. of 
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English Gilde. The original ordinances of Early 
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The Earthen Hill Top Camps of Wessex. By A. D. 
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M 2 


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Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. 
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British Conchology, the Mollusca which now inhabit 
the British Isles. Vol. I, Land and Fresh Water 
Shells. By J. G. Jeffreys, 1862. Cr. 8vo. 

Allen, J. Romilly. Celtic Art in Pagan and 
Christian Times. 8vo. 1904. 

A History of British Reptiles, by Thos. Bell. 2nd 
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Cetacea, by Thos. Bell. 1837. 8vo. 

Dorsetshire Folk Lore, by J. S. Udall. 1922. 8vo. 
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(Chippenham), 1812. 
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Guide to Wiltshire. A series of views of Castles, 
Seats of the Nobility, &c., &c." [1935.] 4to. 
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The Re-excavation of the Dehus Chambered Mound 
at Paradis, Vale, Guernsey. 1935. 4to. 
Mr. H. Rivers Pollock : 24 Photographs of Character- 
istic Inhabitants of Erchfont. 


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Archaeological & Natural History 



Conreiirs, page 

Excavation of a Circular Mound on Totney Hill, 
KiNGSDowN, Box. August, 1934 : By A. Shaw 
Mellor 169—176 

A List of the Representatives in Parliament from 
1295 — 1832 FOR the County and Burroughs of 
Wiltshire as given in the Parliamentarv Return 
OF 1872. Vol. I (1295—1702), Vol. II (1705—1832) : 
Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley 177—264 

Notes. — A Saxon Burial of the Pagan Period at Wood- 
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of Jane Seymour by Wenceslaus Hollar. Potterne 1850 
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The Arms of Mrs. Anne Earle, of Harpenden, Herts. 
Bronze Dagger, Ashton Keynes. The Straw Plaiting 
Industry in Wiltshire. Avebury Church, Roodloft. 
Highway Church. Aldbourne Church Bells. Stone- 
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Fibula from Salisbary. Heraldry of Wiltshire. Inter- 
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The Roman Road on Hinton Down S.E. of Wanborough 
Plain Farm. Earth Circle at Sudden Farm, Burbage. 
The Meux Excavation at Avebury. An Early Oil 
Painting of Salisbury in the Museum 265 — 292 

Wilts Obituary 293 — 298 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 299 — 310 

Additions to Museum and Library.......... 311 — 312 


Plan of Excavation at Totney Hill, Box 170 

Straw Splitter 282 

Iron Sword from Battlesbury 285 

La Tene I Fibula from Salisbury 285 

Scale of Section of Roman Road and Lynchets S.E. of 

Wanborough Plain Farm 287 

Flint Saw and " Petit Tranchet " arrowhead from the 

original surface under the bank at Avebury 288 

An Early Oil Painting of Salisbury 290 

Hannington Manor 307 

Hannington Hall 308 

Devizes : — C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings. Station Road. 




NO. CLXiii. December, 1955. Vol. xlvii. 



By A. Shaw Mellor. 

Before proceeding to describe our operations on the Kingsdown 
Mound, it will be as well to give the reader some idea of the nature of 
the ground where the Mound is situated. Totney Hill is an outlying 
northern spur of the plateau extending southwards from the valley of 
the Box Brook ; this spur is well defined, immediately overhangs the 
hamlet of Ashley, and is about 500 feet above sea level. It forms part 
of the Common of Kingsdown, and its surface, in all probability, has 
never made the acquaintance of the plough. 

Immediately below the superficial turf and soil is the Bath Oolite ; 
here the strata are mainly horizontal, and for several feet below the 
surface the rock is extensively fractured, so that, in a vertical section, 
as exemplified in neighbouring quarries, it is seen to consist of horizontal 
layers of small fragments of Oolite with vertical joints. Among these 
layers of fragments here and there one finds large pieces of the rock, 
evidently of a harder and tougher nature, which have resisted fracture, 
and appear in the section as more or less flat stones, six inches and 
upwards in thickness, and often of considerable size. 

In the course of ages the smaller fragments near the surface, which I 
shall call the Brash, but which must not be confounded with the Corn 
Brash, this being a distinct geological formation, have been disintegrated 
and have disappeared entirely, leaving the large stones exposed in some 
cases above the turf, and this has given rise to apparent outcrops of 
rock on the surface of the common, so that in the region of our oper- 
ations there are quite a large number of stones, often of considerable 
size, lying exposed above the turf, frequently with a horizontal flattened 
surface, and in most cases showing signs of much weathering. These 
stones, as far as I have been able to discover, are usually lying on and 



Excavation of a Mound on Totney Hill. 

in the Brash, and it is easy to see that they are on their natural 
bed, and have never been moved by human agency. This is important, 
because it has to my knowledge been stated that some of them were 
placed in their present positions by man, and in some cases have been 
arranged to form stone circles. I considered this point when I first 




became acquainted with the stones, and came to the conclusion that 
they were in their natural position, and that their presence was due to 
the geological conditions prevailing. 

On one occasion, several years ago, when walking over the down, I 
noticed a low, inconspicuous, circular mound, approximately on the 
most elevated portion of Totney Hill. So inconspicuous is this mound 

By A. Shaw Mellor. 171 

that, had I not been closely observing the locality, it could easily have 
escaped my notice. It was fairly regular in outline, somewhat flattened 
in the centre, and showed no signs of having been opened. I assumed 
that it was an ordinary circular barrow, and reported it as such. I 
considered the project of opening it, and obtained the permission of 
the then Lord of the Manor to do so, but for various reasons I did not 
at that time carry out my intention. In the summer of 1934, however, 
I mentioned my discovery to Count von Ostheim of Rudloe Park, and 
finding that he was willing to co-operate, I obtained permission from 
Mr. Armand Northey, Lord of the Manor, to open the mound, and we 
commenced operations on August 13th, 1934. 

The site is about 30 yards due south of the 16th tee of the Kingsdown 
Golf Course, but by kind permission of the Golf Club the tee was shifted 
during our digging. We first fixed, as nearly as we could by sighting, 
the centre of the mound, and laid out a line from east to west across 
the centre point. The turf was removed along this line for a width of 
3 feet, beginning well outside the apparent edge of the mound ; this 
was done for the purpose of discovering whether there had been a ditch, 
no evidence of a ditch being visible on the surface. When the turf 
had been removed, it could at once be seen that, for a distance of about 
7 feet from the centre point on each side, the soil was blackened and 
showed signs of much burning ; both it and the deeper part of the turf 
in this region were impregnated with small fragments of charcoal. It 
was also evident that the underlying material was very stony, especially 
near the centre. 

We started to excavate our trench from the east, getting down to 
the Brash and proceeding inwards. There was no sign of a ditch, and 
it was difficult to see where the made ground forming the mound com- 
menced, it being much the same in character as the adjacent ground 
under the turf, but it was possible to judge the position of the edge by 
the colour of the material, that of the mound being decidedly brown as 
compared with the colour of the surrounding material, which was 
distinctly red. We decided that the made ground commenced at a 
point about 25 feet from the centre. We could find no signs of the 
original turf line, but on proceeding inwards we found occasional 
pieces of fibrous substance in the material excavated, which might well 
have been the remains of sods of turf. 

As we approached within a few feet of the centre, the material 
became more black in colour ; this was due to the presence of minute 
pieces of burnt stuff mingled with the earth and stones, a good deal of 
this stuff being wood charcoal. A few small fragments of pottery began 
to appear. Six feet from the centre a large, oblong stone was uncovered, 
lying mainly in the undisturbed Brash ; this was carefully defined, and 
its inner end was seen to be covered by a still larger stone, which 
.occupied the centre of the mound. The edges of this latter stone were 
then defined, and it was found to be roughly four feet square, with 
uneven surfaces, the upper surface much weathered and resembling the 
weathered surfaces of the exposed stones in the neighbourhood. The 

N 2 

172 Excavation of a Mound on Totney Hill. 

stone was lying with its four sides nearly facing the points of the com- 
pass, and showed no signs of having been shaped ; the upper surface 
was blackened as if fires had been kindled on it, and was immediately 
underneath the superficial turf originally removed. 

While removing the material surrounding the centre stone a few 
small fragments of bone were seen, and we soon came to the conclusion 
that they were of human origin ; this was immediately confirmed by 
the appearance of a few unmistakable human teeth, scattered among 
the debris. 

As soon as the centre stone was properly defined, preparations were 
made for raising it ; this was done by lifting the eastern side, so that 
the stone stood on its western edge. It was at once evident that it had 
been lying on its natural bed in the Brash, and had never been disturbed 
before ; it varied from six to nine inches in thickness, and the under 
surface was roughly flat. The smaller oblong stone was then also 
raised, and this too had evidently never been disturbed. A few other 
smaller stones, similarly disposed, were found near the centre stone, all 
at a lower level. 

The trench was continued to the west of the central stone, and the 
conditions found were of a similar character. As the findings so far 
were indefinite, it was decided to investigate the material of the mound 
near the centre stone ; this was done as far as evidence of the existence 
of bone or pottery was discovered, and the relics were collected. When 
it was found that the material examined no longer contained bone or 
potsherds, the main excavation was discontinued, but trial holes were 
dug in various parts of the mound ; these holes, however, yielded 
nothing unusual. The excavations were then filled in and returfed, the 
centre stone being replaced with sufficient stone packing underneath it 
to bring its upper surface just above the final turf level. 

The maximum height of the turf surface of the mound above the 
level of the undisturbed Brash was about fourteen inches ; the bone- 
bearing material was nearly all concentrated on the south side of the 
central stone, extending to a distance of about ten feet from the centre 
point, but fragments of bone were found all round the stone in its 
immediate neighbourhood. Much charcoal was found wherever bone 
was present, but with the exception referred to later, none of this bone 
showed signs of burning, but presented the usual appearance of bone 
buried for many years in light soil. A good deal of the more fragile 
bone was partially decayed, especially the cancellous tissue ; in fact, 
far the larger portion of the bony remains consisted of skull bones and 
portions of the shafts of the long bones. But the most conspicuous 
relics as regards number were the teeth ; of these a total of two hundred 
and twenty were found, nearly all separate, but in nine cases still in 
position in fragments of jaw. The length of the longest bone fragment, 
part of the shaft of a femur, was 5^ inches. A certain number of the 
smaller pieces, amounting in all to about two handfuls, had evidently 
passed through fire, and prese.ited the usual appearance of burnt bone ; 
these pieces were nearly all found either in the deeper layers of the 

By A. Shaw Mellor. 173 

turf, or immediately beneath it, but some of them were found associated 
with unburnt fragments. 

The potsherds were found scattered among the bones, and varied in 
size from pieces three inches across to pieces as small as a pea. Other 
finds included a few fragments of animal bones and animal teeth, 
portions of two flint flakes, a few small amorphous pieces of flint, some 
modern iron nails and scraps of iron, a few chips of modern glass and 
china, and one small decayed vitreous bead. A considerable number 
of the small pieces of stone in the excavated material were blackened, 
and showed signs of the action of heat. 

Shortly to sum up the facts as discovered by the diggers, this was a 
low, circular mound, maximum height fourteen inches, composed mainly 
of very stony soil similar to the soil in the immediate neighbourhood, 
built round a large, flatfish stone about four feet square, which must 
originally have been lying exposed on the surface of the ground, and 
whose upper surface and the soil of the mound around it showed signs 
of one or more considerable fires. Scattered in the material of the 
mound round the stone under the turf were many fragments of human 
bones, numbers of human teeth, and a good many potsherds ; these 
objects were mingled indiscriminately. No evidence of any interment 
was discovered, and no sign of any cist or cinerary urn. The collection 
of bones can be best described as smashed human skeletons, so smashed 
indeed that very little can be made out as to the number, size, sex or 
race of the originals. Many of the fragments were partly decayed ; a 
very small proportion had been subjected to the action of fire. 

Bones and Teeth. 
The bones were submitted to the Conservator of the Royal College 
of Surgeons for examination ; here is his report : — 

"Dr. Cave and I have looked through your collection of bones and 
teeth, which came in September. As Miss Tildesley warned you, they 
are in such a fragmentary condition that their repair or reconstruction 
is utterly impossible, nor are the remains productive of the kind of 
information you require. 

We have done what we could to answer your several enquiries, as 
follows : — 

Number of individuals. Certainly two adults (one a robust male) ; 

one (possibly female) adult ; at least one child. 
Age of individuals. Adults mature ; the male probably at or past 

middle age ; child from six to eleven years. 
Fractures. Practically no large bone entire. Impossible to state 
with certainty the mode and time of fracture. There is no 
evidence of ante-mortem fracture ; earth pressure may account 
for many breaks. 
Incineration. The (probably human) bones in the small box are 
all calcined : they show fissuration and warping due to fire. 
Though most likely human, there is no certain evidence amongst 
them for a positive diagnosis. 

174 Excavation of a Mound on Totney Hill. 

Racial Affinities. No available satisfactory evidence to formulate 

an opinion on this point. 
Animal bones. Mostly dog and ox. 
Animal teeth. Numerous dog teeth ; one sheep tooth. 
Human teeth. Many of these may well represent all that survives 
of individuals not otherwise represented in these osseous remains. 
Thus, the findings are disappointingly negative, but no reliable con- 
clusions can be drawn from such fragmentary material." 

With a view to obtaining more definite evidence as to the number of 
individuals who are represented by these bone fragments, I have made 
some calculations from the number of teeth as follows ; — 
Incisors and Canines 102 

Bicuspids 27 

Upper Molars 37 

Lower Molars 54 

There are six lower molars in the ideal adult human skull, and four 
in that of a child. Ignoring for the moment the molars of the one child 
present in the remains, it would probably be safe to say that usually 
the average number of molars present in the adult lower jaw is at most 
five, even in the golden past. Taking five as the average, w^e have 
therefore ten adult lower jaws represented, and one of a child. If we 
take the full number of six lower molars in the adult, there are at least 
nine adults represented, and one child. So much for numbers. The 
chief evidence of the presence of a child is a fragment of lower jaw con- 
taining two unerupted molars in position : there are also several first 
dentition incisors present. The teeth generally are in sound condition : 
there is slight caries in two or three molars, but not to the extent 
usually present in Saxon skulls, or skulls of later date. 


The potsherds were submitted for examination to Mrs. B. H. 
Cunnington. Her opinion is that none of the sherds are later than 
Late Iron Age, and all of them may be regarded as of Iron Age period, 
with the exception of four small pieces, evidently from the same pot, 
with an impressed "maggot" type decoration, nearly identical with 
some of the pottery from the West Kennet Long Barrow. This pot 
probably dates from the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age. I have 
made some detailed investigations regarding the character of the paste 
of which the sherds are composed, their thickness, colour, and the type 
of their external "finish." Even to the casual observer it is at once 
evident that these are the remains of several pots, and my examination 
has led me to the conclusion that the fragments represent the remains 
of seventeen different pots. 

In only one case are there sufficient fragments to assume that the 
pot has been fractured in situ ; in the other cases it would appear likely 
either that many of the fragments have not been recovered, or that the 
sherds represent pots that have been broken in some other place. 

With regard to the other finds, the bead is in too poor a condition 

By A. Shaw Mellor. 175 

for anything definite to be made out about it, and the presence of the 
few animal bones and teeth is probably accidental. As regards the 
flint flakes it seems reasonable to assume that they are associated with 
the bones and the pottery, and that their presence is not accidental. I 
am informed that flint implements of this type are found in association 
with remains of nearly any period, and that they cannot be used for 
dating purposes. 

So much for the facts discovered during this excavation. An 
explanation to fit all the facts has not, as yet, been forthcoming. The 
writer has his own opinion as to the origin of the mound, but he realises 
that his views have no secure foundation, and he does not venture to 
express them in print. He has received suggestions from many sources ; 
these include a gibbet, the results of a rifled burial, a beacon hearth, 
and a site for executions, witch burnings, or sacrifices ; a connection 
has even been suggested with right-angled triangles and the cult of the 
Great Pyramid ! 

But although there must be much doubt as to the object of the 
mound, there are four features in connection with it about which 
we can be reasonably certain ; these are the central stone, the mound 
itself, the bone fragments, and the potsherds. With regard to the 
stone, all the evidence tends to show that this is the earliest feature ; it 
was undoubtedly there before the mound, and for some reason it may 
have been selected for the purpose for which the mound was made. 
Then we come to the mound, the bones, and the potsherds ; which is 
the earliest of these three features ? Here we are groping in the dark, 
because we do not know the purpose of the structure, but I think that 
the most reasonable supposition is that they are contemporaneous, or 
nearly so. As regards the fire or fires, these again we may assume to 
have occurred about the same time, and in all probability they are 
connected with the other features. 

Is it possible to suggest a date for the structure ? The bones and 
potsherds were found intermingled, and it seems reasonable to suppose 
that they are contemporaneous ; in that case the assumption is that the 
date of the construction of the mound is during the Iron Age, probably 
before the Roman invasion. One objection to this assumption is the 
presence of the four small pieces of West Kennet pottery, but I am 
inclined to believe that their presence is accidental. 

Local tradition at the present time is silent on the subject. Indeed, 
when we were turning our first sods the " oldest inhabitant ' ' approached, 
and, after watching our proceedings for some time, thus expressed his 
views : " You won't find nothing here. Sir ; the three Kings is buried 
over there," pointing in the direction of the cluster of three barrows 
near Hatt House, distant just over a mile. There have been bonfires 
on Totney Hill, but they have been placed about two hundred yards 
further north, according to the old people. 

A Manorial map, dated 1630, gives the name of the hill as Totehill, 
but no other relevant information. 

In The Gentleman's Magazine for 1831 a correspondent writes : — "I 

176 Excavation of a Mound on Totney Hill. 

venture to call the attention of your readers to a remarkably shaped 
hill overlooking the village of Box called Tautney Hill, and to suggest 
whether it has not been anciently dedicated to the Celtic Mercury Tot, 
as a presiding deity to a British Settlement in the valley beneath." 

In conclusion I wish to express my grateful thanks for help and 
advice to my collaborator, Count von Ostheim, to Captain and Mrs. 
Cunnington, to Dr. R. C. C. Clay, Dr. J. F. S. Stone, and Canon E. H. 
Goddard, to the Conservator of the Royal College of Surgeons Museum, 
the Keeper of the Department of British and Mediaeval Antiquities 
British Museum, the Director of the Municipal Libraries, Bath, to Mr. 
E. N. Tuck, and many others, including several nameless boys with 
sharp eyes and inquiring minds. 





RETURN OF 1872. 

Vol. I (1295—1702), Vol. ii (I705-I832). 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 

In this printed transcript the County and various Burroughs which 

were called upon to send representatives are denoted by capital letters 

as follows : — 

Wilts County — 


Mere — 


Great Bedwin — 


Salisbury City — 


Calne — 




Chippenham — 


Old Sarum — 


Cricklade — 


Hindon — 


Devizes — 


Wootton Bassett — 


Down ton — 


Westbury — 


Ludgershall — 


Heytesbury — 


Malmesbury — 


Bradford — 


Marlborough — 

23 EDW. 

I (1295). 


Henricus de Pratell' 


Johannes Spede 


Henricus de Thistledene 


Ricardus de la Sale 


Willielmus Russell 


Willielmus de Lekford 


Johannes Fynamur 


Johannes Dyeuteyt 


Thomas Deudans 


Rogerus Hasard 


Willielmus Wager 


Bartholomeus Aunger 


Willielmus le Escryreyn 


Philippus de Stamburule 


Willielmus le Chelfurist 




Johannes de Burle 


Hugo Sener 


Robertus Osegod 


Petrus le Wayte 


Johannes Ildolfe 


Ricardus Pynnok 


Ricardus Pernaunt 


Johannes de Braundeclon 


Gilbertus Fraunceys, junior F 

Willielmus Scriptor 


Petrus de Paulesholte 


26 EDW 

Thomas Sellyman 
I (1298). 


Wilhelmus de Cotes 


Johannes Whithorn 


Johannes de Grymstede 


Elias Hereberd' 


No Return made 


Ricardus le Burgeys 


Johannes le Chepman 


No Return made 


Ricardus le Mareschal 


Johannes de Nuthavene 


Robertus de Wynterborn 


Adam de Fyghelden' 


Rogerus le Draper 


No Return made 


Reginaldus de Aula 





Petrus fir Warini 


Philippus Aubyn 


Willielmus de Cotes 


Ricardus de Lutegarsale 


Thomas de la Gutere 


Hugo Cotterel 


Johannes Hasard 


Willielmus le Pruz 


178 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

30 EDW. I (1302). 
Johannes de Grymsted' 
Henricus de Thistelden 
Randuephus le Em 
Robertas le Palmere 
Phillippus Aubyn 
Robertus Ineys 
Walterus Colkyng' 
Johannes le Mons 

33 EDW. I 1304—5), 
Thomas de Sancto Omero 
Henricus de Thysteldone 
Edwardus le Irmangere 
Johannes le Irmangere 
Radulphus Pistor 
Johannes Godwyne 
Henricus Pas 
Johannes de Burle 
Richardus Neel 
Johannes Yndolf 
Rogerus de Cheverel 
Willielmus Codyhou 
Rogerus le Large 
Johannes Ernys 
Adam Douce 
Johannes Dieu te eyde 
Willielmus Parmunter 
Robertus Armiger 
Rogerus Page 
Philippus le Boteler 
Johannes Tony 
Henricus de Horsington 
Philippus Aubyn 
Henricus le Speycer 
Hugo Coterel 
Johannes Pycot 

34 EDW. I (1306). 
Hugo Wake 

Willielmus de Insula Bona 
Radulphus le Eym 
Ricardus Weylond' 
Adam Hardyng 
Johannes de Burle 
Willielmus Laurence 
Willielmus Ball' 
Johannes de Donton' 
Elias Erbord' 
Willielmus Passehay 
Petrus le Messager 
Radulphus Belbe 
Reginaldus de Tudeworth' 
Johannes de Knoyel 
Thomas Tollere 

Wilts County 
Bedwin Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Bedwin Boro' 
Calne Boro' 
Chippenham Boro' 
Cricklade Boro' 
Devizes Boro' 
Downton Boro' 
Ludgershall Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Mere Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 

Bedwin Boro' 
Calne Boro' 
Chippenham Boro' 

Cricklade Boro' 

Downton Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 

Marlborough Boro' 
Old Sarum Boro' 
Salisbury City 

Wilton Boro' 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


35 EDW. I (1306— 7). 1 

Adam Walrand 
Willielmus de Wodefaude 
Robertus le Palmere 
Johannes Stryg' 
Thomas Kynebald 
Ricardus Weylond 
Johannes le Chapman 
Egidius de Chyverdon' 
Thomas Giffard 
Andreas Nightyngale 
Nicholaus le Pope 
Petrus atte Stighele 
Radulphus Laveryng 
Johannes Spede 
Willielmus Gerreys 
Johannes le Newman 
Elias Herberd 
Michael Midewynter 
Elias de Hardinton' 
Robertus Baron 
Johannes de Knoel 
Ricardus le Hattere 
Willielmus Coterel 
Willielmus de Werminystre 

Wilts County 
Bed win Boro' 
Calne Boro' 
Chippenham Boro' 
Cricklade Boro' 
Devizes Boro' 
Down ton Boro' 
Ludgershall Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

1 EDW. II (1307). 

Thomas de Chaucomb' 
Willielmus de Harden 
Walterus Semer 
Robertus le Palmere 
Walterus Alffrych 
Ricardus Weylond 
No Return made 

Thomas le Bodere 
Thomas Auveray 
No Return made 
Elias Herbert 
Robertus Wrog 
Philippus de Stanburn' 
Ricardus de Foxle 
No Return made 
Johannes de Braundeston' 
Hugo de Holebech 
Stephanus le Gaunter 
Thomas de Tolre 

Wilts County 

Bedwin Boro' 

Calne Boro' 

Chippenham Boro' 
Cricklade Boro' 
Devizes Boro' 

Downton Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 

Marlborough Boro' 

Mere Boro' 
Salisbury City 

Wilton Boro' 

1 EDW. II (1307 

Willielmus de Hareden 
Stephanus de Brightmerston 

Wilts County 

180 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

2 EDW. II (1309) 

Willielmus de Hareden 
Stephanus de Brightmerston 
No Return made 

Willielmus Saer 
Nicholaus de Stratford 
Ricardus Belejambe 
Johannes Pycot 

5 EDW. II (1311). 

Willielmus de Cotes, Miles 
Henricus de Praeres, Miles 
No Return made 
Robertus le Wryere 
Willielmus Osgod 
No Return made 
Galfridus Brightwy 
Elias le Lyndraper 
Johannes de Kynggeswode 
W'illielmus de Immere 
No Return made 

5 EDW. IV (1311). 
W^illielmus de Cotes, Miles 
Johannes le Rous, or le Rus, Miles 
[Return torn] 

Henricus le Specer 
W^illielmus de Berewyk 
Willielmus le Immere 
Willielmus le Mareschal 

W^ilts County 

Devizes Boro' 
Ludgershall Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 

Wilton Boro' 

W^ilts County 

Devizes Boro' 
Downton Boro' 

Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 

Wilton Boro' 

Worthe Liberty 

Wilts County 
Downton Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

5 EDW. II (1311— 12). 3 

6 EDW. II (1312). 
*Hugo de Strode, Miles 
Robertus de Lucy, Miles 
Johannes le Coue 
Johannes Arny 
No Return made 
Johannes de Braundestone 
Willielmus le Canevacer 
No return made 

6 EDW. II (1312—13) 

Willielmus de Cotes, Miles 
Johannes de Vyvonia, Miles 
Johannes de Chipman 
Rcgerus le Blakkere 
No Return made 
Johannes de Guldeford 
Johannes de Marleberge 

Wilts County 

Downton Boro' 

Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 

Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 

Chippenham Boro' 

Downton Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


No Return made 
Ricardus de Lutegershale 
Johannes de Devyses 
Willielmus Coterel 
Ricardus le King 

7 EDW. II (1313). 

Walterus de Pavely 

Ricardus de Chuselden' or de Chiseldenn ' 

Edwardus le Smyth' 

Rogerus le Blecchere 

Galfridus Nymethalf 

Rogerus de Portesmouth' 

Johannes atte Mere 

Henricus le Smyth 

Elias Herberd 

Ricardus Handsex 

Galfridus de Okeburne 

Galfridus de Padenore 

Johannes de Wynterburne 

Thomas de Harpeden 

Willielmus Lauwe 

Ricardus Kyng' 

7 EDW. II (1313). 

Walterus de Pavely 

Ricardus de Chuselden' or de Chiseldenn 

Edwardus le Smyth' 

Rogerus le Blecchere 

Galfridus Nymethalf 

Rogerus de Portesmouth 

Johannes atte Mere 

Henricus le Smyth' 

Elias Herberd 

Ricardus Handsex 

Galfridus de Okeburne 

Galfridus de Padenore 

Johannes de Wynterburne 

Thomas de Harpeden' 

Willielmus Lauwe 

Ricardus le Kyng 

7 EDW. II (1313). 
Adam Walraund 

Ricardus de Chuseldene, or Chiseldene 
Edwardus le Smyth 
Rogerus le Blackere 
Johannes le Cone 
Galfridus Nymithalf 
Johannes atte Mere 
Johannes Sireman 
Johannes de Guldeford 
Elias Hereberd 

Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 

Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Chippenham Boro' 
Downton Boro' 
Ludgershall Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Chippenham Boro' 
Downton Boro' 
Ludgershall Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Chippenham Boro' 
Downton Boro' 
Ludgershall Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 

182 Representatives in Parliament from 1295- 

Galfridus Aldwyne 
Henricus le Honte 
Thomas de Harpeden 
Adam Falling 
Willielmus Lauwe 
Ricardus le Kyng' 

7 EDW. II (1314). 5 

8 EDW. II (1314). 

Ingelramus Berenger 
Johannes de la Mare 
^Wi[llielmus]le Noble 
w ft 

(PGalfridus de Okeb)urne 

Thomas de Harpedene 
Willielmus de Harpedene 
Robertus Asselyn 
Henricus (de) Langeskynnere 

8 EDW. II (1314—15) 

Walterus Gascelyn, Miles 
Johannes Bysshop', Miles 
Gilbertus de Caperugg' 
Willielmus le Irmongere 
Willielmus de Codio 
Hugo le Cartere 
Nicholaus le Mareschal 
Willielmus Whythorn 
Walterus de Lecford 
Walterus Dauce 
Willielmus Hasard 
Johannes de Combe Dyghere 
Johannes Gynes 
Galfridus de Okeburn' 
Willielmus de Harpeden' 
Thomas de Harpeden 
Johannes Pykot 
Ricardus Belejambe 

9 EDW. II (1315—16)^ 

Thomas de Chaucombe 

9 EDW. II (1316)9. 
No Return found 

10 EDW. II (1316). 

Johannes le Rous 
Nicholaus de Kynggeston' 

-1832 for Wiltshire. 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Devizes Boro' 
Ludgershall Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Bedwin Boro' 
Devizes Boro' 
Down ton Boro' 
Ludgershall Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro"^ 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 

Wilts County 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


11 EDW. II (1318) 

Edmundus Gascelyn 
Henricus de Prayers 
Edwardus de Tarente 
Ricardus de Beymenstr' 
Robertas atte Mershe 
Willielmus de Bristollia 
Willielmus de Keynes 
Johannes Wykys 
No Return made 

12 EDW. 

Nicholaus de Kynggeston' 
Willielmus de Lye ^^ 
Galfridus Rotarius 
Henricus Drapier 
No Return made 
Willielmus de Harpedene 
Johannes Floure 
Willielmus Coterel' 
Henricus le Lange 

II (1318) 

12 Edw. II (1319) 

Robertus de Cauntelow 
Henricus de Prayers 

le Noreys ^^ 

Galfridus le Wheolere 
Walterus Monaunt 
Johannes le Symple 
Robertus de Berges 
Willielmus Bryghtwy 


Robertus Laurens 

14 EDW. 
Robertus de Cantilupo 
Adam Walraund' 
Robertus Longe 

Johannes att Mere 
Nicholaus Heved' 
Ricardus Reymond' 
Galfridus de Wermenistre 
Henricus de Melkesham 
Robertus Laurenz 
Willielmus Groggy 

15 EDW. 

Willielmus de Wauton' 
Philippus de la Beche 
No Return made 
No Return made 
Galfridus de Wermenistre 
Thomas de Harpedene 

II (1320). 

II (1321) 


Johannes de Kyngeswode 

Wilts County 
Downton Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 

Downton Boro' 

Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 

Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Downton Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Ludgershall Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 

Devizes Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 

Wilton Boro' 

184 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

15 EDW. II 1322). 
Ingeramus Berenger, Miles 
Michael de Anne, Miles 
No Return made 
Johannes de Guldeford 
Walterus Frauns 
Gilfridus de Okeburn' 
Henricus le Fauconer 
No Return made 
Nicholaus Sprigurnel 
Thomas de Frome 

16 EDW. II (1322) .13 
Johannes de Sancto Laudo 
Johannes de Bonham 
Galfridus Aldwyne 
Galfridus de Okeburn' 
Thomas Prat 
Thomas Iseby^^ 

17 EDW. II (1323—4). 

Adam Walraund, miles 
Robertus de Hongerford, miles 
Walterus Bochard' 
Hugo Estmond 
Johannes Cortays 
Nicholas Loverying' 
Johannes de Gildeford' 
Robertus de Parys 
Johannes Goudhyne 
Willielmus de Rameshull' 
Adam de Derham 
Ricardus le Seler 
Willielmus le Wylde 
Willielmus Coterel 

Wilts County 

Devizes Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 

Marlborough Boro' 

Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

18 EDW. II (1324). 

Ingelramus Berenger 
Adam Walraund 

19 EDW. 

Adam Walraund, miles 
Robertus de Hongerford 
Thomas Mumham 
Johannes Mymyng 
Johannes Curtays 
Nicholas le Coue 
Johannes de Coumbe 
Henricus Syre 
Richardus de Mildehale 
Henricus le Fauconer 
Henricus Burry 
Thomas Prat 
Willielmus Coterel 
Rogerus de Langeford 

II (1325) 

Wilts County 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 

Wilts County 
Devizes Boro' 
Down ton Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 

Wilts County 
Devizes Boro' 
Downton Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


20 EDW. II (1326—7) 
Robertus Selyman, miles 
Robertus de Hongerford' 
Ricardus Laurens 
Nicholaus Gale 
Edwardus de Tarente 
Nicholaus de Bikeleswade 
Willielmus Hasard 
Henricus Syre 
Willielmus de Rameshull 
Robertus le Toppere 
Ricardus de Tudeworth' 
Willielmus de Berwik' 

1 EDW. Ill (1327). 
Edm.undus Gacelyn, miles 
Johannes de Bradenstok', miles 
Willielmus Hasard 
Johannes de Guldeford 
Elias Home 
Robertus Lusewy 
Robertus de Shadewell' 
Johannes de Lucy 

2 EDW. Ill (1327—8). 
Gilbertus de Berewyk' 
Willielmus Randolf 
Willielmus de Rameshull' 
Robertus le Toppere 
Elias Home 
Thomas Prat 

2 EDW. Ill (1328). 
Gilbertus de Berewyk' 
Johannes de Farlegh' 
Thomas atte Grene 
Robertus Jonkyn 
Henricus le Meyre, or le Meir 
Stephanus de Regate 
Willielmus Hasard 
Henricus Syre 
Nicholaus Grammory 
Henricus Bache 
Willielmus de Berwyk' 
Elias Home 

2 EDW. Ill (1328). 

Wilts County 
Cricklade Boro' 
Downton Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Sahsbury City 

Wilts County 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 

Wilts County 
Cricklade Boro' 
Downton Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 

No Returns found 

2 & 3 EDW. Ill 
Hildebraundus de London' 
Robertus de Hungerford 
Stephanus de Reigate 
Edwardus Taraunt 


Wilts County 
(1328 and 1328—9). 

Wilts County 

Downton Boro' 

186 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Willielmus de Rameshull' 
Johannes Godhyne 
Galfridus de Wermenstre 
Ricardus le Seler 
Willielmus Coterel 
Johannes de Kyngeswode 

4 EDW. Ill (1329—30) 
Petrus Doygnel 
Robertus de Hungerford 
Nicholaus Gale 
Robertus Withergaunt 
Willielmus Burel, Senior 
Ricardus Estmond 
Johannes le Clerk 
Johannes Gibon 
Willielmus de Kameshull' 
Robertus le Toppere 
Ricardus le Seler 
Radulphus de Wolsthing' 
Johannes de Kyngeswode 
Willielmus Coterel 

4 EDW. Ill 
Reginaldus de Pavely 
Robertus de Hungerford 
Johannes de Gale 
Robertus Wythergant 
Johannes Grey 
Hugo Estmond 
Willielmus de Rameshull' 
Willielmus atte Welde 
Ricardus le Seler 
Thomas Prat 
Robertus le Clerk 
Rogerus le Deghere 


Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Cricklade Boro' 
Devizes Boro' 
Ludgershall Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Cricklade Boro' 
Devizes Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

5 EDW. Ill (1331)15. 

5 EDW. Ill (1331). 

Hildebrandus de London,!^ 
Robertus de Hungerford^^ 

6 EDW. Ill (1331—2) 

Hildebrandus de Londres or de London 

Walterus de Hungerford' 

Robertus Jonkyn 

Robertus Wyther 

Hugo Estmond 

Johannes Cray 

No Return made 

No Return made 

Johannes de Wodeberghe 

Rogerus le Tayllour 

Wilts County 

Wilts County 

Cricklade Boro' 

Devizes Boro' 

Downton Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Mauley. 


Willielmus Randolf 
Elias Homes 
Willielmus Coterel 
Rogerus le Deyere 

6 EDW. Ill (1332). 

Johannes de Harnham 
Willielmus Percehay 
Willielmus Randolph' 
Johannes de Selewode 
Johannes le Duyk' 
Thomas Mauncel 

6 EDW. Ill (1332). 

Johannes de Kingestone, miles 
Edmundus Gascelyn, miles 
Willielmus Hasard 
Johannes Aldith 
Gilbertus de Botes 
Robertus de Burbach' 
Johannes le Duk' 
Johannes le Clerk 
Andreas le Tail 
Walterus atte A 

8 EDW. Ill (1333—4). 

Walterus de Hungerford 

Rogerus Lesewy 

No Return made 

No Return made 

Johannes Randus 

Johannes de Salesbury, or de Salesburs 

Reginaldus de Mares 

Ricardus le Mareschal 

8 EDW. Ill (1334). 

Robertus de Hungerford^'^ 
Robertus de Bilkemor^'^ 

9 EDW. Ill (1335). 

Johannes de la Roche 
W^illielmus Randolf 
Johannes Aldych 
Johannes de Baa 
Rogerus Luzewye 
Willielmus Randolph', junior 
Willielmus Pomeray 
Willielmus Coterel 

10 EDW. Ill (1335—6) 

Robertus de Bilkemore^^ 
Willielmus Randolf ^^ 

Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

[••••• '■ ] 

Wilts County 

Devizes Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 

Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 

Wilts County 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 

o 2 

188 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

10 EDW. Ill 

Walterus de Hungerford', miles 
Johannes de Roches, miles 
Willielmus de Rameshull', junior 
Johannes le Ewer 
Thomas Pratt 
Elias Home 


Wilts County 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury Boro' 

10 EDW. Ill (1336—7); 
11 EDW. Ill (1336—7) 

No Returns found 

Wilts County 

11 EDW. 

III (1337). 

Robertus Selyman, miles 

Wilts County 

Petrus Doynel, miles 

,, I) 

Willielmus de Rameshull' 

Marlborbugh Boro' 

Johannes Child 


Johannes de Stalbrigge 

Salisbury City 

Ehas Homes 


Robertus Sireman 

Wilton Boro' 

Willielmus Fromond 

,, ,, 

12 EDW. Ill (1337—8). 

Willielmus de Seynt Omer 

Wilts County 

Petrus Doynel 

)> >> 

Thomas (Pulton?) 

Marlborough Boro' 

Johannes Child 

>} )> 

Henricus Russel 

Salisbury City 

Willielmus Randolf 


Robertus Laurens 

Wilton Boro' 

Rogerus de Langeford 

>> >> 

12 EDW. 

Ill (1338). 

Gilbertus de Berewyk' 

Wilts County 

Willielmus Percehay 

,, ,, 

Walterus atte Merssh' 

Malmesbury Boro' 

Robertus de Chyverden' 

)) >} 

Johannes Gylemyn 

Salisbury City 

Johannes de Duryngton' 

,, ,, 

Robertus Laurenz 

Wilton Boro' 

Rogerus de Langeford' 

,, ,, 

12—13 EDW. 

Ill (1338- 


Robertus de Hungerford' 

Wilts County 

Willielmus Percehay 


Henricus Russel 

Salisbury City 

Ricardus de Selyrs 


Robertus Laurens 

Wilton Boro' 

Rogerus de Langeford' 

>> y> 

13 EDW. 

III (1339). 

Johannes de la Roche 

Wilts County 

Willielmus Percehay 

)» >) 

Rogerus le War 

Malmesbury Boro' 

Johannes atte Halle 


Thomas Prat 

Salisbury City 

Willielmus de Hynedon' 

>; >. 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


13 EDW. Ill (1339—40) 

Johannes de Mere 
Oliverus de Servynton' 
Johannes de Halle 
Rogerus le Warr' 
Walterus le Whyte 
Johannes Malwayn 
Johannes de Kyngeswode 
Johannes de Rigge 

14 EDW. Ill (1340). 
Johannes de Boklond' 
Ohverus de Servynton' 
Willielmus Hasard 
Ricardus le Woder' 
Edwardus Knoel 
Ehas Homes 

Johannes de Kyngeswod' 
Johannes de Rigge 

14 EDW. Ill (1340). 20 

15 EDW. Ill (1341). 
Johannes de Boklonde 
Willielmus Golafre 
Johannes atte Halle 
Willielmus Hasard' 
Thomas Prat 
Robertus Berges 
Nicholaus Shirburne 
Johannes le Person 

16 EDW. Ill (1342). 
No Returns found at all 

17 EDW. Ill (1343) 

Nicholaus Lamberd 
Willielmus Percehay 
Thomas Prat 

18 EDW. Ill (1344) 
Hildebrandus de London' 
Henricus de Percy 
Thomas Scot 
Johannes de Malmesbury 
Johannes Prat 
Johannes Vellard 
Willielmus le Frye 
Johannes le Tannere 

20 EDW. Ill (1346) 
Gilbertus de Berewyk 
Robertus de Haveresham 
Johannes Vellard 
Robertus Berges 
Robertus Gilberd 
Willielmus Grygory 

Wilts County 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Salisbury City 

Wilts County 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

190 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

21 EDW. Ill (1347—8). 

Ricardus de Lente Wilts County 

Nicholaus Lambard 

Thomas Prat Salisbury City 

Johannes Vellard 

Johannes Dayne Wilton Boro' 

Johannes de Wollop' 

22 EDW. Ill (1348). 

Nicholaus Lambard Wilts County 

Ricardus Lente 

Johannes Vellard' Salisbury City 

Rogerus Sorel 

Johannes Dayne Wilton Boro' 

Johannes de Wollop' 

22 EDW. Ill (1348—9). 
Prorogued on account of the Plague. 

25 EDW\ III (1350—1). 

Willielmus de Walkynton' Wilts County 

Gilbertus de Berewyk' ,, ,, 

No Return made Cricklade Boro' 

No Return made Devizes Boro' 

No Return made Marlborough Boro' 

Robertus de Earendon' Salisbury City 

Petrus Beneyt 

Edwardus de Domerham Wilton Boro' 

Willielmus Hile ,, ,, 

25 EDW. Ill (1351—2). 

Willielmus fitz Waryn de Penlegh' ^i Wilts County 

Johannes de Shadewell, de Manyngfeld^i 

26 EDW. Ill (1352). 22 

Dominus Johannes Seintlawe Wilts County 

27 EDW. Ill (1353). 23 
Thomas de Sancto Mauro Wilts 

28 EDW. Ill (1354). 

Thomas Seymor24 Wilts County 

Edmundus Everard24 

29 EDW. Ill (1355). 

Johannes de Westbury Wilts County 
Nicholaus de Bonham 

Johannes de Upton' Salisbury City 
Johannes Powel ,, 

31 EDW. Ill (1357). 

Gilberdus de Berewyk Wilts County 

Thomas de Hungerford 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


32 EDW, III (1357- 

Johannes de Stokes, miles 
Robertus de Loundres, miles 
No Return made 
No Return made 
No Return made 
No Return made 
Thomas de Brighampton' 
Robertus Alwyne 
Willielmus le Fox, Deyghere 
Petrus Laurens 


34 EDW. Ill (1360). 

Thomas Hungerford 
Michael Skillyng 
No Return made 
No Return made 
No Return made 
No Return made 
Johannes Upton 
Robertus Bout 
Willielmus de Hyle 
Johannes de Stone 

Wilts County 

Cricklade Boro' 
Devizes Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 

Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 

Cricklade Boro' 
Devizes Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Salisbury City 

Wilton Boro' 


34 EDW. Ill (1360 

Laurencius de Sancto Martino, chivaler 

Robertus de Loundres, chivaler 

No Return made 

Gilbertus Wacz 

Willielmus Colderne 

Johannes Gode 

Johannes Shoryn 

No Return made 

No Return made 

Ricardus Whithorn 

Johannes Meyre 

No Return made 

No Return made 

No Return made 

Willielmus Yonge 

Robertus Vyrly 

Robertus le Bout 

Thomas Brutford' 

Willielmus Hyle 

Johannes Stone 

36 EDW. Ill (1362). 

Henricus Estormy or Sturmy 
Thomas Hungerford 
Willielmus de Wyke 
Nicholaus Hommedieux 
Thomas Prentis 
Radulphus Gilbert 

Wilts County 

Bedwin Boro' 
Calne Boro' 

Chippenham Boro' 

Cricklade Boro' 
Devizes Boro' 
Downton Boro' 

Ludgershall Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Old Sarum Boro' 

Salisbury City 

Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 

Bedwin Boro' 

Calne Boro' 

192 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Nicholaus Stoor 
Robertas Hobbes 
Willielmus de Wekelescot 
Willielmus le Deyghere 
Willielmus Estmond' 
Willielmus Spicer 
Johannes Dryewode 
Willielmus Beneit 
Ricardus Croftone 
Thomas atte ...lyre 
Willielmus de Seynt Need 
Johannes Jenewyne 
Walterus de Upton' 
Johannes Averay 
Willielmus de Watton' 
Thomas Chapelleyn 
Willielmus de Hyle 
Johannes atte Stone 

37 EDW. Ill (1363), 
Robertus de la Mare, chivaler 
Henricus Estormy, chivaler 
Johannes de Upton 
Robertus le Bout 



38 EDW. Ill (1364—5) 
Thomas West, miles 
Robertus de la Mare, miles 
Johannes Good 


III (1366), 

Willielmus Wartier 
Johannes Willemyn 
Willielmus Teynturer 
Robertus Godmanston' 
Johannes Stone 
Willielmus Hyle 

40 EDW. 
Robertus de la Mare^^ 
Nicholaus de Bonham^^ 

42 EDW. Ill (1368), 
Henricus Sturmy, miles 
Thomas de la Ryver, miles 
No Return made 
No Return made 
No Return made 
No Return made 
Walterus Upton 
Thomas Glendy 
Willielmus Wychforde 
Nicholaus le Taillour, Draper 
Willielmus Chusselden' 
Henricus Bout 

Chippenham Boro' 
Cricklade Boro' 
Devizes Boro' 
Downton Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Old Sarum Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 
Ch(ippenham) Boro' 
Downton Boro' 

Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Wilts County 

Wilts County 

Bed win Boro' 
Devizes Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Old Sarum Boro' 

Salisbury City 

Wilton Boro' 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


43 EDW. Ill (1369) 
Robertus de la Mare, miles 
Johannes Thorp, miles 
Johannes Andreu, senior 
Thomas Weston' 
Willielmus Estmond 
Thomas Fayredame 
Johannes Stawelle 
Willielmus Keynesham 
Johannes Polton' 
Petrus Waldreth' 
Walterus Upton 
Thomas Glendy 
Johannes Upton 
W^illielmus Wychford 
Henricus Haversham 
Johannes Stone 

45 EDW. Ill 

Laurencius de Sancto 

Martino27 A 

W^ilts County 
Cricklade Boro' 
Devizes Boro' 
Malmesbury Boro' 
Marlborough Boro' 
Old Sarum Boro' 
Salisbury City 
Wilton Boro' 

Thomas de la Ryver^^ 

Laurencius de Sancto 

45 EDW. Ill (1371). 

Willielmus de Keynesham^s J 
A Robertus Bout 28 M 

46 EDW. Ill (1372). 

Robertus de la Mare, miles 


Hubertus Wolwy 


Nicholaus Bonham, miles 


Walterus Job 


Thomas Fayrdame 


Robertus Bout 


Radulphus Gosselyn 


Ricardus le Monek' 


Willielmus Keynesham 


Henricus Haversham 


Johannes Burbach' 


Johannes Cole 



EDW. Ill (1373). 

Robertus de la Mare, miles 


Nicholaus Weston' 


Nicholaus Bonam, miles 


Hubertus Wolwy 


Johannes Goude 


Petrus Baldry 


Thomas Irmongerere 


Nicholaus le Tailiour 


Thomas Fardame 


Thomas Chapelayn 


Johannes Mulleward 


Henricus Bout 


Johannes Parkere 


Willielmus Chitterne 


50 EDW. 

III (1375—6). 

Johannes de la Mare,^^ 

Nicholaus de Bonham 

l29 a 



51 EDW. 

III (1376—7). 

Robertus de la Mare, miles 


Ricardus Polton 


Thomas Hungerford, miles 


Willielmus Lorde 


Johannes Gilberd 


Georgius Joce 


Thomas Fayrdame 


Johannes- Upton 


Johannes Foytour 


Johannes Byterle 


Adam Knolle 


Thomas Cuttyng 


Walterus Jape 


Thomas Wysdom 


194 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

1 RIC. 

II (1377). 

Philippus fitz Waryn 


Thomas Fayrdame 


Nicholaus Bonham 


Johannes Gilbert 


2 RIC. 

II (1378). 

Johannes Daunteseye 


Robertus Northbourne 


Radulphus Cheynee 


Johannes Parkere 


No Return made 


Johannes Stowell' 


Willielmus Wichampton' 


Ricardus Polton' 


Rogerus Solasse 


Walterus Joop' 


Thomas Gay 


Wilhelmus Asshton' 


Thomas Enford 


Georgius Joce 


Thomas Weston' 


Thomas Boy ton' 


Johannes Andrewe 


David Wyght 


No Return made 


Henricus Bout 


No Return made 


Henricus Haveresham 


Robertus Monek' 


Thomas Hungerford' 

Thomas Hungerford', 

Laurencius de Sancto 

martino, chivaler^^ 
Johannes Coumbe 
Thomas Horlebat 
WiUielmus Wychampton' 
Ricardus Ronde 
Thomas Lote 
Robertus Chepman 


(Johannes A^2)j^(^j.g^g 

Thomas Hungerford '^^ 

Johannes Daunteseye, 

Johannes de Roches, 

No Return made 
Johannes Blake 
Wilhehnus Wychampton' 
Thomas Gay 
Robertus Chepman 
Johannes Andrewe 
Robertus Chambre 
Johannes Boxe 
Johannes Wytherton 

2 RIC. II (1379). 

A Johannes Dauntesey^^ 

C. II 


No Return made 



No Return made 


Rogerus Sottewell' 



Robertus le Monek' 




Johannes Stowell' 
Johannes Parkere 







Johannes Byterlegh 
Thomas Bore ford' 



Ricardus Stoke 



Johannes Stone 


4 RIC. II (1380). 

A Nicholaus Bonham^^ 

5 RIC. II (1381). 

No Return made 

A No Return made 

Johannes Parkere 

A Johannes Stowelle 

B Johannes Bougeis 

C Ricardus Cachecote 

C Walterus Upton' 

D Johannes Averay 

D Robertus le Bont 

E Thomas Boreford' 

E Henricus le Bont 

F Johannes Cole 


Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


5 RIC 

II (1382). 

Johannes de Daunteseye, 

No Return made 




Robertus Sottewell,' 


Johannes de Roches, 

Robertus Monek' 




Johannes Parker 


WiUielmus Plomer 


Nicholaus Weston 


Thomas Smyth 


Petrus Baldry 


No Return made 


Walterus Joop' 


Thomas Gay 


Johannes Chippelegh' 


Robertus Chaundeler 


Bartholomeus Averay 


Johannes Andrewe 


Thomas Hynedon. Salisbury 

Johannes atte Court' 


Ricardus Monek' 


Ricardus Gobet 


Johannes Stone 


Johannes Mulleward' 


Edwardus Roggers 


No Return made 


6 RIC. 

II (1382). 

Johannes Daunteseye, 

No Return made 




No Return made 


Johannes de Roches, 

Robertus le Monek 




Rogerus Shottewell' 


WiJlielmus Plomer 


Johannes Parker 


Thomas Smyth' 


Nicholaus Weston' 


WiUielmus Wychampton' 


Johannes Genowyne 


Willielmus Prentys 


Walterus [Jeop'] 


Thomas Lotes 


Thomas Boreford' 


Robertus Chepman 


David Wyght 


Thomas Weston' 


Walterus de Uptone 




Bartholomeus Averay 


Johannes le Mulleward 


Johannes Cole 


Johannes Bochard, spicer 


Thomas Oterborn' 



) RIC. 

II (1382—3). 

Johannes de Roches, 

No Return made 




Rogerus Sottewell' 


Hugo Cheyne 


Robertus Monek' 


Johannes Coumbe 


Johannes Parker 


Thomas Smyth 


Nicholaus Weston 


Robertus Formage 


Ricardus Polton' 


Ricardus Ronde 


Johannes Bryd' 


Thomas Lote 


Johannes Chippelegh' 


Thomas Iremonger 


Bartholomeus Averay 


Johannes Andreu 


Johannes Biterlegh' 


Johannes atte Court' 


Willielmus Warmewell' 


Willilmus Spicer 


Thomas Cuttyng' 


Willielmus Saltere 


Ricardus Stoke 


No Return made 


7 RIC. 

II (1383). 

Thomas Hungerford', 

Robertus Monek' 




Rogerus Sotwell' 


Nicholaus Bonham 


Johannes le Parkere 


Thomas Smyth' 


Nicholaus de Weston' 


Willielmus Plomer 


Thomas Gildeford' 


196 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

No Return made C 

Thomas Gay D 

Robertus Chepman D 

Ricardus Cardemakier F 

Wilhelmus Coventree F 

No Return made G 

No Return made P 

Johannes Saleman K 

WiUielmus Haulegh' O 

Robertus Chyke O 

Thomas Boteford' M 

David Wyght' M 

Johannes Cole N 

WiUielmus Chitterne N 

7 RIC. II (1384). 

Thomas de Hungerford, 

chivaler A 
Johannes de Roches, chivaler A 

Thomas Smyth B 

Thomas Horlebat B 

WiUielmus Wychampton' C 

Ricardus Ronde C 

Thomas Gay D 

Robertus Chepman D 

Johannes Andrewe E 

Johannes atte Court' E 

Johannes Bochard' spicer F 

No Return made G 

No Return made P 

Roger Sotweir H 

Johannes Sille H 

Johannes Kyng' J 

Johannes Freytour J 

Ricardus Frys K 

Ricardus Rommersbury K 

Johannes Averay O 

Johannes Chippelegh' O 

Johannes Byterlegh' M 

WiUielmus Warmewell M 

Johannes Cole N 

Henricus le Bout N 

8 RIC. II (1384) 

Humfridus de Stafford, 

Robertus Russel, chivaler 
WiUielmus Plomer 
Johannes Coumbe 
Johannes Blake 
[WiUielmus] Wichampton 
Thomas Gay 
Thomas Irmongere 
Johannes Court' 
Johannes Bourne 
Ricardus Cardemakere 
Johannes Bochard, spicer 

Robertus Corbet, chivaler 
Hugo Cheyne, chivaler 
Thomas Smyth 
WiUielmus Plomer 
Johannes Blake 
WiUielmus Wychampton' 
Thomas Botes 
Thomas Irmongere 
Thomas Weston' 
Johannes Andrewe 
Ricardus Gobet 
Henricus Webbe 
No Return made 

Rogerus Sottewell' 


WiUielmus atte Moure 


Nicholaus Weston' 


Johannes Pusy 
Johannes Leche 
Ricardus Stapele 
Johannes Averay 
Johannes Chippelegh' 
Johannes Salesbury 
WiUielmus Lhord' 


WiUielmus Chitterne 


Adam Daubeneye 


. II (1385). 


No Return made 


Rogerus Shotewelle 
WiUielmus atte Moure 



Johannes Pusy 
Nicholaus Weston 



Johannes Polton' 
Thomas Cryps 
Johannes Averay 
Johannes Chippelegh' 
Thomas Boreford 


David Wyght 
WiUielmus Chitterne 


Adam Daubeneye 



Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


10 RIC 

II (1386). 

Thomas Hungerford, chivaler A 
Radulphus Cheyne, chivaler A 



Nicholaus Weston' 


Johannes Combe 


Alexander Oxenford 


Wilhelmus Baillef 


Thomas Cryps 


Thomas Gay 


Johannes Jenewyne 


Robertus Chaundeler 


Walterus Upton 


Johannes Andreu 


Bartholomeus Averay 


Andreas Jones 


Thomas Boreford 


Ricardus Gobet 


David Wyght 


Wilhelmus Salter 


Adam Daubeneye 




Thomas Molyns 


11 RIC. 

II (1387—8). 

Johannes Dauntesey 


Johannes Parker 


Johannes de Budesthorn 


Alexander Oxenford 


Wilhelmus Wichampton 


Johannes Corteys 


Ricardus Ronde 


Johannes atte Wyle 


Thomas Gay 


Walterus Upton' 


Johannes Suyput 


Johannes Averay 


Johannes Andreu 


Johannes Bytterlegh' 


Thomas Weston' 


Thomas Burforde 


Ricardus Gardmakere 


Thomas Cutting' 


Wilhelmus Saltere 


Wilhelmus Chitterne 


No Return made 


12 RIC 

:. II (1388). 

Radulphus Cheyne, 

No Return made 


chivaler^ 6 


No Return made 


Ricardus Horn 


Johannes atte Wile 


No Return made 


Johannes Curteys 


No Return made 


Walterus Upton 


Thomas Loute 


Johannes Averay 


Thomas Gay 


David Wight 


Ricardus Gardmakiere 


Johannes Hethe 


Wilhelmus Spicer 


Adam Daubeneye 


No Return made 


Johannes Hull, senior 


13 RIC. 

II (1389—90). 

Thomas Hungerford' 


Wilhelmus Blankpayn 


Wilhelmus Esturmy 


Johannes Parkere 


Johannes Combe 


Johannes Calston' 


Wilhelmus Plomer 


Robertus Warner 


Thomas Loute 


Johannes Bitterlegh 


Thomas Gay 


Wilhelmus Warmwell 


Ricardus Gobet 


Thomas Cuttyng' 


Wilhelmus Spicer 


Wilhelmus Chitterne 


14 RIC. II (1390). 

Johannes de Roche^'^ A Johannes Wroth'^'' 

15 RIC. II (1391). 

Bernard Brocas^^ A Robertus Dyngle^^ 

198 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

16 RIC. II (1392). 
Prorogued sine die. 

16 RIC. II (1392—3) 

Thomas Hungerford', 

chivaler A 
Willielmus Esturmy, chivaler A 

Wilhelmus Coryntre F 

Willielmus Spicer F 

Willielmus Blankepayn J 

Williehnus Chaloner J 

17 RIC. 

Johannes Roches, chivaler A 

Johannes Gawayn A 
Nicholaus Samborn', junior D 

Hugo de la Lynde E 

Johannes Tapener F 

Ricardus Bunkere F 

Ricardus Parkere J 

Willielmus Blankpayn J 

Johannes Curteys 
Thomas Lechnore 
Johannes Bitterlegh' 
W^illielmus Warmwell' 
Johannes Cole 
Henricus Bunt 

II (1393- -4). 

Ricardus Frys 
Johannes Curteys 
Johannes Averay 
Johannes Chippels 
Johannes Bitterlegh' 
Thomas Burford' 
Thomas Cuttyng 
Johannes Cole 

Johannes Lislebon', chivaler 
Johannes Gowayn 
Ricardus Cardmakyer 
Willielmus Spycer 
Nicholaus Samborn', junior 
Thomas Froud' 
Robertus Drake 

18 RIC. II (1394—5). 

A Johannes Curteys K 

A Johannes Averay O 

F Robertus Page O 

F Willielmus WarmeweJT M 

J Ricardus Spencer M 

J Thomas Cuttyng N 

K Johannes Hardy • N 

20 RIC. II 

Johannes de Roches, chivaler A 
Robertus Corbet, chivaler A 
Willielmus Saltere F 

Henricus Webbe F 

Robertus Neweman J 

Willielmus Blankpayn J 


No Return made 
Ricardus Spencer 
Johannes Mouer 
Johannes Hardy 
Willielmus Chitterne 



21 RIC. II (1397 and 1397—8). 

Henricus Grene, chivaler A 

Thomas Blount, chivaler A 

Willielmus Salter F 

Johannes Peyntcur F 

Johannes St Dwell' J 

Willielmus Blankpayn J 

Johannes Canynges K 

Nicholaus Cley 
Johannes Averay 
Robertus Page 
Ricardus Juell' 
Johannes Cary 
Johannes Hardy 
Adam Daubeneye 

23 RIC. II (1399). 
[The King abdicated on 29 Sept., and the Parliament did not meet.] 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


1 HEN. 



Willielmus Esturmy, chivaler A 

Willielmus Saltere 


Johannes Roches, chivaler A 

Robertus Newman 


Thomas Smyth' 


Robertus Saleman 


Galfridus Mauncell' 


Thomas Crips 


Robertus Salman 


Thomas Cook' 


Johannes Felawe 


Willielmus Hull' 


Robertus Andrewe 


Willielmus Waltiers 


Johannes Ferrour 


Thomas Cuttyng' 


Ricardus Cardemaker 


Willielmus Chitterne 


2 HEN. 



Willielmus Sturmy, 

Ricardus Spenser^^ 


chivaler^ ^ 


Johannes Levesham^^ 


Walterus Hungerford, 



3 HEN. 

IV ( 


No Returns found at all. 

3 HEN 



Johannes de Berklegh, 

Ricardus Colyngbourne 




Johannes Wryd 


Thomas Calston', chivaler A 

Johannes Wallop 


Simon Skynnere 


Willielmus Boyton 


Ricardus Smyth 


Johannes Bollenha[m] 


Johannes Tanner 


Willielmus Chitterne 


Thomas Bonde 


5 HEN 

. IV 


Ricardus Maurdyn'^o 


Willielmus Waryn'"**^ 


Petrus Scanter^o 


Johannes Leuesham*^ 


6 HEN 

. IV 


Walterus Hungerford, 

Willielmus Worston' 




7 HEN. 



Thomas Bonham 


Thomas Heose 


Thomas Calston' 


Nicholaus Tympeneye 


Johannes Huwet 


Willielmus Bayly 


Johannes Kyngeston', 

junior F 

Willielmus Boyton' 


Thomas Heywey 


Robertus Frye 


Johannes Cherlton' 


Johannes Hardy 


9 HE^ 

[. I\ 

' (1407). 

Walterus Hungerford 


Thomas Child 


Willielmus Stourton' 


Johannes Becot 


Johannes Peyntour 


Robertus Frye 


Simon [Skynnere] 


Robertus Lardyner 


11 HEN. 



No Return 

s found 

Wilts County 

200 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

13 HEN. IV (1411). 
No Returns found Wilts County 

Willielmus Esturmy, 

Walterus Hungerford42 

e42 43 

g42 43 

e, junior'*^ ^^ 

Johannes [Worth] ^2 
Thomas Crekkelade^^ 
Robertus Nyweman42 
Johannes Coryngtre^^ 
Simon Skynner*^ 


V (1413). 

Johannes Brut'*^ 



Thomas Kynf'42 



42 43 



!!!!!!!!!!!!"!!""!!!!!42 43 



Johannes Bryd'*2 



Wilhelmus [B]yllyngtre42 



Walterus Shirlegh'42 



Willielmus Warvn42 



Robertus Frye42 



Johannes Lambard'42 



2 HEN, 

Willielmus Molyns, chivaler A 
Walterus Hungerford, 

chivaler A 

Robertus Salman C 

Robertus Roude C 

Thomas Coryntre F 

Robertus Smyth' F 

Johannes Charlton' J 

Johannes Randolf J 


Thomas Hathewey K 

Willielmus Alclif K 

Robertus Lange O 

Willielmus Chesterton' O 

Walterus Shirle M 

Johannes Beckot M 

Johannes Valeys, senior N 

Johannes Harleston' N 

2 HEN. V (1414). 

Willielmus Esturmy, chivaler A 

Thomas Bon ham A 

Robertus Salman C 

Robertus Roude C 

Willielmus Coryntre F 

Thomas Coryntre F 

Thomas Hiwey J 

Johannes Goore 
Johannes Bird' 
Thomas Hathewey 
Walterus Shirle 
Johannes Beckot 
Johannes Harleston 
Johannes Whithorn' 





3 HEN. V (1415), 

Thomas Bonham A 

Willielmus Alisaundre A 

Willielmus Clerk' C 

Johannes Blake C 
Willielmus Coventre, junior F 

Rogerus Barbour F 

Thomas Hywey J 

Ricardus Steynysham J 

Johannes Bryd' K 

Thomas Nyweman K 

Walterus Shirle M 

Henricus Man M 

Johannes Harleston' N 

Johannes Whithorn' N 

3 HEN. V (1415—16). 

No Returns found Wilts County 

4 HEN. V (1416). 
No Returns found Wilts County 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


5 HEN 

. V (1417). 

Willielmus Esturmy, chivaler A 

Willielmus Palmere 


Johannes Westbury, junior A 

Thomas Corbyn 


Johannes ** 


Willielmus Hungate 



_ 44 

Hugo Gower 


Robertus Longe 


Walterus Shirley 


Robertus Salman 


Willielmus Waryn 


Wilhelmus Covyntre 


Johannes Harleston' 


Robertus Tyndale 


Johannes Why thorn' 


7 HEN. 

V (1419). 

Johannes Westbury, junior A 


Robertus Asshelegh 


Walterus Shirley 


Robertus Tendale 


Willielmus Waryn 


Wilhelmus Hendelove 


Johannes Whythorn' 


Willielmus Palmer 


Johannes Harleston 


8 HEN. 

V (1420). 

Johannes Persons, junior 


Willielmus Palmer 


Johannes Rous 


Johannes Charlton 


Johannes Benger 


Hugo Gower 


Johannes Everard 


Nicholaus Swan 


Johannes Baylly 


Walterus Shirle 


Ricardus Chamberleyn 


Robertus Poynant 


Johannes Coventre 


Johannes Whithorn 


Robertus Chaundeler 


Johannes Harleston 


9 HEN. 

V (1421). 

Robertus Longe 


Laurencius Fyton 


Ricardus Melbourne 


Hugo Gower 


Robertus Blake 


Walterus Shirle 


Walterus Stodley 


Robertus Paynaunt 


Willielmus Coventre 


Henricus Bradeley 


Robertus Smyth' 


Johannes Ludwell 


Willielmus Palmer 


Johannes Whithorn' 


9 HEN. 

Johannes Harleston' 
V (1421). 


Johannes Stourton, junior A 

Johannes Denby 


Robertus Longe 


Willielmus Bysshopp' 


Thomas Huse 


Willielmus Palmer 


iMauricius Homedeux 


Johannes Gore 


Johannes Justice 


Hugo Gowere 


! Robertus Grene 


Johannes Juyles 




Johannes Fruysthorp' 



Johannes Ludwelle 
Walterus Shirle 
Thomas Boner 


.' .* .' .' .' .' '. '. '. '. '. '. 43 Crikkelade 



Galfridus Coubrigge 


Johannes Baker 


Johannes Whithorn' 


[Johannes Faukener 


Johannes Harleston' 


1 HEN. 

VI (1422). 

(Willielmus Sturmy, chivaler A 

Johannes Saymour 


iRobertus Andrew 


Johannes West 


■Robertus Erie 


Johannes Nicol 



202 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Thomas Stokke 


Nicholaus Wotton' 


Johannes Gilys 


Hugo Gower 


Henricus Bettenharn 


Johannes Fruysthorp' 


Johannes Langelegh' 


Johannes Harleston' 


Thomas Crekkelade 


Walterus Shirle 


Robertus Crekkelade 


Henricus Man 


Johannes Coventre 


Nicholaus Pak' 


WiUielmus Coventre 


Johannes Whithorn 


Johannes Sturmy 


2 HEN. 

VI (1423). 

Robertus Longe 


Willielmus Gatecombe 


Ricardus Milbourne 


Johannes Denby 


Ricardus Hardene 


Johannes West 


Henricus Chancy 


Walterus Stodlegh' 


R 45 


Johannes Sturmy 


Johannes Giles 


Thomas Newman 


Johannes Dykeman 


Willielmus Alisaundre 


Henricus Bottenham 


Walterus Shirle 


Robertus Creklade' 


Thomas Husee 


Johannes Ludwell' 


Johannes Everard 


Johannes Coventre 


Johannes Whithorn' 


Willielmus Coventre 


Johannes Harleston' 


3 HEN. 

VI (1425). 

Ricardus Mulbourne 


Robertus Erie 


Johannes Stourton 


Thomas Keche 


Thomas Coventre' 


Willielmus Alysaundre 


Robertus Chaundeler' 


Henricus Man' 


Johannes West 


Johannes Whithorn' 


Thomas Shirwode 


Johannes Giles 


4 HEN. VI (1425—6). 

Robertus Shotesbroke, 

Johannes Skyllyng, junior 




Ricardus Shotewelle 


Robertus Andrewe 


Johannes Wyke 


Ricardus Harden 


Thomas Drewe 


Galfridus Polton 


Johannes Bryd 


Thomas Creklade 


Willielmus Cooke 


Johannes Russell' 


Henricus Man 


Johannes Castelcombe 


Johannes Bromley 


Robertus Wirhale 


Nicholaus Pakke 


Johannes Covyntre 


Johannes atte Fenne 


Willielmus Covyntre 


6 HEN. VI (1427). 

Willielmus Darell' 




Johannes Poulet 


Henricus ^^ 


Walterus Corpe 


Willielmus Palmer 


Radulphus Panter 


Johannes West 


Johannes Maynard' 


Johannes Wodeford' 


Robertus Rowde 


Ricardus Furbour 


Johannes Fowler 


Johannes Scot 

Ricardus Everton' 


Walterus Messager 

Johannes Bailly 


Willielmus Alysaundre 


Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Ricardus Baker 


Willielmus Warwyk' 


Willielmus Coventre 


Nicholaus Pak' 


Johannes Coventre 


Ricardus Bryght' 


8 HEN. 

VI (1429). 

Edmundus Cheyny 


Willielmus Palmer 


Robertus Longe 


Johannes West 


Ricardus Brigges 


Johannes Byde 


Thomas Tropenell' 


Johannes Selwode 


Robertus Crikkelade 


Henricus Man 


Willielmus Crikkelade 


Johannes Bromlegh' 


Willielmus Bremesgrove 


Willielmus Botreauxs 


Robertus Chaundeler 


Johannes Dikeman, senior 



HEN. VI (1430—1). 

Johannes Beynton 


. Ricardus Briggys 


Willielmus Darell' 


Johannes West 


Johannes Sturmy 


Johannes Gore 


Robertus Colyngborne 


Ricardus Forbour 


Robertus Crekkelade 


Johannes Wodeford' 


Willielmus Crekkelade 


Edmundus Pouston' 


Johannes Selewode 


Walterus Messanger 


Robertus Crekkelade 


Willielmus Elisaundre 


Willielmus Smyth' 


Willielmus Pakon' 


Johannes Gylys 


Willielmus Botreaux 


Johannes Gloucestre 


Ricardus Bryght' 


10 HEN. 

VI (1432). 

Johannes Stourton', mileE 

, A 

Willielmus Ludlowe 


Willielmus Darell 


Galfridus Godelok' 


Robertus Colyngbourne 


Willielmus Palmer 


Ricardus Brigges 


Johannes West 


Johannes Justice 


Willielmus Gattecombe 


Willielmus Themse 


Ricardus Furbour 


Walterus Sergeant 


Walterus Messager 


Willielmus Styrope 


Thomas Pakyn' 


Robertus Criklade 


Willielmus Ahsaundre 


Johannes Wotton' 


Thomas Freman 


Johannes Gilys 


Willielmus Botreaux 


Johannes Craye 


W^illielmus Forster 



VI (1433). 

Robertus Andrew 


Willielmus Luddelawe 


Robertus Longe 


Ricardus Brigges 


Johannes Bradeley 


Johannes West 


Henricus Lynby 


Willielmus Palmer 


Robertus Criklade 


Robertus Joce 


Willielmus Criklade 


Johannes Combe 


Walterus Sargeaunt 


Johannes Bonham 


Willielmus Styrop' 


Johannes Ufnam 


Johannes Criklade 


Willielmus Warwyk' 


Johannes Grene 


Ricardus Gatour 


Willielmus Coventre 


Johannes Whithorn' 


Johannes Whittokesmede 


Willielmus Foster 


P 2 

204 Representatives in 

Parliament from 1295—1832 for Wiltshire. 
14 HEN. VI (1453). 

Edmundus Hungerford, 

Willielmus Ludlowe 




Willielmus Haukessok' 


Johannes Seymour 


Willielmus Palmer 


Willielmus Halle 


Johannes West 


Ricardus Forbour 


Johannes Brid' 


Robertus Criklade 


Robertus Colyngbourne 


Willielmus Criklade 


Henricus Longe 


Walterus Sergeant 


Thomas Pakyn 


Willielmus Stirape 


Ricardus Ecton 


Galfridus Mone 


Johannes Bromley 


Willielmus Gatcombe 


Willielmus Forster 


Johannes Coventre 


Ricardus Whithorn' 


Johannes Gilys 


15 HEN, 

.VI (1436—7). 

Johannes Beynton', chivaler A 

Willielmus Ludlowe 


Johannes Fortescu 


Johannes Combe 


Johannes Appulton' 


Willielmus Palmer 


Robertus W^otton' 


Thomas Hasard 


Robertus Crickkelade 


Johannes Bryd 


Johannes Justice 


Johannes Wodeford 


Willielmus Stirop' 


Johannes Wylly 


Willielmus Hawkesok' 


Johannes Aylesby 


Johannes Castelcombe 


Willielmus Pakyn' 


Johannes Huberd' 


Georgius Westeby 


Johannes Gough' 


Johannes Browne 


Robertus Spechele 


Johannes Mundy 


18 HEN. VI (1439). 

No Returns found at all. 

20 HEN. 

VI (1441—2). 

Henricus Grene, armiger A 

Radulphus Lygh 


Johannes Lye de 

Thomas Chamburleyn' 




Thomas de la Pylle 


Thomas W^elle 


Thomas Hasard' 


Willielmus Halle 


Walterus Everard' 


Johannes Crikkelade 


Philippus Morgan' 


Robertus Gilys 


Johannes Pole 


Willielmus Stirapp' 


Ricardus Longe 


Walterus Parke 


Johannes Mone 


Johannes Longe 


Robertus Longe, armiger 


Ricardus Nedham 


Thomas Freman, marchaunt M 

Henricus Longe 


Johannes atte Fenne 


Robertus Spechisley 


Johannes Uffenham 


Johannes Whitoxmede 


23 HEN. 

VI (1444—5). 

No Returns for Wilts County. 

25 HEN. 

VI (1446—7). 

Willielmus Beau champ, 

Nicholaus Pystor 


miles et chivaler 


Thomas Bartelot 


Johannes Seyntlo, armiger A 

Thomas Hasard' 


Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Thomas Scargyll' 

*6 Daneeir 

Thomas Freman 
Thomas Comer 
Wilhelmus Styrappe 
Thomas Galeys 
Thomas Childe 
Wilhelmus Whetnals 
Henricus Newerk' 
Robertus Ismell' 
Johannes Brekenok' 
Johannes Bailly 

Johannes Baynton', miles A 

Henricus Longe A 

Thomas Welle B 

Henricus Boteler B 

Johannes Stronge C 

Edwardus Basyng' C 

Wilhelmus Bowden' D 

Wilhelmus Styrope D 

Robertus Bentham E 

Ricardus Huggus E 

Thomas Walronde F 

Wilhelmus Weston' F 

Johannes Lawley G 

Andreas Sparowe G 

Johannes Trautbek P 

Johannes R 47 p 

28 HEN. 

Johannes Dewall' A 

Ricardus Warre A 

Thomas Wellys B 

Thomas Malery B 

Thomas Dysswall' C 

Robertus Todde C 

Johannes Whynge D 

Wilhelmus Weston' D 

Georgius Hoghton' E 

Robertus Muchegode E 

Thomas Norys F 

Wilhelmus Hendlove F 

Johannes Rokes G 

Robertus Tilleney G 

Robertus Bentham T 

Edwardus Basyng T 

Wilhelmus Prudde P 

B Johannes Nicoll' 

B Johannes Combe 

C Johannes Wylly 

C Wilhelmus Walter 

D Robertus Spycer 

D Thomas Temise 

E Johannes Mone 

E Georgius Howden' 

F Johannes Uffenham 

F Johannes Lytell' 

G Thomas Ward' 

27 HEN. VI (1448—9). 

Wilhelmus Clement 
Robertus Spycer 
Thomas Hasard' 
Robertus West 
Robertus Onewyn 
Georgius Howton' 
Johannes Sydenham 
Johannes Wylly 
Johannes Whittokesmede 
Philippus Morgan 
Walterus Chalk' 

Thomas *' 

Johannes Laurence 
Wilhelmus Forster 
Thomas Noreys 
Wilhelmus Brugges 


Thomas Coberley 
Johannes Erneley 
Johannes Strange 
Johannes Monmouth' 
Johannes NicoU' 
Thomas Walronde 
Thomas Broun' 
Thomas Freman' 
Johannes Willy 
Wilhelmus Swayn 
Edmundus Penston 
Thomas Skargill' 
Johannes Benger 
Johannes Uffenham 
Wilhelmus Kaj^ser 
Johannes Daunte 
Ricardus Horton' 

29 HEN. VI (1450). 
Johannes Russell' A Wilhelmus Twynehow 

Johannes Whittokesmede A Thomas Thorp 

Wilhelmus Brygge B Johannes Erie 

Thomas Notte B Johannes West 




































206 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Philippus Baynard' C 

Georgius Houghton' C 

Johannes Burlegh' D 

WilUelmus Basyng' D 

WiUielmus Wrythe E 

WilHelmus Kemell' E 

Thomas Norreys F 

WilHelmus Hendelove F 

Walterus Bergh' G 

Johannes Wynge G 

Ricardus Joynour T 

Johannes Nyter T 
Johannes Saymour, armiger P 

31 HEN. VI 

Johannes Saymour, armiger A 

Henricus Longe, armiger A 

Thomas Umfrey B 

Ricardus Baron' B 

Johannes Wolaton' C 

Johannes Godwyn' G 

Olyver Wylcotes D 

Thomas Child' D 

Georgius Houton' E 

Nicholaus Jones E 

WiUielmus Temse F 

Thomas Noryes F 

Radulphus A lye [sic'] G 

Thomas Welle G 

Ricardus Keston' T 

Thomas Crosse T 
Robertus Tylney, armiger P 
Ricardus Waller, junior, 

armiger P 

33 HEN. 

Johannes Wroughton', 

armiger A 
Thomas Wynslowe, armiger A 

Johannes Alderley B 

Johannes C ^^ B 

Johannes Whittokesmede C 

48 C 

Johannes 48 j) 

Johannes 4^ D 

48 Danyell 48^ej 

48 Bothe 48^E] 

Thomas Gore F 

Thomas 48 p 

Edwardus Asshewell G 

WiUielmus Brigg G 

Ricardus Hayne T 

Thomas Luyt T 

Johannes Surnour ? P 

Johannes Nicolas 
Johannes Combe 
Robertus Metford' 
Thomas Burghill' 
Johannes Yelverton' 
Thomas Freman 
Edmundus Penston' 
Rogerus Kemys 
Thomas Grigge 
Johannes Uffenham 
Robertus Fenne 
Alexander Appelby 
Johannes Lawley 


Robertus Dyneley 
WiUielmus Ludlowe 
Thomas Hasard' 
Johannes NicoU' 
Thomas Hardegrave 
Ricardus Ady 
Ricardus Joynour 
Thomas Freman 
WiUielmus Hore 
Johannes Halle 
Johannes Notte 
Bernardus Colvile 
Johannes Maunpesson' 
Ricardus Pratte 
Ricardus Hasard' 
Thomas Trygotte 

VI (1455). 

Robertus Tylney 
WiUielmus Ludlowe 
Johannes Rogers 
Johannes Nycoll' 
(Thomas49) Hasard' 
(Thomas49) Broun' 
Thomas Vaghan' 
Thomas Bagot 
Thomas [Freman48] 

\ .....48 



Bernardus Colvyle 
Johannes atte Fenne 
Egidius de Acres 








48 [H] 

48 [H] 



48 [K] 
48 [KJ 





Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Thomas Hungerford', 

Johannes Saymour', 

Galfridus Sotheworth' 
Johannes Alomby 
Robertus Baynard' 
Robertas Foster 
Willielmus Clement 
Hugo Pierson' 
Johannes Wolfe, armiger 
Thomas Danvers 
Nicholas Herry 
Ricardus Chaundre, armiger 

38 HEN. VI (1459). 

Johannes Nicoll' 
A Robertus West 

Ricardus Seymour 
A Constantinus Darell 

B Johannes Archer 

B Thomas Baron' 

C Thomas Gaunsell' 

C Robertus Bothe 

E Johannes Cole 

E Robertus Neuman 

G Johannes Jurdeley, filius 

G Thome Jurdeley, de 

P Eton' 

P Johannes Watkyns 

39 HEN. VI (1460). 

No Returns found 

Wilts County 

1 EDW. IV (1461). 
No Returns found at all. 

3 EDW. IV (1462—3). 
No Returns found at all. 

7 EDW. IV (1467), 

Rogerus Tocotes, miles 
Johannes Willughby, miles 
Johannes Benger 
Robertus Sheffeld 
Rogerus Huls 
Johannes Bank 
Ricardus Erleygh 
Robertus Lygh 
Edwardus Hungerford, 

Johannes Ferys, armiger 
Robertus Queynton 
Johannes Lambe 
Thomas Welle 
Radulphus A legh [sic] 
Thomas Hunston 
Henricus Muchgode 



Arthurus Ormesby 


Willielmus Sturmy 


Johannes Abrigge 


Johannes Leycestr' 


Ricardus Seymour, armiger 


Johannes Michell, junior 


Johannes Eltenhed 

Nicholaus Statham 


Johannes Aport 


Thomas Pery 


Walterus Torney 


Johannes Michell 


Johannes Whittokesmede 


Willielmus Stephens 


Radulphus Banaster 


Ricardus Garard 





9 EDW. IV (1469). 

Prorogued sine die on account of an expected invasion of the French 

and Scots (Close Roll, 9 Edw. IV m. 3 d). 

10 EDW. IV [49 HEN. VI] (1470). 
No Returns found at all. 

12 EDW. IV (1472). 

Rogerus Tocotes, miles A Henricus Spilman P 

Henricus Longe, armiger A Robertus Sheffeld H 

Thomas Strangwissh B Ricardus Kyngesmyll H 

208 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Johannes Gylford, junior 


Johannes Brigges 


Rogerus Townesend 


Johannes Fryse 


Johannes Hamond 


Thomas Rogers 


WilHelmus Hydes 


Johannes Clynton 


Willielmus Barnevyle 


Philipus Lewys 


Johannes Whittokesmede 


Egidius Dacres 


Ricardus Vyall 


Johannes Chafyn 


Robertus Nevyle 


Rogerus Hols 


Johannes Uffenham 


Philippus Morgan 


Thomas Davers 


Johannes Michell 


Ricardus Jaye 


Johannes Pole 


Ricardus Erley 


Robertus Fenne 


Rogerus Uffenham 


Ricardus Mody 


Johannes Suleard 


Johannes Throgmerton 




. IV ( 


Walterus Hungerford, 

Willielmus Danvers 




Johannes Waller 


Johannes Cheyne, armiger 


Willielmus Slyfelde 


WilHelmus Paston, armiger B 

Willielmus Barett 


Thomas Wareyn 


Thomas Whityngton, armiger J 

Willielmus Walrond, armig 

;er C 

Johannes Fryce 


Johannes Peke 


Robertus Hilton 


Robertus Tocotes 


Johannes Stone 


Aldelmus Hungerford, 

Henricus Councell 




Johannes Glyn 


Rogerus Hopton, armiger 


Edwardus Hardgill, armiger 


Johannes Ferys, armiger 


Henricus Swayne, armiger 


Walterus Heme 


Johannes Lye 


Radulphus Banaster 


Johannes Staunton 


Johannes Michell 


Johannes Pole, armiger 


Thomas Davers 


Willielmus Baker 


Ricardus Jay 


Edwardus Baron 


Michael Skyllyng 


Ricardus Pole, armiger 


Robertus Luyt 




. IV (1482—3). 

No Returns found at all. 



Ill (1483—4). 








. VII 




. VII 






; (1495). 






VII 1 



Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


1 HEN. 

VIII (1509- 


3 HEN. VIII (1511—12) 

6 HEN. VIII (1514—15). 

14 HEN. VIII (1523). 


21 HEN. 

Edwardus Darrell, miles^^ A 

Edwardus Baynton, miles A 

Willielmus Newdygate^^ B 

Johannes Berwyke B 

Willielmus Crouche C 

Johannes Turgeys C 

Willielmus Button D 

Thomas Wylkes D 

Robertus Coursone E 

Willielmus Rede E 

Johannes Poyntz F 

Ricardus Mytton F 

Nicholaus Hare G 

Willielmus Horwod G 

Johannes Seymour, miles T 

Robertus Seymour T 

Johannes Hynde P 

28 HEN. 

VIII (1529). 

Johannes Bawdewyne 
Henricus Bridges 
Ricardus Brydgis 
Thomas Edgare 
Willielmus Stamp 
Edmundus Darrell 
Henricus Baggot 
Thomas Hylton 
Willielmus Lambert 
Willielmus Webbe 
Thomas Chaff yn 
Thomas Kyrton 
Thomas Temys 
Galfridus Pole 
Edmundus Knightley 
Ricardus Tracy 
Walterus Wynston 

VIII (1536). 

No Returns found at all. 

31 HEN. VIII (1539). 


33 HEN. VIII (1541—2). 

No Returns found Wilts County 

37 HEN. VIII (1545). 

No Returns found at all. 

1 EDW. VI (1547). 

No Returns found Wilts County 

7 EDW. VI (1552—53). 

Georgius Pen ruddock, Johannes Bokyngham 

armiger M generosus 

1 MARY (1553). 

Writ only A 

Ricardus Fulmerston B 

Johannes Hungerford B 

Robertus Hungerford, armiger C 
Willielmus Alyn, generosus C 
Robartus Wrastlay, generosus D 








Ricardtis Bryges, armiger, 
ballivus burgi de Lud- 
gershall H 

Edmundus Powell, armiger H 
Robertus Wer', alias Browne K 
Robert Bithwey K 

210 JRepresentatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Henricus Farnell, yeoman D Nicholaus Throckmerton O 

Thomas Parker E Johannes Throckmerton O 

Willielmus Badger E Johannes Hooper M 

Johannes Norrys, armiger G Johannes Abyn M 

Johannes Bekensall, armiger G Andreas Baynton, armiger S 

Fulco Mowncelowe T Griffinus Curteys, generosus S 

Thomas Hyll T Nicholaus Chowne, mercator N 

Willielmus Rastall P Henricus Creede, mercator N 

Oliverus Vachell P Henricus Poole R 

Johannes Throkmerton R 

1 MARY (1554). 

Willielmus Wroughton, Johannes Beckinson, armiger P 

miles^i A Johannes Wynchecombe, 

Johannes Mervyn, miles^i A junior, generosus H 

Richard Fullmarston,esquyerB Edmundus Powell H 

Edward Rous, knight B Johannes Hedges J 

Willielmus Baselen, armiger C Matheus Kyng J 

Willielmus Alen, generosus C Owen Gwyn, esquyer K 

Willielmus Smyth^i D Thomas Tyndall, esquyer K 

Thomas Smyth^^ D Ricardus Cupper, generosus G 

Willielmus Hampshere E Edmundus Twyny, generosus O 

Johannes Tunkes E Robertus Griffithe M 

Thomas Hygate, armiger, F Johannes Abyn M 

Henricus Leke, armiger F Griffinus Curteys, generosus S 

Jacobus Basset, armiger G Petrus Morgan, generosus S 

Johannes Norres, armiger G Wylliam Clerke, esquier S 

Ricardus Forset, generosus T Mathew Colthurst, esquier N 

Christopher Dysmars, Johannes Tull, de London, 

generosus T merchaunt R 

Thomas Martyn, armiger P Egidius Pe^me R 

1 & 2 PHILIP and MARY (1554). 

Rychard Fulmerstone, Antonius Browne, armiger H 

esquyer B Arthurus Alleyn, generosus H 

Edward Hungerford Johannes , vice 

gentylman B Anthonii Browne, 

Johannes Mervyn, miles C armigeri (who elected 

Edwardus Wastfylde C to serve for Maldon, 

Thomas Moyle, miles D county Essex) J 

Johannes Proctor D Edwardus Umpton 

Cyriake Petytt, gentylman generosus J 

vice Thome Moyle, militis, Johannes Hedgis, generosus J 

who (elected to serve for Peter Taylor, alias Perce K 

King's Lyne, county John Brooke K 

Norfolk) D Johannes Tull, armiger O 

Thomas Parker, generosus [E] Franciscus Kyllynghall, 

Johannes Rede, generosus [E] armiger O 

Thomas Hull, major burgi ^^ M 

de Devyses F ^2 -^ 

Edwardus Heynes F William Bennate S 

Johannes Bekyngsale, Greffyn Curtys S 

armiger G Willielmus ^^ n 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Willielmus Barne, armiger G 
Henricus Umpton, generosus T 
Thomas Chaffyn, generosus T 

2 & 3 PHILIP 

Crede, mercator^^ N 

Egidius Payne, generosus R 


Henricus Bodenham, 

armiger A 

Wilhelmus Baseley, armiger A 

Henricus Clyfford, armiger B 

David Seymor, armiger B 

Willielmus Alen, generosus C 

Edwardus Wastfylde C 

Nicholaus Snell, armiger D 

Johannes Pollard, armiger D 

Nicholaus Poyntz, miles E 

Georgius Hunteley, armiger E 

Thomas Hull F 

Jacobus Webbe F 

Henricus Whyte, armiger G 

Thomas Whyte, armiger G 
Thomas Hungerford, armiger T 

Fulco Mouncelowe T 

Thomas Marten, gent. P 

John Bekensaw, gent. P 

4—5 PHILIP and 
Georgius Penruddock, 

and MARY (1555). 

Johannes Storye 
Johannes Wynchcombe, 

Jacobus Stumpe, miles 
Matheus Kyng 
Andro Bain ton, gent. 
Gabriell Pledell, gent. 
Thomas Chaffyn, junior 
Johannes Hooper 
Johannes Marshe, armiger 
Willielmus Chambers, 





Thomas Frogmorton, kynght S 
William Hoskyns S 

Henricus Crede, mercer N 

Willielmus Clerke, gent. N 

Edmundus Ploden, armiger R 
Ricardus Bruninge, armiger R 




Nicholaus Snell, armiger A 

Johannes Temple, generosus B 
Georgius Eden, generosus^^ B 
Willielmus Aleyne.generosus^^C 
Ricardus Nicholas, 

Johannes Sylyard, miles 
Willielmus Nevyll, armiger 
Willielmus Hamesher 
Johannes Marmyon 
Thomas Hull, generosus^^ 
Henricus Morres, generosus^i F 
Thomas Whyte, generosus G 
Thomas Gyrdler, generosus G 
Cristoferus Sackvile, armiger T 
Henricus Partriche, generosus T 
Johannes Gybbon, legum 

doctor P 

Henricus Jones, legum doctor P 

MARY (1557—8). 

Sir Richard Bridges, of West 

[minster], knighte 
Thomas Marten, of London, 

Matheus Kynge, generosus 
Gryffinus Curteis, generosus 
William Daniell, gent. 
Wilham Fletewoode, gent. 
Henricus Jones, armiger 
Thomas Bateman ,generosus^i q 
Johannes Hooper, generosus^^M 
Robertus Eyer, generosus^^ M 
Johannes Bucklond S 

W^illielmus Allen, alias 

Helyer, generosus^^ S 

W^illielmus Clarke, armiger^^ N 
Henricus Creed, generosus^^ N 
Ricardus Brynyng, armiger^^R 
Humfridus Moseley, 


Sir John Thynne, knt. 
John Erneley, esq. 
Francis Newdygate, esq. 
Henry Clifford, esq. 
Andrew Baynton, esq. 
Richard Kingsmylls 

1 ELIZ. (1558—9). 

A William Weyghtman, esq. 

A Henry Sharryngton, esq. 

B Lawrence Hyde, esq. 

B David Cerney 

C William Daniell, gent. 

C John Younge, gent. 


212 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 /or Wiltshire. 

Edward Baynard, esq. 


John Harrynton, esq. 


Nicholas Snell, esq. 


Henry Hart, esq. 


Sir Walter Dennyce, knt. 


William Webbe, merchant 


John Aysshelye, esq. 


John Webbe, merchant 


John Yonge, esq. 


Anthony Carleton, gent. 


Edward Heynes 


Ralph Skynner, gent. 


John Story, LL.D. 


Henry Bodnam, or Bodden- 

Thomas Gyrldeler, gent. 


ham, esq. 


Sir Ralph Hopton, knt. 


Thomas Hygate, esq. 


Richard Pallady 


Christopher Dysmars, gent. 


William Awbreye, gent. 


Humphrey Moseley, gent. 


Henry Jones, esq. 


5 ELIZ. 

(1562— 3). 53 

Edward Baynton, esq. 


George Acworthe, esq. 


John Eyer, esq. 


Griffin Curtis, esq. 


Sir John Thynne, knt. 


George Cope, esq. 


Stephen Hales, esq.^* 


Sir Thomas Ragland, knt. 


Wilham Clarke, gent. 


Edward Poole, esq. 


William Alleyn, gent. 


Michael Blount, Esq. 


Erancis Newdigate 


Leonard Dannet, esq. 


Nicholas Snell, esq. 


Edward Herbert, esq. 


Nicholas Seint John, esq. 


Henry Compton, esq. 


Anthony Throckmorton, esq 


Anthony Weekes, gent. 


Hugh Powell, esq. 


Giles Estcourte, gent. 


Edward Heynes, esq. 


Hugh Ryeley, gent. 


Tristram Mathewe, gent. 


John Dyster, gent. 


Henry Kingesmyll, gent. 


William Wightman, esq. 


Richard Kingesmyll, esq. 


Thomas Highgate, esq. 


Richard Cabell, gent. 


John Hippesley, esq.^^ 


John Eoster, esq. 


Gabriel Pledell, esq. 


14 ELIZ. (1572). 

Sir George Penruddock, knt. 


Sir John Thynne, knt.^e 


of Ivychurch, county Wilts 


Edward Stafforde, gent.^^ 


James Marvyn, esq., of 

John Hales, esq. 


Eounthill, county Wilts^^ 


Richard Polstede, gent.^o 


Simon Boyer, gent.^^ ^^ 


James Colbrand, esq. 


George Ireland, gent.^^ ^^ 


Thomas Walkadyn, gent. 


William Alleyne, sen., gent. 


John Danvers, esq.^® ^^ 


William Were, alias Browne 


Nicholas Snell, esq.^^ 




Nicholas Saint John, esq. 


Sir Edward Baynton, knt., 

John Stannop (or 

vice William Alleyne, gent. 


Stanhope^^) esq. 


deceased^s 59 


Hugh Powell, gent. 


William Bayly, gent., of the 

John Erenche, gent. 


parish of Chippenham 


Giles Estcourte, esq. 


John Scott, clothier, of 

Hugh Tucker, gent. 




William Bronker, esq. 


William Brugis, esq. 


Henry Bronker, gent. 


John Hugesford, jun., esq. 


William Clarke, gent. 


George Raynold, Mayor of 

Erancis Vaughan, gent. 




Henry Knevytt (or Knyvet) 

Henry Grube 


esq.56 62 


Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


William Darrell, esq., of 

Littlecott, county Wilts G 
Edward Seintlowe, esq., of 

Stoye, County Somerset G 

27 ELIZ. 

Charon Rawley, esq. A 

Anthony Mildmey, esq. A 

Richard Wheler, esq B 

Roger Puleston, gent. B 

Stephen Duckett. esq. C 

John Lever, gent. C 

Robert Baynarde, esq. D 

Robert Hyde, gent. D 

Henry Bainton, esq. F 

Henry Broncker, esq. F 

Thomas Wylkes, esq. G 

Thomas Cosen, LL.D. G 

John Thynne, esq. T 

Laurence Hyde, esq. T 

Venerable Dr. Dale P 

Richard Sowche, gent. P 

John Kingesmyll, esq. H 

Edmund Dunche, esq. 



Francis Button, gent. H 

Sir Henry Knevett, knt. J 

John Stumpe, gent. J 

Henry Ughtred, esq. K 
Edward Stanhopp, gent., 

D.C.L. K 

Richard Topcliffe, esq. O 

Roger Gyfford, M.D. O 

Giles Estcourt, esq. M 

Christopher Weekes, esq. M 

William Bronker, esq. S 

Edmund Myddwinter, gent. S 

John Penruddocke, esq. N 

Roger Earthe, esq. N 
The Worshipful Thomas 

Vaviser, esq. R 

John Hungerford, esq. R 

28 ELIZ. (1586). 

William Browncker, esq. A 

Charon Rawley, esq. A 

Richard Wheler, esq. B 

Roger Puleston, gent. B 

Stephen Duckett, esq. C 

John Leaver, gent. D 

Lawrence Hide, gent. D 

Robert Hide, gent. D 

John Higford, junior, esq. E 

Richard Delabere, esq. E 

Henry Baynton, esq.^^ F 

Henry Brunker, esq.^^ F 

Thomas Gorges, esq. G 

Thomas Wylkes, esq. G 

John Thynne, esq. T 

John Bennett, gent. T 
John Mervin, esq., of the 
Middle Temple, county 

Middlesex P 
Richard Cossens (orCossyn)^^ 
D.C.L., Chancellor to the 

Archbishop of Canterbury P 

30 & 31 ELIZ 

John Thynne, esq. A 

William Brouncker, esq. A 

John Seymor, esq. B 

Henry Oughttred, esq. B 

Henry Jackman, esq. C 

John Leaver, gent. C 

Ambrose Coppinger, esq. H 

John Kyngesmyll, esq. H 

Sir Henry Knyvett, knt. J 
Henry Bayly ffe, gent., of 

Chippenham J 
Edward Stanhope, gent., 

D.C.L. K 
Edmund Hungerford, gent., 

of Marlborough K 

Edw^ard Barkeley, esq. O 

Richard Topcliffe, esq. O 

Giles Estcourt, esq. M 

Christopher Weeckes, gent. M 

Robert Baynard, esq.^* S 

Henry Whitaker S 

Edward Penruddoke, esq. N 

Henry Martyn, esq. N 

Thomas Vavasour, Esq. R 
John Hungerforde, esq., of 

Cadnam R 

(1588 and 1588—9). 

Henry Huyde, or Hynde, esq. H 
Thomas Vavicer, esq. J 

Henry Bayly, gent. J 

Richard Wheler, esq., of 
Lincoln's Inn, County 
Middlesex K 

214 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Edward Bainton, knt. D 

William Swayne, gent. D 

George Snigge, gent.^^ E 

Thomas Smythe, gent.^^ E 

Henry Brouncker, esq. F 

John Dalaber, esq. F 

Richard Cossyn, LL.D. G 

Lawrence Tompson, gent. G 

Francis Zouche, esq. T 

Joshua Elmer, esq. T 

John Mervin, gent. P 

John Lyly, gent. P 

Carew Rawleigh, esq. H 

35 ELIZ. 

Sir Walter Longe, knt. A 

Sir William Bruncker, knt. A 
Thomas Hungerford, esq., of 

Stocke, County Wilts B 
James Kyrton, gent., of 

Bedwin B 

Henry Jackman, esq. C 

Thomas Edwards, gent. C 

Edward Wingiield, esq. D 

Francis Hervye, esq. D 

Henry Nowell, esq. E 
John Pledall, esq., of Framp- 

ton E 

Henry Bayntun, esq. F 

Richard Mompesson, esq. F 

John Goldewell, esq. G 

Thomas W^illoughby, esq. G 

John Thynne, esq. T 

Thomas Thynne, esq. T 

39 ELIZ. 

Sir William Eyre, knt. A 

Henry Baynton, esq. A 

Anthony Hungerford, esq. B 

Francis Castilion B 
Thomas Edwards, esq. of 

Rushbury, County Salop C 

Richard Lowe, esq. of Calne C 

Edward Wymarke, esq. D 

Shaiington Talbot, esq. D 

Sir George Gyfford, knt. E 

Gray Brydges, esq. E 

John Kent, gent. F 

Robert Drewe, gent. F 

Robert Turnor G 

George Paule, esq. G 

John Thynne, esq. T 

Lawrence Huyde, esq. T 

Sir James Marvyn, knt. P 

John Cornewall, gent, of 

Marlborough K 

Roger Gyfford, M.D. O 

Henry Bainton, esq. O 

Christopher Weekes, gent. M 

John Bay ley, gent. M 

Henry Fanshaw, gent, S 

John Bennet, gent. S 

Thomas Cavendishe, esq. N 

Robert Penruddoke, esq. N 

Sir Henry Knyvett, knt. R 

John Hungerforde, esq. R 


Francis Zouche, esq. P 

Abraham Hartwell, gent. P 

Edward Thornboroughe, esq. H 

Chidiac Wardour, esq. H 

Sir Henry Knyvet, knt. J 

Thomas Lakes, esq. J 

Richard Wheler, esq. K 

Anthony Hungerford, esq. K 

Anthony Asheley, esq. O 

Edmund Fortescue, esq. O 

Giles Hutchens, gent. M 

Robert Bower, gent. M 

William Jordayne, gent. S 

Henry Fanshawe, gent. S 

Sir Thomas Morgan, knt. N 

Robert Penruddocke, esq. N 

John Hungerford, esq. R 

William Meredith, gent. R 


Henry Jackman, esq. P 

Edmund Ludlawe, esq. H 

Richard Leake, gent. H 
Sir Henry Knyvette, knt. 

of Charlton J 
Thomas Estcourte, jun., 

esq., of Shipton Moyne J 

Richard Digges, esq. K 

Richard Wheler, esq. K 

Thomas Eire, gent. M 

Giles Hutchens, gent. M 

Matthew Ley, esq. S 

James Ley, esq. S 

Thomas Muffet, gent. N 

Robert Penruddock, gent. N 

Henry Dacres, esq. R 

John Lowe, esq. R 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


43 ELIZ. (1601), 

Sir Edmund Carye, knt.®^ A 
Sir Edward Hungerford,knt,^^A 

Anthony Hungerford, esq. B 

Levinus Monckes, esq. B 

Lionel Duckett, esq.^^ C 

Richard Lowe, esq. C 

Robert Barkley, esq. D 

Edward Wymarke, esq. D 

Sir George Gifford, knt.^^ E 

Robert Master, LL.D.^^ E 

Giles Fetiplace, esq. F 

Robert Drewe, gent. F 
Thomas Penruddocke, 

esq.63 58 G 

Edward (Barker^^), gent.^^ G 

John Thynne, esq. T 

Richard Smythe, esq.^^ T 

Thomas Thynn, esq.^^ P 

George Paule, esq'. P 

Robert Penruddocke, esq. H 

1 JAS. 
Sir Francis Popham, knt. A 
Sir John Thynne, knt. A 

Sir Thomas Thynne, knt., 
vice Sir John Thynne, knt., 
deceased A 

Sir Walter Vaughan, knt., 
vice Sir Thomas Thynne, 
knt., who being already a 
member for Hindon was 
ineligible A 

Sir John Radnye, knt. B 

Anthony Hungerford, esq. B 
William Swaddon C 

John Noyes C 

Sir Edmund Carie, knt., vice 
William Swaddon, too in- 
firm to attend Parliament C 
John Hungerforde, esq. D 

John Roberts, gent. D 

(Sir) John Hungerford 

(knt.)63 58 E 

(Sir) Henry (Poole, knt.)63 58 e 
Sir Henry Baynton, knt. F 

Robert Drewe, gent. F 

Sir Carewe Rawleyghe, knt. G 
William Stockeman, esq. G 

Sir William Eyre, knt. T 

Walter Gawen, gent. T 

Sir Edmund Ludlowe, knt. P 
Thomas Thynne, esq, P 

James Kyrton, gent. H 
Sir William Monson, knt., of 

, in the county of 

Lincoln J 
Sydney Mountague, esq., of 

the Middle Temple, London J 

Richard Diggs, esq. K 

Lawrence Hyde, esq. K 

Robert Turnor, esq. O 

Henry Hyde, esq. O 

Giles Tooker, esq.^3 ]y[ 

John Puxton, gent.^3 ^ 

Matthew Ley, esq. S 
Henry Jackson, esq., of 

London S 

Sir Edmund Morgan, knt. N 

Hugh Samforde, esq. N 

John Wentworthe, esq. R 

John Rice, esq. R 

I (1603—4) 

James Kerton, esq. H 

Henry Ludlawe, esq. H 

Sir Roger Dalyson, knt. J 

Sir Thomas Dalyson, knt. J 

Lawrence Hyde, esq. K 

Richard Diggs, esq. K 

William Ravenscrofte O 

Edward Leache, esq. O 

Giles Tooker, esq. M 

Richard Godfrey, gent. M 
Sir James Ley, knt., ser- 

jeant-at-law^2 g 

Matthew Ley, esq. S 

Alexander Chokke, esq., vice 
Sir James Ley, knt., ap- 
pointed Chief Justice of 
the King's Bench S 

Sir James Ley, knt., Attor- 
ney General of the Court 
of Wards and Liveries, 
vice Alexander Chokke, 
esq., deceased S 

Sir Thomas Edmonds, knt. N 
Hugh Sanford, esq. N 

Thomas Morgan, esq., vice 
Hugh Sanford, esq., de- 
ceased N 
Henry Martyn, esq. R 
Alexander Tutt, esq. R 

216 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

12 JAS. I (1614). 
No Returns found Wilts County 

18 JAS. 
Sir Francis Seymor, knt. A 

Sir Edward Baynton, knt. A 
Sir Francis Popham, knt. B 
Sir Giles Mumpesson, knt. B 
Thomas Gary, esq., vice Sir 
Giles Mompesson, knt., ex- 
pelled the House B 
John Duckett, esq. C 
John Pyme, esq. C 
Edward Hungerford, esq. D 
John Bayliffe, esq. D 
Sir Thomas Howard, knt. E 
Sir Carey Reynell, knt. E 
Sir Henry Ley, knt. F 
John Kent, gent. F 
Sir Carew Ralegh, knt. G 
Sir Thomas Hinton, knt. G 
Sir Thomas Thynne, knt., of 

Eongeleate, County Wilts T 
Sir Henry Ludlowe, knt., of 
Horningesham, County 
Wilts T 

Sir John Davis, knt., ser- 

jeant-at law^^ P 

John Anketill, gent., of 

FounteU, County Wilts*^^ P 
John Davies, knt., who 
elected to serve for New- 
castle-under-Lyme, County 
Stafford P 

21 JAS. 

Edward Hungerford, esq. A 
Sir John St. John, knt. and 

bart. A 

Hugh Crompton, esq. B 

William Cholmley, esq. B 

Sir Edward Howard, knt. C 

John Duckett, esq. C 

Charles Maynarde, esq.®'' D 

John Pym, esq. D 

Sir William Howarde, knt. E 

Sir Nevill Poole, knt. E 

Sir Edward Baynton, knt. F 

John Kent, gent. F 
Sir William Dodington, jun., 

knt. G 

Sir Clipsie Crewe, knt. G 

I (1620—1). 

Alexander Chokke, esq. H 

William Sotwell, esq. H 

Sir Henry Poole, knt. J 

Sir Edward W^ardor, knt. J 

Sir William Seymour, knt., 

Lord Beauchamp K 

Richard Digges, esq. K 

Sir Walter Devereux, knt., 
vice Sir William Seymour, 
knt.. Lord Beauchamp, 
called to the Upper House 
as Baron Beauchamp K 

George Mynne, esq. O 

Thomas Brette, esq. O 

Roger Gauntlett, gent. M 

Lawrence Home, gent. M 

Sir James Ixy, knt. and bart. S 
Sir Miles Fleetwood, knt. S 

Walter Longe. esq., vice Sir 
James Ley, knt., andbart., 
appointed Chief Justice of 
the King's Bench S 

Sir Thomas Tracye, knt. N 

Thomas Morgan, esq. N 

Sir Henry Nevill, knt., vice 
Sir Thomas Tracye, knt., 
deceased N 

Richard Harrison, esq. R 

John Wrenham, gent. R 

I (1623—4). 

William Sotwell, esq. H 
(Sir Edward) Wardour, 

knt., 63 58 J 
Sir Thomas Hatton, knt. J 
Sir Francis Seymour, knt. K 
Richard Digges, serjeant-at- 
law K 
Sir Arthur Ingram, knt.®^ O 
Michael Oldisworth, esq. O 
(Sir Robert Cotton, knt. and 
bart.), 63 vice Sir Arthur 
Ingram, knt., who elected 
to serve for York City 6 8 O 
Henry Sherfield, esq. M 
Roger Gauntlett, gent. M 
Sir Henry Ley, knt. S 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Edward Herbert, esq., vice 
Sir William Dodington, 

jun., knt., deceased G 

Sir Thomas Thynne, knt. T 

Sir Henry Ludlowe, knt. T 
Lawrence Hyde, esq., of the 

Close, Salisbury P 
Matthew Davis, gent., of the 

Middle Temple, London P 

Edward Kyrton, esq. H 

1 CHAS, 

Sir Francis Seymour, knt. A 

Sir Henry Ley, knt. A 

Sir John Brooke, knt. B 

William Cholmeley, esq. B 

Sir Edward Howard, knt. C 

George Lowe, sen., esq. C 

Sir Francis Popham, knt.^^ D 

John Maynard, esq.^^ D 

Sir William Howard, knt. E 

Edward Douse, esq. E 

Sir Edward Bayntun, knt. F 

Robert Drewe, Esq. F 

Sir Clipsie Crewe, knt. G 

Edward Herbert, esq, G 

Sir Charles Berkley, knt. T 

Edward Blisse, esq. J 

Sir Thomas Thynne, knt. P 

Thomas Lambert, esq. P 

Sir Robert Pye, knt. H 
Sir Thomas Hinton, knt., of 

Chilton Park H 

Sir Edward Ward our, knt. J 

Sir Thomas Hatton, knt.^^ J 

1 CHAS. I 

Sir Henry Poole, knt. A 

Walter Long, esq. A 

John Selden, esq. B 

Sir Maurice Berkley, knt. B 

Sir John Eyre, knt. C 

George Lowe, sen., esq. C 

Sir Edward Bayntun, knt. D 

Sir Francis Popham, knt. D 

Sir William Howard, knt. E 

Sir Robert Hyde, knt. E 

Sir Henry Ley, knt. F 

John Drewe, gent. F 
Robert Long, esq., vice Sir 
Henry Ley. knt., called to 
the Upper House as Baron 

Ley F 

Herbert Doddington, esq. G 


Sir Henry Myldmay, knt. S 
Sir Pearcy Herbert, knt. and 

bart. N 

Sir Thomas Morgan, knt. N 
Sir Rowland Egerton, knt. 

and bart. of Egerton, 

county Chester R 

John Banks, esq., of Gray's 

Inn county Middlesex R 

I (1625). 

Richard Digges, serjeant-at- 
law K 
Edward Kyrton, esq. K 
Michael Oldisworth, esq., of 

London O 

Sir John Stradlinge, knt. O 
Henry Sherfield, esq., Re- 
corder of Salisbury M 
Walter Long, esq., common 

councilman of Salisbury'^^ M 
Walter Long, esq.'^^ S 

Gifford Long, esq. S 

Sir William Herbert, knt. N 
Sir Thomas Morgan, knt. N 
Sir William Harrington, knt., 
vice Sir William Herbert, 
knt., who elected to serve 
for Montgomery N 

Sir Robert Hide, knt. of 

Charleton, county Berks R 
Sir Walter Titchborne, knt., 
of Aldercote, county 
Southampton R 


Robert Mason, esq.'^^ H 

Sir Thomas Hinton, knt., 
vice Sir Thomas Jay, knt., 
and Robert Mason, esq., 
whose election was de- 
clared void^^ H 
Sir Thomas Jay, knt,, vice 
Sir Thomas Jay, knt., and 
Robert Mason, esq., whose 
election was declared void H 
Sir Henry Moody, knt. and 

bart. J 

Sir William Crofts, knt. J 

Richard Digges, serjeant-at- 
law K 
Edward Kyrton, esq. K 
Sir Benjamin Rudyard, knt. O 

218 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Edward Herbert, esq. G 
William Trumbell, esq., vice 
Herbert Doddington, esq., 
who elected to serve for 

Lymington G 

Sir Charles Berkley, knt. T 

William Blake, esq. T 

Sir Thomas Thynne, knt. P 

Thomas Lambert, esq. P 

Sir William Walter, knt. H 

Sir Thomas Jay, knt. H 

Sir William Walter, knt.^i H 

3 CHAS. I 

Sir Francis Seymour, knt. A 
Sir William Button, knt. 

and bart. A 

Edward Kirton, esq. B 

Sir John Trevor, jun., knt. B 
Sir John Maynard, knight 

of the bath C 

George Lowe, sen., esq. C 

Sir Francis Popham, knt. D 

Sir John Eyre, knt. D 

Sir Edward Hungerford, knt. E 

Robert Jenner, gent. E 

Robert Long, esq. F 

Thomas Kent, gent. F 

Sir Benjamin Rudyard, knt. G 

Edward Herbert, esq. G 

Sir Charles Berkley, knt. T 

W^illiam RoLe, esq. T 
Sir Thomas Thynne, knt., of 

Longleat, county Wilts P 
Lawrence Hyde, esq., of 

Heale, county Wilts P 

John Seldon, esq. H 

Sir Thomas Jay, knt. H 
Sir William Crofts, knt. J 

Sir Henry Moody, knt. and 
bart. J 

16 CHAS. 
Philip, Lord Herbert of Car- 
diff and Sherland A 
Sir Francis Seymour, knt. A 
Richard Hardinge, esq. B 
Charles Seymour, esq. B 
William Maynard, esq. C 
Walter Norborne, esq. C 
Sir Edward Hungerford, 

knight of the bath D 

Sir Edward Bayntun, knt. D 
Robert Jenner, esq., of W^yd- 

hill, county Wilts E 

Michael Oldsworth, esq. O 

Henry Sherfield, esq.. Re- 
corder of Salisbury M 
John Puxton, gent. M 
Sir Walter Long, knt. S 
Thomas Hopton, esq. S 
Sir Thomas Morgan, knt. N 
Sir John Evelyn, knt. N 
Sir John Francklyn, knt., of 

Wilsden, county Middlesex R 
Sir Thomas Lake, knt., of 
Cannons, county Middlesex R 

Sir Francis Seymour, knt. K 
Richard Digges, serjeant-at- 
law K 
(Henry Piercy, esq.)^^ ^^ vice 
who elected to serve for 
county Wilts) K 
Michael Oldsworth, esq. O 
Christopher Keightley, esq. O 
Henry Sherfield, esq.. Re- 
corder of Salisbury M 
Bartholomew Tookie, gent., 
alderman and common 
councilman of Salisbury M 
Maximilian Petty, esq. S 
Charles Thynne, esq. S 
Sir William Herbert, knt. N 
Sir Thomas Morgan, knt. N 
John Poolye, esq., vice Sir 
William Herbert knt. (who 
elected to serve for Mont- 
gomery county)'* N 
Sir John Francklyn, knt., of 

Wilsdon, county Middlesex R 
Anthony Rowse, esq., of 
Fatcham, county Surrey 
[? Patcham, co. Sussex] R 
I (1640). 

Sir Miles Fleetwood, knt. P 
George Garret, esq. P 

William Ashbornham, esq. H 
Sir John Evelyn, knt. H 

Sir Nevell Poole, knt. J 

Anthony Hungerford, esq. J 
Edward Herbert, esq.. 

Solicitor General O 

Sir William Howard, knt. O 
Robert Hide, esq., recorder 

of Salisbury M 

Michael Olsworth, esq. M 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Thomas Hodges, esq., of 
Ship ton, county Gloucester E 

Edward Baynton, esq. 
Henry Da [n?] vers, esq. 
Sir Edward Griffin, knt. 
WilUam Eyre, esq. 
Sir John Berkly, knt. 
Thomas Moore, esq. 



16 CHAS. I (1040) 
(Long Parliament.) 

Sir Thomas Pennestone, knt. S 
John Ashe, esq. S 

Sir Henry Vane, knt. N 

Sir Benjamin Rudyard, knt. N 
Thomas Windibanck, esq. R 
Edward Hyde, esq., of Pir- 
ton, county Wilts R 

Sir James Thynne, knt. 

Sir Henry Ludlowe, knt. 

James Herbert, esq., and 
Edmund Ludlowe, esq., 
vice Sir Henry Ludlowe, 
knt., deceased, and Sir 
James Thynne, knt., dis- 
abled to sit 

Sir Walter Smith, knt. 

Richard Harding, esq. 

Edmund Harvey, esq., and 
Henry Hungerford, esq., 
z;ice Sir Walter Smith, knt., 
and Richard Harding, esq., 
disabled to sit 

George Lowe, sen., esq. 

Hugh Rogers, esq. 

Rowland Wilson, jun., esq., 
of London, vice George 
Lowe, esq., disabled to sit 

Sir Edward Bayntun, knt. 

Sir Edward Hungerford, knt. 

William Eyre, esq., vice Sir 
Edward Hungerford, knt., 

Robert Jenner, esq., of Wyd- 
hill, county Wilts 

Thomas Hodges, esq., of 
Shipton, county Glouc. 

Edward Bayntun, esq., of 
Bromham, county Wilts 

Robert Nicholas, esq., of 

The Hon. William Herbert, 
esq., son of the Right Hon. 
Philip Earl of Pembroke 
and Montgomery 

Sir Edward Griffin, knt. 

Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, 
bart., vice the Hon. 
William Herbert, esq., 
who elected to serve for 
county Monmouth 


Robert Reynolds, esq.^^ 

Thomas Bennett, gent., of 
Pithouse, vice Sir Miles 
Fleetwood, knt., deceased 

George How, gent., vice 
Thomas Bennett, esq., de- 

Edmund Ludlowe, sen., esq., 
vice Thomas Bennett, esq., 

Wilham Ashbornham, esq. 

Sir John Evelyn, knt. 

Walter Long, esq.'^® ^^ 

Sir Nevill Poole, knt. 

Anthony Hungerford, esq. 

Sir John Danvers, knt., of 
Chelsea, county Middlesex, 
vice Anthony Hungerford, 
esq., disabled to sit 

Sir Francis Seymour, knt. 

John Francklyn, gent. 

Philip Smyth, esq.^^ "^^ 

Charles Fleetwood, esq., vice 
John Francklyn, gent., 

Robert Cecil, esq. 

Edward Herbert, esq., 
Solicitor General 

Sir William Savile, bart. ^ 9 

Roger Kirkham, esq., vice 
Sir William Savile, bart., 
disabled to sit 

Sir Richard Lucye, knt., 
vice Roger Kirkham, esq., 

Robert Hyde, esq., serjeant- 

Michael Olds worth, esq.^^ 

John Dove, gent., alderman 
of Salisbury, vice Robert 
Hyde, esq., serjeant-at- 
law disabled to sit 

W'illiam Wheeler, esq. 



220 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Richard Gorges, esq., son of 
the Right Hon. Edward 
Lord Gorges, Baron of 
Dundalk, vice Hon. 
Wilham Herbert, esq., 
who elected to serve for 
county Monmouth 

Alexander Thistlethwaite, 
jun., e^(\.,vice Sir Edward 
Grifhn, knt., disabled to 

Thomas Moore, esq. 

Edward Ashe, esq. 

Sir Miles Fleetwood, knt.^^ 

John Ashe, esq. 

The Hon. Sir Henry Vane, 

Sir Benjamin Rudyard, knt. 
Edward Poole, esq., of Oak- 

sey, county Wilts 
Wilham Pleydell, esq,, of 

Midghall, in the parish of 

Liddiard Tregoze, county 

Edward Massey, esq., of 

London, vice William 

Pleydell, esq., disabled to 


Interregnum (1653). 

A List of this Parliament is given in Browne Willis' 

"Notitia Parliamentaria." 


Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, 

bart. A 

Alexander Popham, esq. A 
Thomas Grove, esq., of Bury 

Court A 
Alexander Thistlethwayte, 

esq. A 

Francis Hollis, esq. A 
John Earn ley, esq., of Berry 

Town A 

William Yorke, esq. A 

John Norden, esq. A 

James Ashe, esq. A 

No Returns found 

Gabriel Marten, esq. 

William Eyre, esq., vice 
Colonel Alexander Pop- 
ham who elected to serve 
for Bath 

Edward Bayntun, esq. 

Lieut . -General Charles Fleet- 
wood, Commander in chief 
of the Forces in Ireland 

Edward Tooker, esq. 

William Stevens, esq., 

corder of Salisbury 



Wilts County 


Sir W'^alter St. John, knt. 
Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, 

Henry Hungerford, esq. 
Thomas Manby, esq. 
Edward Baynton, esq. 
William Duckett, esq. 
Edward Hungerford, esq., of 

Farleigh Castle, county 

James Stedman, esq., 

Lincoln's Inn 
Edward Poole, esq., 

Kemble, county Wilts 
John Haw[kins],^2 gent., 

county Wilts 

Chaloner Chute, jun., esq. 














Richard Sherwyn, esq. 

Sir Henry Lee, bart., of 

county Oxford82 84 j 

Thomas Higgons, esq., of 

, countv Southamp- 

ton8 2 ^ J 

Thomas Grove, esq. K 

James Hayes, esq.. Recorder 

of Marlborough K 

Richard Hill, esq., of Strat- 

ford83 o 

William (Ludlow ?) esq., of 

Clarrinton (Clarendon ?) 

Park O 

Henry Eyre, esq.. Recorder 

of Salisbury M 


Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 221 

Edward Scotton, esq. F ,aldermanof 

esq., of Salisbury^^ M 

county Southamp- Robert Danvers, esq., of 

ton^2 Q Bassetbury, county Bucks^^ S 

Will of William Eyre, esq., of Nes- 

Woodfalls^^ G ton, county Wilts S 

John Ashe, esq.^^ T John Herbert, esq. N 

[Samuel Ashe, esq.] T (Richard) Grobham Howe, 

Edward Tooker, esq. P esq. N 

Edmund Ludlowe P ^^ R 

James Dewy, esq., of the Robert Stevens, of the 

Middle Temple, London H Middle Temple, London R 

COMMONWEALTH (7 May 1659). 

12 CHAS. II (1660). 

Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, Henry Hungerford, esq. K 

Bart. A Jeffery Daniel, esq. K 

John Eamley, esq. A Seymour Bowman, esq. O 

Robert Spencer, esq. B John Norden, esq. O 

Thomas Gape, esq. B Alger (non Cecil, esq.)^^ O 

Edward Baynton, esq. C O 

William Duckett, esq. C Henry Eyre, esq.. Recorder 

Edward Hungerford, esq., of of Salisbury M 

Farleigh Castle, county Edward Tooker, esq. M 

Somerset D Richard Lewis, esq. S 

Edward Poole, esq., of William Browncker, esq. S 

Kemble, county Wilts D Francis Swanton, esq.^^ N 

Hungerford Dunch, esq., of William Hewes, gent.^^ N 

Wittenham, county Berks E Richard Grobham Howe, 
Nevill Maskelyne, esq., of esq., vice William Hewes, 
Purton, county \Vilts E gent.. Mayor of Wilton, 
W^illiam Lewis, esq. F whose election was de- 
Robert Aldworth, esq. F clared void N 
William Lewis, esq. F John Pleydell, esq,, of 
John Norden, esq. F Midghall, county Wilts R 
Giles Eyre, esq. G Henry, Lord Herbert of 
John Elliott, esq. G Badminton, county 
Thomas Moore, esq. T Gloucester R 
John Jolliffe, esq. T Sir Bayneham Throckmor- 
Sir Thomas Thynne, knt.^® P ton, knt., of Clowerwall, 
George Grobham Howe, esq. P county of Gloucester, vice 
William Prynne, esq. H Henry, Lord Herbert, who 
William Thomas, esq. H elected to serve for county 
Silas Titus, esq., of Bushey, Monmouth R 
county Hertford, vice Sir Walter St. John, bart., 
William Prynne, esq., who vice Henry, Lord Herbert, 
elected to serve for Lud- who elected to serve for 
gershall (sic)^' H county Monmouth R 
Robert Danvers. esq., of 

Bassetbury, county Bucks J 
Sir Francis Henry Lee, bart., 
of Ditchley, county Ox- 
ford J 

222 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

13 CHAS. II (1661), 

Charles Seymour, esq. A 

Henry Hyde, esq. A 

Sir James Thynne, knt., of 
Longleate, county Wilts, 
vice Charles Seymour, esq., 
called to the Upper House 
as Lord Seymour A 

Thomas Thynne, esq., of 
Longleate, county Wilts, 
vice Sir James Thynne, 
knt., deceased^^ A 

Sir Richard Grobham Howe, 
knt., and bart., vice Henry 
Hyde, esq., become Earl 
of Clarendon, and called 
to the Upper House A 

John Trevor, esq.^^ B 

91 B 

Daniel Finch, esq., vice Sir 
John Trevor, knt., one of 
the Principal Secretaries 
of State, deceased9 2 B 

William Duckett, esq. C 

George Lowe, esq. C 

Edward Hungerford, esq., of 
Farleigh Castle, county 
Somerset's D 

Henry Bayntun, esq., of 

Bath, county Somerset'^ D 
Henry Bayntun, esq., of 
Bath, and Sir Hugh Speke. 
bart., of Haselbury, 
county Wilts, vice the 
burgesses, whose election 
was declared void by an 
Order of the House, dated 
20 June 1661 D 

Sir Edward Hungerford, knt. 
of the bath, vice Sir Hugh 
Speke, bart., deceased D 

Francis Gwyn, esq,, vice 

Henry Bayntun, deceased'^D 
Sir George Hungerford, knt. 
and bart. of Cadnam, 
county Wilts E 

John Ernie, esq. of Berri- 

towne, county Wilts E 

William Yorke, esq. F 

John Kent, esq. F 

John Norden, esq., vice 
William Yorke, esq., de- 
ceased F 

Sir Charles Herbert, knt. P 

Sir George Grobham Howe, 
bart. P 

Robert Hyde, esq., vice Sir 
George Grobham Howe, 
bart., deceased P 

William Ashbournham, esq., 
late of St. Giles-in-the- 
Fi^lds, CO. Middlesex H 

Geoff ry Palmer, esq., of the 
Middle Temple, county 
Middlesex H 

Sir Richard Browne, sen., 
knt. and bart. of London, 
MajorGeneralofthe Army 
of the city of London, vice 
Geoff ry Palmer, esq., de- 
ceased H 

Thomas Grey, esq., eldest 
son of Lord Grey, Baron 
of Werke, vice Sir Richard 
Browne, knt., and bart., 
deceased H 

George Legge, esq., of West- 
minster, vice Thomas 
Grey, esq., deceased'^ H 

Sir Francis Henry Lee, bart. 
of Ditchley, county Ox- 
ford J 

Lawrence Washington, esq., 
of Garsdon, county Wilts J 

Philip Howard, esq., of 
Charlton, county Wilts, 
esq., deceased J 

Sir Edward Poole, knt. of 
Kemble, county Wilts, 
vice Sir Francis Henry 
Lee, bart., deceased J 

Thomas Estcourt, esq., of 
Lincoln's Inn, county 
Middlesex, vice SirEdward 
Poole, knt., deceased J 

John Lord Seymour K 

Jeffery Daniell, esq. K 

Sir John Elwes, knt., vice 
John Lord Seymour, called 
to the Upper House as 
Duke of Somerset'^ K 

Edward Nicholas, esq. O 

John Denham, esq. O 

Edward Tooker, esq. M 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Edward Lewes, esq., and 
George Johnson, esq., vice 
John Kent, esq., and John 
Norden, esq., deceased F 

Sir Edward Bayntun, knt. 
of the bath vice Edward 
Lewis, esq., deceased F 

Gilbert Raleigh, esq.^^ G 

Walter Bockland, esq.^^ G 

Sir Joseph Ashe, bart., vice 
Walter Bockland, esq., 
deceased®^ G 

Henry Eyre, es,(\.,vice Gilbert 
Raleigh, esq., deceased G 

Maurice Bockland, esq., of 
Standish in the parish of 
Downton, vice Henry 
Eyre, esq., deceased G 

Sir Joseph Ashe, of Twitten- 
ham (Twickenham) , county 
Middlesex T 

John Joliffe, esq., of London T 

Sir Charles Berkley, of 
Bruton T 

Henry Coker, esq., of Hilde- 
verill T 

Sir Charles Berkley, sen., 
knt.. Comptroller of the 
Household ; John Joliffe, 
esq., of the city of London 
vice the burgesses, whose 
elections were declared 
void by Order of the 
House T 

William Ashe, esq., of the 
Inner Temple, London, 
vice Sir Charles Berkley, 
sen., knt.. Viscount Fitz- 
harding, deceased T 

Francis [Swanjton, esq. M 

Stephen Fox, esq., vice 
Francis Swan ton, esq., 
deceased M 

Edward Hyde, Esq., son of 
Edward, Earl of Clarendon, 
Lord Chancellor of 
England, vice Edward 
Looker, esq., deceased M 

Richard Colman, esq.. 
Recorder of Salisbury, 
vice Edward Hyde, esq., 
deceased M 

William Swanton, esq.. 
Recorder of Salisbury, vice 
Richard Coleman, esq., 
deceased M 

Richard Lewis, esq. S 

Thomas Wancklen, esq. S 

Henry Bertie, esq., vice 
Thomas Wancklyn, esq., 
expelled S 

John Nicholas, esq. N 

Thomas Mompesson, esq., of 
Little Bathampton. 

county Wilts N 

John Berkenhead, L.L.D., 
and Judge or Master of 
the Court of Faculties, vice 
Sir John Nicholas, knt. of 
the bath, who elected to 
serve for Ripon, county 
York N 

Sir Walter St. John, bart. R 
John Pleydell, esq. R 

31 CHAS. n (1678—9). 

Sir Richard Grobham Howe, 
knt. and bart. of A 

Thomas Thynne, esq., of 
I>ongleate, county Wilts A 

Francis Stonehouse, esq., of 
Great Bedwin B 

John Deane, esq., of Oxen- 
wood, in the parish of 
Titcombe, county Wilts B 

Sir George Hungerford, knt. C 

Walter Norborne, esq. C 

Edward Ashe, esq. (brother 
of the above) T 

Richard Howe, esq. P 

Thomas Lambert, esq. P 

Thomas Neale, esq., of 

London H 

John Smith, jun., esq., of 
South Tidward, county 
Southampton H 

Sir William Estcourt, bart., 
of Newnton, county Wilts J 

224 Bepresentatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Sir Edward Hungerford, 
knt. of the bath D 

Sir George Talbot, knt. D 

Hungerford Dunch, esq., of 
Down Ampney, county 
Gloucester E 

Edmund Webb, esq., of 
Rodbourne Cheyney, 
county Wilts E 

Sir Walter Ernie, bart. F 

Sir Edward Bayntun, knt. 
of the bath F 

Maurice Bockland, esq., of 
Standlinch, county Wilts G 

Sir Joseph Ashe, bart., of 
Twitnam, county 

Middlesex G 

William Ashe, ' esq., of 
Heytesbury T 

31 CHAS. 
Sir Walter St. John, bart. A 
Thomas Thynne, esq. A 

William Einch, esq. B 

Francis Stonehouse, esq. B 

Sir George Hungerford, knt. C 
Lionell Duckett, esq. C 

Sir Edward Hungerford, 

knt., of the bath D 

Samuel Ashe, esq. D 

Hungerford Dunch, esq., of 
Down, Ampney, county 
Gloucester E 

Edmund Webb, esq., of Rod- 
bourne, county Wilts E 
John Pleydell, esq., of 
Midghall, county Wilts, 
vice Hungerford Dunch, 
esq., deceased E 
Sir Giles Hungerford, knt. F 
John Eyles, esq. F 
Sir Joseph Ashe, bart. G 
Maurice Bockland, esq. G 
William Ashe, esq., of 

Heytesbury T 

Edward Ashe, esq., of 

London T 

Sir Richard Grobham Howe, 
knt. and bart. P 

Sir James Long, bart., of 
Dracott Cerne, county 

Wilts J 

Thomas Benett, esq. K 

Edward Goddard, esq. K 

Eliab Harvey, esq. O 

John Young, esq. O 
SirThomasMompesson, knt. 

of the Close of Sarum M 
Alexander Thistlethwayte, 

esq., of Winterslowe M 

Richard Lewis, esq. S 

William Trenchard, esq. S 

Thomas Herbert, esq. N 

Thomas Penruddocke, esq. N 

Lawrence Hyde, esq. R 

John Pleydell, esq. R 


II (1679). 

Richard Howe, esq. 
Thomas Neale, esq. 

London H 
Gerrard, esq., of 

Lamer, county Hertford^ ^ H 
Sir William Escourt, bart., 

Newnton, county Wilts J 
Sir James Long, bart., of 

Draycott Cerne, county 

Wilts J 

Thomas Lord Bruce K 

Thomas Benett, esq. K 

Henry IvOrd Colraine, Baron 

of Colraine O 

Sir Eliab Harvey, knt. O 

Sir Thomas Mompesson, 

knt., of the Close, Salisbury M 
Alexander Thistlethwayte, 

esq., of Winterslowe, 

county Wilts M 

Edward Norton, esq. S 

William Trenchard, esq. S 

Thomas Herbert, esq. N 

Sir John Nicholas, knt. of 

the bath N 

Henry St. John, esq. R 

Lawrence Hyde, esq. R 

33 CHAS. II (1680—1) 

Sir Walter St. John, bart. A 

Thomas Thynne, esq. A 
Right Hon. Sir John Ernie, 

knt. B 

John Wildman, esq. B 

John Smyth, esq., of South 
Tidworth, county South- 
ampton H 

Thomas Neale, esq., of 
London H 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Sir George Hungerford C 

Walter Norborne, esq. C 

Sir Edward Hungerford, 

knt. of the bath D 

Sir George Speke, bart. D 

WiUiam Lentall, esq., of 

Great Hasley, county 

Oxford E 

Edmund Webb, esq., of 

Fifield, county Wilts 
Sir Walter Ernie, bart. 
George Johnson, esq. 
Sir Joseph Ashe, bart. 
Maurice Bockland, esq., 
William Ashe, esq., of 

Edward Ashe, esq., of the 

city of London 
Sir Richard Grobham Howe, 

knt. and bart. 
John Thynne, esq., 
Sir John Talbot, knt., of 

Lacock, county Wilts 



Hartford, esq.^'^ 

Sir William Estcourt, bart., 

of Newnton, county Wilts 
Sir James Long, bart., of 

Dracott Cerne, county 

Thomas Lord Bruce 
Thomas Bennett, esq., 
Sir Eliab Harvey, knt. 
Sir Thomas Mompesson, 

John Wyndham, esq., of the 

Close, Salisbury 
Alexander Thistlethwayte, 

esq., of Winterslowe, 

county Wilts 
William Trenchard, esq., 
John Ashe, esq., 
Thomas Herbert, esq., 
Sir John Nicholas, knt. of 

the bath. 
Henry St. John, esq. 
John Pleydell, esq. 





1 JAS. II (1685) 

Edward Lord Cornbury 
Thomas Lord Bruce 
Lemuell Kingdon, esq. 
Thomas Loder, esq. 
Sir John Ernie, knt. 
Thomas Webb, gent. 
Henry Bayntun, esq. 
Sherrington Talbot, esq. 
Charles Fox, esq., son of 

Stephen Fox 
Edmund Webb, esq. 
Sir John Talbot, knt., 

Walter Grubbe, esq., 

Sir Charles Raleigh, knt., 

Maurice Bockland, esq., 

William Ashe, esq., 

Edward Ashe, brother 

William Ashe, esq. 
Robert Hyde, esq. 
Thomas Lambert, esq. 
Thomas Neale, esq., 











Henry Gierke, esq., of Enford 



Sir Thomas Estcourt, knt. 


of Sherston Pinckney 



John Fitzherbert, esq., of 





Sir John Ernie, knt. 



George Willoughby, esq., 


Chancellor and Under- 
Treasurer of the 


Exchequer, and a Privy 




Sir Eliab Harvey, knt. 



Sir Thomas Mompesson, knt. 
Sir Steven Fox, knt., of 



St. Martins-in-the-Fields, 

county Middlesex 



John Wyndham, esq., of the 

Close of Saram 



Richard Lewis, esq. 


James Herbert, esq. 



Sir John Nicholas, knt. of 

the bath 



Oliver Nicholas, esq. 



Henry St. John, esq. 



John Pleydell, esq. 



226 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 


Edward, Viscount Combury A 
Sir Thomas Mompesson, knt. A 

Sir Edmund Warnford, knt. B 

John Wildman, sen., esq. B 
Henry Chivers, esq., of 
Quemerford, in the parish 

of Calne C 
Lionel Duckett, esq., of Box, 

county Wilts C 

Henry Bayntun, esq. D 

Nicholas Bayntun, esq. D 

Charles Fox, esq. E 

Thomas Freke, esq. E 

Sir WiUiam Pinsent, bart. F 

Walter Grubbe, esq. F 

Sir Charles Raleigh, knt. G 

Maurice Bockand, esq. G 

William Ashe, esq. T 

William Sacheverell, esq. T 

Robert Hyde, esq. P 

John Milner, esq. P 

John Smith, esq. H 

John Deane, esq. H 

Colonel Henry Wharton J 

Colonel CharJes Godfrey J 
Colonel Thomas Tollmach, 
z;ice Colonel Henry Wharton 
who elected to serve for 
the county of Westmorland J 

2 WILLIAM and 

Edward Visccunt Cornbury A 

Sir Walter St. John, bart. A 
Anthony Lord Viscount 

Falkland, in Scotland B 

Sir Jonathan Raymond, knt. B 
Francis Stonehonse, esq., of 
Great Bedwyn, vice 
Anthony Lord Viscount 

Falkland, deceased B 

Henry Bayntun, esq. C 

Henry Chivers, esq. C 
William Wyndham, esq., 
vice Henry Bayntun, esq., 

deceased C 

Richard Kent, esq. D 
Alexander Popham, esq., 
son of Sir Francis Popham, 
knt. of the bath, lately 

deceased D 
Thomas Talmach, esq., vice 
Richard Kent, esq., 

deceased^^ D 

(1688— 9— 1689— £0). 

Sir John Ernie, knt., chan- 
cellor and sub-treasurer 
of the Exchequer K 

Sir George Willoughby, knt. K 
John Young, esq. O 

Thomas Pitt, esq. O 

William Harvey, esq., and 
John Hawles, esq., vice 
John Young, esq., and 
Thomas Pitt, esq., whose 
election was declared void O 
Thomas Hoby, esq., of Brea- 
more, county Southamp- 
ton M 
Gyles Eyre, esq.. Recorder 

of Salisbury M 

Thomas Pitt, esq., of Strat- 
ford - under - the - Castle, 
county Wilts, vice Giles 
Eyre, esq., appointed a 
Puisne Justice of the 
King's Bench M 

Richard Lewis, esq. S 

Peregrine Bertie, sen., esq. S 
Thomas Penruddocke, esq. N 
Thomas Wyndham, esq. N 

Henry St. John, esq. R 

John Wildman, esq. R 

MARY (1689—90). 

Sir John Berkley, bart.. 
Viscount Fitzharding in 
Ireland vice Thomas 
Chaffin, esq., deceased P 

Thomas Neale, esq. H 

John Deane, esq. H 

John Webb, esq., of Bidsden, 
within the parish of 
Ludgershall, vice John 
Dean, esq., deceased H 

Goodwin Wharton, esq. J 

Sir James Long, bart. J 

George Booth, esq., vice Sir 
James Long, bart., de- 
ceased J 
Sir John Ernie, knt. K 
Sir George Willoughby, knt. K 
Thomas Benett, esq., vice Sir 
George Willoughby. knt., 
deceased K 
Sir Thomas Mompesson, 
knt. O 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Richard Long, esq., vice 
Thomas Talmach, esq., 

deceased D 

Edmund Webb, esq., E 

Charles Fox, esq., E 

John Methwen, esq.,^^ F 

Walter Grubbe, esq., F 

Sir Charles Raleigh, knt. G 

Maurice Bockland, esq. G 
William Ashe, esq., of 

Heytesbury T 
Wilhani Trenchard, esq., of 

Cuttridge, county Wilts T 

Robert Hyde, esq. P 

Thomas Chafyn, esq. P 

William Harvey, esq. O 

Thomas Hoby, esq., of 
Bremore, county South- 
ampton M 
Thomas Pitt, esq., of Strat- 
county Wilts M 
Peregrine Bertie, esq. S 
Richard Lewis, esq. S 
Sir Richard Grobham Howe, 

knt. and bart. N 

Thomas Wyndham, esq. N 

Henry St. John, esq. R 

John Wildman, esq. R 


Sir George Hungerford, knt., A 
Henry St. John, esq. A 

Sir Ralph Dalavall, knt. B 

Francis Stonehouse, esq. B 

Henry Blacke, esq. C 

George Hungerford, esq. C 

Alexander Popham, esq., of 

Littlecot D 

Walter White, esq. D 

Charles Fox, esq., of Water 

Eaton, county Wilts E 

Edmund. Webb, esq., of 

Rodbourne, county Wilts E 
Sir Edward Ernie, bart., of 

Maddington, county Wilts F 
John Methwyn, esq., of the 

Inner Temple, London F 

Sir Charles Raleigh, knt.^o G 
Charles Dun comb, esq.^o q 
Maurice Bockland, esq., vice 
Charles Dun comb, esq., 
removed from the Lower 
House G 

John Eyre, esq., of Brick- 
worth, county Wilts, vice 
Sir Charles Raleigh, knt., 
deceased G 

William Ashe, esq. T 

Edward Ashe, esq. T 

Robert Hyde, esq. P 

III (1695.) 

Charles Morley, esq. P 

Henry Lee, esq., vice Sir 
Charles Morley, knt.. 
deceased P 

Thomas Neale, esq. H 

John Webb, esq. H 

Goodwin Wharton, esq. J 

Craven Howard, esq. J 

Sir Thomas Skepwith, bart., 
vice Goodwin Wharton, 
esq., who elected to serve 
for Cokermouth, county 
Cumberland J 

Thomas Benett, esq. K 

William Daniell, esq. K 

William Harvey, esq. O 

Thomas Pitt, esq. O 

Sir Thomas Mompesson, 
knt., of the Close of 
Salisbury M 

Thomas Hoby, esq., of 
Bicton, county Southamp- 
ton M 
Robert Bertie, esq. S 
Richard Lewis, esq. S 
John Hawles, esq.. Solicitor 

General N 

John Gauntlet t, esq. N. 

Thomas Jacob, esq. R 

Henry Pynnell, esq. R 

Sir Edward Ernie, bart. 
Sir George Hungerford, knt. 
Francis Stonehouse, esq. 

10 WILLIAM HI (1698). 

A Edward Ashe, esq. 

A Sir James Howe, bart. 


Reynolds Calthorpe, esq. 

228 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Charles Davenant, esq., 

L.L.D. B 
Henry Chivers, esq. C 
Henry Blaake, esq. C 
Edward Montague, esq. D 
Walter White, esq. D 
Charles Fox, esq. E 
Edward Pleydell, esq. E 
Sir Stephen Fox, of White- 
hall, county middlesex, 
vice Charles Fox, esq., who 
elected to serve for 
Salisbury E 
Sir Francis Child, knt. F 
John Methwen, esq. F 
John Eyre, esq., of Brick- 
worth, county Wilts G 
Carew Rawleigh, esq., of 

Downton, county Wilts G 

William Ashe, esq. T 


Sir George Hungerford, knt. A 
Richard How, esq. A 
Francis Stonehause, esq. B 
Charles Davenant, esq. B 
W' alter Long, esq. C 
Walter Hungerford, esq. C 
John, Lord Mordaunt D 
Walter White, esq. D 
Edmond Dunch, esq., of 
East Wittenham, county 
Berks E 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt., of 
Whitehall, county Middle- 
sex E 
Sir Francis Child, knt. F 
Francis Merewether, esq. F 
John Eyre, esq. G 
Carew Raleigh, esq. G 
William Ashe, esq. T 
Edward Ashe, esq. T 
Sir James Howe, bart. P 
George Morley, esq.^^i P 

John Webb, esq.ioo h 
Walter Kent, citizen and 

merchant of London H 

Michael Wicks, esq. J 

Edward Pauncefort, esq. J 

Richard, Earl of Ranelagh K 

William Greinfield, gent. K 

William Harvey, esq. O 

Charles Mompesson, esq. O 
Charles Fox, esq., of the 

parish of St . Martin-in-the- 

Fields, county Middlesex M 
Robert Eyre, esq.. Recorder 

of Salisbury M 

Robert Bertie, esq. S 

Richard Lewis, esq. S 

Sir Henry Ashurst, bart. N 

John Gauntlett, esq. R 

Henry St. John, esq. R 

Henry Pynnell, esq. N 


Edmund Webb, esq. H 

John Webb, esq. H 

Edward Pauncefort, esq. J 

Samuel Shepherd, jun., esq. J 

Richard, Earl of Ranelagh K 

John Jeffryes, esq. K 

William Harvey, esq. O 

Charles Mompesson, esq. O 
Robert Eyre, esq.. Recorder 

of Salisbury M 
Sir Thomas Mompesson, 
knt., of the Close of 

Salisbury M 
Charles Fox, esq., of White- 
hall, vice Sir Thomas 

Mompesson, knt., deceased M 

Robert Bertie, esq. S 

Richard Lewis, esq. S 

John Gauntlett, esq. N 

Thomas Phipps, esq. N 

Henry St. John, jun., esq. R 

Henry Pinnell, esq. R 

13 WILLIAM III (1701). 

Maurice Ashley, esq. A 

William Ashe, esq. A 

Francis Stbnehouse, esq. B 
Michael Mitford, merchant 

of London B 

Henry Blaake, esq. C 

Edward Bayntun, esq. C 

Sir Charles Hedges, knt. C 

Carew Raleigh, esq. G 

Edward Ashe, esq. T 
Sir Edward Ernie, bart., of 

Maddington, county Wilts T 

George Morley, esq. P 

Reynolds Calthorpe, esq. P 

Colonel Edmund Webb H 

Colonel John Webb H 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Henry Blaake, esq. C 

Henry Chivers, esq., vice Sir 
Charles Hedges, knt., and 
Edward Bayntun, esq., 
whose election was de- 
clared void C 
Lord John Mordaunt D 
Walter White, esq. D 
Edmund Dunch, esq,, of 
East Wittenham, county 
Berks E 
Sir Stephen Fox, knt., of 
Whitehall, county Middle- 
sex E 
Sir Francis Child, knt. F 
John Methwen, esq. F 
Sir James Ashe, bart. G 

Richard How, esq. A 

Robert Hyde, esq. A 

James Bruce, esq. B 

Francis Stonehouse, esq. B 

Sir Charles Hedges, knt. C 

Henry Chivers, esq. C 

John Lord Mordaunt D 

James Montague, esq. D 

Thomas Webb, esq., of Rod- 
bourne, county Wilts E 
Samuel Barker, esq., of Fair- 
ford, county Gloucester E 
Sir Francis Child, knt. F 
John Methwen, esq. F 
John Child, esq., of the 
Middle Temple, London, 
vice Sir Francis Child, who 
elected to serve for the 
City of London F 
Francis Mere wether, esq., 
vice John Child, esq., de- 
ceased F 
Sir James Ashe, bart. G 
Sir Charles Duncomb, knt. G 
Edward Ashe, esq., of 

Heytesbury T 

William Monson, esq., of 
Broxborne, county Hert- 
ford T 
Sir James How, bart. P 
George Morley, esq. P 
Thomas Jervois, esq,, vice 
George Morley, esq., 
whose election was de- 
clared void P 

Sir Charles Hedges, knt. J 
Edward Pauncefort, esq. J 
Robert Yard, esq. K 
John Jeffreys, esq. K 
William Harvey, esq. O 
Charles Mompesson, esq. O 
Charles Fox, esq., of White- 
hall M 
Robert Eyre, esq., Recorder 

of Salisbury M 

Henry Bertie, esq. S 

Robert Bertie, esq. S 

Sir Henry Ashurst, bart. N 

John Gauntlett, esq. N 

Henry St. John, jun., esq. R 

Thomas Jacob, esq. R 


Col. Edmund Webb, esq. H 
Col. John Webb, esq. H 
Sir Charles Hedges, knt., 
one of the Principal 
Secretaries of State J 
Edward Pauncefort, esq. J 
Thomas Boucher, esq., vice 
Sir Charles Hedges, knt.. 
who elected to serve for 
Calne J 
Robert Bruce, esq. K 
John Jeffreys, esq. K 
Edward Jeffryes, esq., vice 
John Jeffryes, esq., who 
elected to serve for the 
county of Brecon K 
William Harvey, esq, O 
Charles Mompesson, esq. O 
Charles Fox, esq., of White- 
hall M 
Robert -Eyre, esq.. Recorder 

of Salisbury M 

Henry Bertie, esq.^^^ S 

Robert Bertie, esq.^^^ S 

Sir John Hawles, knt.i03 n 

John Gauntlett, esq. N 

Henry St. John, jun., esq. R 

Henry Pinnell, esq. R 

230 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

4 ANNE (1705), 

Sir Richard How, bart. A 

Robert Hyde, esq. A 

Sir George Bing. knt. B 

Nicholas Pollexfen, esq. B 

Charles, Lord Bruce, vice Sir 
George Bing, knt., who 
was elected to serve for 
Plymonth B 

Nicholas Pollexfen, esq., re- 
elected on appointment 
as a Commissioner of 
Prizesio* B 

Edward Bayntun, esq. C 

George Duckett, esq. C 

Sir James Long, bart. D 

Walter White, esq. D 

John, Lord Mordaunt, vice 
Walter White, esq., 
deceased D 

Edmond Dunch. esq., of 
East Wittenham, co. 
Berks E 

Samuel Barker, esq., of 

Fairford, co. Gloucester E 
Sir Francis Child, knt., F 

John Methwen, esq. F 

Josiah Diston, esq., vice 

Johu Methwen, esq., deed. F 
Sir Charles Duncomb, knt. G 
John Eyre, esq. G 

Edward Ashe, esq. T 

William Monson, esq., of 

Broxburne, co. Hertford T 

George Morley, esq. P 

Reynolds Calthorpe esq. P 

Walter Kent, esq. H 

John Webb, esq.^^^ H 

Thomas Farrington, esq. J 

Harry Mordaunt, esq. J 

Edward Ash, esq. K 

John Jeffryes, esq. K 
Algernon Seymour, Earl of 
Hertford, vice Edward 
Ash, esq., who elected to 

serve for Heytesbury K 

Robert Pitt, esq. O 

Charles Mompesson, esq.^^^ O 
Robert Eyre, esq.. Recorder 

of Salisbury M 
Charles Fox, esq., of White- 
hall M 
Robert Bertie, esq. S 
Henry Bertie, esq., of 
Chesterton, co. Cam- 
bridge S 
John Gauntlett, esq. N 
William Nicholas, esq. N 
Henry St. John, esq. R 
John Morton Pleydell, esq. R 
Francis Popham, esq., vice 
John Morton Pleydell, 
esq., deceased R 

7 ANNE (1708), 

Sir Richard How, bart. 
Robert Hyde, esq. 
Charles, Lord Bruce 
Samuel Sambrooke. esq. 
Edward Bayntun, esq. 
George Duckett, esq. 
Sir James Long, bart. 
James Montague, esq. 

Edmund Dunch, esq., of 
East Wittenham, co. Berks E 

James Vernon, esq., of 
London E 

Edmund Dunch, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as Master of the Household E 

Josiah Diston, esq. F 

John Webb, esq. H 

Harry Mordaunt, esq. J 

Thomas Farrington, esq. J 

Joseph Addison, esq., vice 
Henry Mordaunt, esq., 
deceased J 

Algernon Seymour, Earl 
of Hertford K 

James Bruce, esq. K 

Sir Edward Ernie, bart., vice 
Algernon Seymour, Earl 
of Hertford who elected to 
serve for the county of 
Northumberland K 

William Harvey, esq. O 

Robert Pitt, esq. O 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Paul Methuen, esq. F 
Paul Methuen, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
to an office of profit by the 

Crown F 

Sir Charles Duncomb, knt. G 

John Eyre, esq. G 

Edward Ashe, esq. T 

William Ashe, jun., esq. T 

Reynolds Calthorpe, esq.^^'^ P 

Edmund Lambert, esq. P 

Robert Bruce, esq. H 


Sir Richard How, bart. A 

Robert Hyde, esq. A 

Charles, Lord Bruce B 

Sir Edward Seymour, bart. B 
Thomas Millington, esq., 
vice Charles, Lord Bruce 
who elected to serve for 

Marlborough B 

James Johnson, esq.^^^ C 

William Hedges, esq.^^^ C 

Sir James Long, bart. D 

Francis Popham, jun., esq. ^^^ D 

W^ittenham, co. Berks E 
Samuel Robinson, esq., of 

Cheshunt, co. Hertford E 

Francis Child,, knt.^o F 
Thomas Webb, serjeant-at- 

lawiio F 

Sir Charles Duncomb, knt. G 

John Eyre, esq. G 
Thomas Duncomb, alias 
Browne, esq., vice Sir 
Charles Duncomb, knt., 

deceased G 

Edward Ashe, esq. T 

William Ashe, jun., esq. T 

Edmund Lambert, esq.^^^ P 

George Morley, esq.m P 

12 ANNE 

Sir Richard Howe, bart. A 

Robert Hyde, esq. A 

Sir Edward Seymour, bart. B 

Thomas Millington, esq. B 

William Hedges, esq. C 

William Northey, esq. C 

John Norris, esq. D 

John Eyles, esq. D 
Sir Thomas Read, bart., of 

Shipton, CO. Oxford E 

Robert Eyre, esq., Recorder 

of Salisbury M 

Charles Fox, esq. M 

Robert Eyre, esq., re-elected 
after appointment as 
Solicitor General M 

Henry Bertie, esq. S 

Francis Annesley, esq. S 

Sir Lambert Blackwell, knt. N 
Charles Mompesson, esq. N 
Francis Popham, esq. R 

Robert Cecil, esq. R 


Henry Lee, alias Warner, 
esq., vice George Morley, 
esq., deceased P 

John Webb, esq. H 

Thomas Pearce, esq. H 

Thomas Farrington, esq. J 

Joseph Addison, esq. J 

Sir John Rushout, bart., vice 
Thomas Farrington, esq., 
deceased J 

Charles, Lord Bruce K 

Robert Bruce, esq. K 

Richard Jones, esq., vice 
Charles, Lord Bruce, called 
to the Upper House K 

Thomas Pitt, esq. O 

W^illiam Harvey, jun., esq. O 
Charles Fox, esq. M 

Robert Pitt, esq. M 

Henry Bertie, esq. S 

Francis Annesley, esq. S 

Charles Mompesson, esq. N 

Peter Bathurst, esq. 112 n 

Henry St. John, esq. R 

Richard Goddard, esq. R 

Edmund Pleydell, esq., vice 
Henry St. John, esq., who 
elected to serve for the 
county of Berks R 

Robert Feme, esq., of 
Covent Garden, co. 
Middlesex H 

John Ward, esq., of 
Hackney, co. Middlesex, 
vice John Richmond, alias 
Webb, esq., who elected 
to serve for Newport alias 
Medina, co. Southampton H 
Sir John Rushout, bart. J 

232 Represejttatives in Parliament' from 1295—1832 for Wiltshire. 

William Gore, esq., of' 

London E 

Samuel Robinson, esq., of 

Cheshunt, co. Hertford, 

vice William Gore, esq., 

' who elected to serve for 

Colchester, Essex E 

Robert Child, esq. F 

John Nicholas, esq., of 

Alcannings, co. Wilts F 

John Eyre, esq. G 

John Sawyer, esq. G 

Edward Ashe, esq. T 

Peirce a'Court, esq., of Ivy- 
church, CO. Wilts T 
Reynolds Calthorpe, esq., 

jun. P 

Richard Lock wood, esq. P 

John Richmond, alias Webb, 
esq.. Lieutenant General 
of the Forces H 

Joseph Addison, esq. 
Robert Bruce, esq. 
Gabriel Roberts, esq. 
Thomas Pitt, esq. 
Robert Pitt, esq. 
Charles Fox, esq. 
Richard Jones, esq. 


Sir Stephen Fox, knt., 
vice Charles Fox, esq., 

deceased M 

Henry Bertie, esq. S 

Francis Annesley, esq. S 

John London, esq. N 

Thomas Pitt, esq., jun. N 

Richard Cresswell, esq. R 

Edmund Pleydell, esq. R 

1 GEORGE I (1714-15), 

Sir Richard How, bart. A 

Robert Hyde, esq. A 

Stephen Bisse, esq. B 

William Sloper, esq. B 

Sir Orlando Bridgeman, hart. C 

Richard Chiswell, esq. C 

John Eyles, esq. D 

Giles Earle, esq. D 
Giles Earle, esq., re-elected 
after appointment to an 
office of profit by the Crown D 

Sir Thomas Reade, bart. E 

Jacob Sawbridge, esq. E 
Matthew Ducie Morton, esq., 
yice Jacob Sawbridge, esq., 

expelled the House E 

Josiah Diston, esq. F 

Francis Eyles, esq. F 
Benjamin Haskins Stiles, 
esq., of Bowden Park, co. 
Wilts, vice Francis Eyles, 

esq., expelled the House F 

Charles Longueville, esq. G 

John Eyre, esq. G 

John Ivory Talbot, esq. H 

Sir John Rushout, bart. J 

Josfeph Addison, esq. J 

Joseph Addison, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
to an office of profit by 
the Crown, i.e. Jan., 
1715—16 J 

Joseph Addison, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
to an office of profit by 
the Crown, i.e. Apr., 1717 J 
Fleetwood Dormer, esq., 
vice Joseph Addison, esq., 
deceased J 

Sir William Humphryes, 

knt. and bart. K 

Gabriel Roberts, esq.^i^ K 

Thomas Pitt, sen., esq, O 

Robert Pitt, esq. O 

Sir William Strickland, of 
CO. York, bart. ,z;ice Thomas 
Pitt, appointedto an office 
of profit by the Crown O 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Mauley. 


Giles Eyre, esq., vice John 
Eyre, esq., deceased G 

Edward Aske, esq. T 

William Ashe, esq. T 

Edward Ashe, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
to an office of profit by the 
Crown T 

George Wade, esq., of St. 
James', co. Middlesex P 

Reynolds Calthorpe, esq., of 
Elvetham, co. Southamp- 
ton P 

John Pitt, esq.; vice 
Reynolds Calthorpe, esq., 
deceased P 

John Richmond, alias 
Webb, esq. H 

8 GEO. 
Sir Richard Howe, bart. A 

Robert Hyde, esq. A 

Richard Goddard, esq., vice 
Robert Hyde, esq., de- 
ceased A 
Robert Bruce, esq. B 
Charles Longueville, esq. B 
Benjamin Haskins Stiles, esq. C 
George Duckett, esq. C 
Edmund Pike Heath, esq., 
vice Benjamin Haskins 
Stiles, esq., who elected to 
serve for Devizes, co. Wilts C 
Matthew Ducie Morton , esq., 
vice George Duckett, esq., 
appointed to an office of 
profit by the Crown C 
Edward Rolt, esq. D 
Sir John Eyles, bart. D 
Thomas Boucher, esq., vice 
Edward Rolt, esq., de- 
ceased D 
Thomas Gore, esq. E 
Sir Thomas Reade, bart. E 
Benjamin Haskins Stiles, 
esq., of Bowden Park, co. 
Wilts F 
Joseph Eyles, esq., of London F 
John Verney, esq. G 
Giles Eyre, esq. G 
John Verney, esq., re-elected 
after appointment to an 
office of profit by the 
Crown G 


Sir William Strickland, bart., 
of Yorkshire, re-elected 
after appointment to an 
office of profit by the 
Crown O 

Francis Swanton, esq. M 

Edmund Lambert, esq. M 

Anthony Duncombe, esq., 
of Barford, co. Wilts, vice 
Francis Swanton, esq., 
deceased M 

George, Lord Carbery, of the 

kingdom of Ireland^^* S 

Charles AUanson, esq.^i* S 

John London, esq. N 

Thomas Pitt, jun., esq. N 

Sir James Long, bart. R 

William Northey, esq. R 

I (1722). 

Giles Earle, esq.^^^ J 

John Fernior, esq.^i^ J 

Charles Stewart, esq. vice 

John Fermor, esq., deed. J 
Algernon Seymour, esq., 
commonly called Earl of 
Hertford K 

Gabriel Roberts, esq. K 

Thomas Gibson, esq., vice 
Algernon Seymour, esq., 
commonly called Earl of 
Hertford, who elected to 
serve for the county of 
Northumberland K 

Thomas Pitt, esq. O 

Robert Pitt, esq. O 

George Morton Pitt, esq., of 
Tarrant Preston, co. 
Dorset, vice Robert Pitt, 
esq., who elected to serve 
for Oakham pton, co. 
Devon O 

John Pitt, esq., vice George 
Morton Pitt, esq., ap- 
pointed to an office of 
profit by the Crown O 

George Pitt, esq., of Strat- 
field Sea, co. Southamp- 
ton, vice Thomas Pitt, 
esq., deceased O 

Anthony Duncombe, esq., 

of Barford, co. Wilts M 

Francis Kenton, esq. M 

James Bertie, esq. S 

234 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Edward Ashe, esq. T 

Pierce A'Court, esq. T 

Charles Cavendish, esq., com- 
monly called Lord Charles 
Cavendish, vice Pierce 
A'Court, esq., deceased T 
Henry Ludlow Coker, esq. P 
Robert Gray, esq. P 

General John Richmond, 
alias Webb, esq., of 
Biddesdon, co. Wilts H 

Borlace Richmond, alias 
Webb, esq., of Biddesdon, 
CO. Wilts H 

Anthony Cornish, esq., vice 
John Richmond, alias 
Webb, esq., deceased H 

1 GEO. II 

Sir James Long, bart. A 

John Ivory Talbot, esq . A 

John How, esq., vice Sir 

James Long, bart., deed. A 
William Sloper, esq.^^^ B 

Sir William Willis, bart. B 

Francis Seymour, esq., vice 

Sir William Willis, bart., 

deceased B 

William Duckett, esq. C 

William Wardour, esq. C 

Rogers Holland, esq. D 

Gabriel Roberts, esq. D 

Christopher Tilson, esq., of St. 

Margaret's, Westminster E 
Sir Thomas Read, bart., of 

Ship ton, CO. Oxford E 

Benjamin Haskins Stiles, 

esq., of Bowden Park, co. 

Wilts F 

Francis Eyles, jun., esq., of 

Southbroome in the par. 

of Bishops Cannings, co. 

Wilts F 

John Verney, esq. G 

Giles Eyre, esq. G 

John Verney, esq., re-elected 

after appointment to an 

office of profit by the crown G 
Horation Townshend, esq. T 
Edward Ashe, esq. T 

George Heathcote, esq. P 

Townsend Andrews, esq. P 

Borlace Webb, esq. H 

Charles Boone, esq. H 

Francis Annesley, esq. S 

George Lord Baron, of 
Carbery, in the kingdom 
of Ireland, vice James 
Bertie, esq., who elected 
to serve for the county of 
Middlesex S 

Thomas Lord Londonderry N 
Robert Herbert, esq. N 

Robert Herbert, esq., re- 
elected after an appoint- 
ment to an office of profit 
by the crown N 

Robert Murray, esq. R 

William Chetwynd, esq. R 

Giles Earle, esq. J 

William Rawlinson Earle, 

esq., son of Giles Earle, esq. J 
Giles Earle, esq., re-elected 
after appointment to an 
office of profit by the 
crown J 

William Rawlinson Earle, 
esq., re-elected after 
appointment to an office 
of profit by the crown J 

Thomas Gibson, esq. K 

Edward Lisle, esq. K 

Thomas Pitt, esq. O 

Thomas Pitt, Earl of London- 
derry in the kingdom of 
Ireland O 

Chitty St. Quintin, esq., vice 
Thomas Pitt, esq., who 
elected to serve for Oak- 
hampton, co. Devon O 

Thomas Harrison, esq., of 
London, vice Thomas Pitt, 
Earl of Londonderry in 
in the kingdom of Ireland, 
appointed to an office of 
profit by the crown O 

Thomas Lewis, esq. M 

Anthony Buncombe, esq. M 
Francis Annesley, esq. S 

John Gifford, esq. S 

Robert Herbert, esq. N 

Thomas Martin, esq. N 

John St. John, esq. R 

John Crosse, esq. R 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


John Ivery Talbot, esq., of 
Laycock, co. Wilts 

John Howe, esq., of Wish- 
ford, CO. Wilts 

William Sloper, esq., of 
Westwoodhay, co. Berks 

Robert Murray, esq., of 
Stanwell, co. Midd. 

Edward Popham, esq., vice 
Robert Murray, esq., 

William Duckett, esq. 

Walter Hungerford, esq. 

Richard Long, esq. 

Rogers Holland, esq. 

Edward Bayntun Rolt, esq., 
vice Rogers Holland, esq., 
appointed Justice of the 
counties of Carnarvon, 
Merioneth, and Anglesey, 
within the principality of 

Sir Thomas Read, bart. 

William Gore, esq. 

Charles Gore, esq., vice 
William Gore, esq., dec. 

Sir Joseph Eyles, knt. 

Francis Eyles, the younger, 

John Garth, esq , vice Sir 
Joseph Eyles, knt., de- 

Anthony Duncombe, esq. 

Joseph Wyndham Ashe, esq. 

Edward Ashe, esq. 

Peirce A'Court, esq. 

Stephen Fox, esq. 

Henry Fox, esq.,?^^^^ Stephen 
Fox, esq., who elected to 
serve for Shaftesbury, co. 

Henry Fox, esq., re-elected 
after appointment as vSur- 
veyor-General of W^orks 

Peter Delme, esq. 

Daniel Boone, esq. 


Sir Robert Long, bart. 
Edward Popham, esq. 
Sir Edward Turner, bart. 
Lascells Metcalfe, esq. 
Walter Hungerford, esq. 

GEO. n (1734). 

Giles Earle, esq. 
A William Rawlinson Earle, 

A Giles Earle, esq., re-elected 

after appointment as one of 
B the Lords Commisssioners 

of the Treasury 
B William Rawlinson Earle, 

esq., re-elected after ap- 
pointment as Clerk of the 
B Ordnance 

C Edward Lisle, esq., of Moyles 

C Court, CO. Southampton 

D Francis Seymour, esq., of 

D Sherborne, co. Dorset 

John Crawley, esq., vice 

Edward Lisle, esq., who 

elected to serve for the 

county of Southampton 

Thomas Pitt, esq. 

Robert Nedham, esq., of 

William Pitt, esq., vice 
Thomas Pitt, esq., who 
elected to serve for Oak- 
hampton, co. Devon 
Peter Bathurst, esq., of 

Clarendon Park 
Henry Hoare, esq., of 

George Evans, esq. 
John Bance, esq. 
Robert Herbert, esq. 
William Herbert, esq. 
Robert Herbert, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
asone of theCommissioners 
for Trade and Plantations 
William Herbert, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as one of the Grooms of 
the Bedchamber 
Sir Robert Long, bart., of 
Draycot Cerne, co. Wilts 
Nicholas Robinson, esq., of 
Thorganby, co. York 

II (1741). 

Sir John Hind Cotton, bart., 
re-elected after appoint- 
ment as Treasurer of the 

William Pitt, esq. 

R 2 














2Z'6 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — ^1832 /or Wiltshire. 

William Elliot, esq. C 

Lieutenant Colonel William 
Elliot, esq., re-elected 
after appointment as one 
of the King's Equerries C 
Sir Edmund Thomas, bart. D 
Edward Bayntun Rolt, esq. D 
Sir Thomas Read, bart. E 

Wellbore Ellis, esq.^^'' E 

Erancis Eyles, esq. F 

John Garth, esq. F 

George Lee, L.L.D., vice 
Erancis Eyles, esq, ap- 
pointed Superintendent of 
the King's Foundries F 

Anthony Buncombe, esq. G 
John Verney, esq., Master 

of the Rolls G 

Joseph Windham Ashe, esq., 
vice John Verney, esq., 
deceased G 

George Proctor, esq., of 
Clewer, co. Berks, vice 
Joseph Windham Ashe, 
esq., deceased G 

Edward Ashe, esq. T 

Pierce A'Court, esq. T 

Henry Calthorpe, esq. P 

William Steele, esq. P 

Charles Selwyn, esq. H 

Thomas Hay ward, esq. H 

Giles Earle, esq, J 

William RawlinsonEarle, esq. J 
Sir John Hind Cotton, bart. K 
John Crawley, esq. K 

George Littleton, esq. O 

James Grenville, esq., of 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, co. 
Midd., vice George Little- 
ton, esq., w^ho elected to 
serve for Oakhampton, 
CO. Devon O 

James Grenville, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as one of the Commissioners 
for Trade and Plantations O 
William Pitt, esq., re-elected 
after appointment as Vice 
Treasurer of Ireland O 

William Pitt, esq., re-elected 
after appointment as Pay- 
master General of the 
Land Forces O 

Edward Welles, esq., of Lin- 
coln's Inn, vice James 
Grenville, esq., appointed 
Receiver of the Crown and 
Fee Farm Rents for the 
counties of Warwick and 
Leicester O 

Sir Jacob Bouverie, bart. M 
Sir Edward Seymour, bart. M 
George Evans, esq. S 

Joseph Townsend, esq. S 

Robert Herbert, esq. N 

William Herbert, esq. N 

John Harvey Thursby, esq., 
of Abington, co. North- 
ampton R 
Robert Neale, esq., of Cor- 
sham, CO. Wilts R 

21 GEO. II (1747). 

Sir Robert Long, bart., of 

Draycot Cerne, Wilts A 
Iidward Popham, esq., of 

Littlecott, CO. Wilts A 
Lascells Metcalfe, esq. h^b 
William Sloper, esq. i^^B 

William Northey, esq. C 

WiUiam Elliot, esq. C 

Sir Edmond Thomas, bart. D 

Edward Bayntun Rolt, esq. D 
Edward Bayntun Rolt, esq., 
re-elected after appoint- 
ment as Surveyor General 

of the Duchy of Cornwall D 

John Gore, esq. E 

John Lee, esq. J 

James Douglas, esq. J 

Edward Digby, esq., vice 
James Douglas, esq., de- 
ceased J 
Sir John Hind Cotton, bart. K 
John Talbot, jun., esq. K 
Sir John Hind Cotton, bart., 
vice Sir John Hind Cotton, 
bart.. his father, deceased K 
Thomas Pitt, esq., of Strat- 
ford under the Castle of 
Old Sarum, co. Wilts O 
Sir William Irby, bart., of 
Moalton, co. Lincoln O 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


William Rawlinson Earle, 
esq. E 

John Garth, esq. F 

William Wihy, esq. F 

George Proctor, esq., of 
Clev/er, co. Berks G 

George Littleton, esq., of 
Argyle Buildings, in the 
parish of St. James, co. 
Middlesex G 

Richard Temple, esq., of 
Broadlands, co. South- 
ampton, vice George 
Lyttelton, esq., who 
elected to serve for Oak- 
hampton, co. Devon G 

Henry Vane, esq., of the 
parish of St. James, co. 
Midd., vice Richard 
Temple, esq., deceased G 

Thomas Duncombe, esq., of 
Hernsley, co. York, vice 
George Proctor, deceased G 

James Hayes, esq., of Holly 
Port, CO. Berks, z^ice Henry 
Vane, esq., who accepted 
the office of Steward and 
Bailiff of the Chiltern 
Hundreds, co. Bucks G 

William Ashe, esq. T 

Pierce A 'Court, esq, T 

William A'Court, esq., vice 
William x\she, esq., de- 
ceased T 

Valens Comyn, esq., of 
Eversly, CO. Southampton P 

Bisse Richards, esq., of 
Wimbledon, co. Surrey P 

Francis Delaval the younger, 
esq., vice Valens Comyn, 
esq., dec"^ P 

Thomas Farrington, esq. H 

George Augustus Selwyn, 
esq. H 

George Augustus Selwyn, 
esq., re-elected after ap- 
pointment as Chief Clerk 
Register and Sole Exam- 
iner in the Chancery in 
the Island of Barbadoes 
in America and Clerk of 
the Crown and Peace 
there H 

Charles Sackville, esq., com- 
monly called Earl of 
Middlesex, vice Thomas 
Pitt, esq., who elected to 
serve for Oakhampton, co. 
Deven O 

Arthur Mohun St. Leger, 
Viscount Doneraile of the 
kingdom of Ireland, vice 
Sir William Irby, bart., 
who elected to serve for 
Bodmin, co. Cornwall O 

Paul Jodrell, esq , barrister- 
at-law, of Bedford row, in 
the parish of St. Andrew's, 
Holborn, vice Arthur 
Mohun St. Leger, Vis- 
count Doneraile, in the 
kingdom of Ireland, de- 
ceased O 
Simon Fanshawe,esq.,ofthe 
parish of St. James, W^est- 
minster, vice Paul Jodrell, 
esq., deceased O 
William Bouverie, esq. M 
Edward Poore, esq. M 
Edward Poore, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as one of the Justices in 
counties of Carmarthen, 
Pembroke and Cardigan M 
Chauncey Townshend, esq.^^^ S 
Matthew Michell, esq.n^ S 
Peregrine Bertie, esq., vice 
Matthew Michell, esq., 
deceased S 
Robert Herbert, esq. N 
William Herbert, esq. N 
Robert Herbert, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as Surveyor General of the 
Land Revenue N 
Colonel MartynMadan, esq., 
of New Bond Street, Han- 
over Square, co. Midd. R 
Robert Neale, esq., of Cor- 
sham, CO. Wilts R 

238 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 


Sir Robert Long, bart., of 
Draycot Cerne, co. Wilts 

Edward Popham, esq., of 
Littlecott, CO. Wilts 

Sir Robert Hildyard, bart., 
of Winestead, co. York 

William Sloper, esq., of 
West Woodhey, co. Berks 

Robert Brudenell, esq., vice 
William Sloper, esq.,, ap- 
pointed one of the Com- 
missioners for Trade and 

William Northey, esq., of 
Compton Bassett, co. Wilts 

Thomas Duckett, esq., of 
Hartham, co. Wilts 

George Hay, L.L.D., one of 
the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty, vice 
Thomas Duckett, esq., 
who accepted the office of 
Steward of the Manor of 
Kennington, co. Surrey 

Edward Bayntun Rolt, esq. 

Samuel Fludyer, esq. 

Thomas Gore, esq. 

William Rawlinson 

John Garth, esq. 

Wilham Willy, esq., of the 
city of London 

James Cope, esq., of the 
parish of St. James, West- 
minster, CO. Midd. 

James Hayes, esq., of Holly 
Port, CO. Berks 

Edward Poore, esq., of the 
Close of Salisbury, co. 
Wilts, vice James Cope, 
esq., deceased 

Charles Pratt, esq., of Lin- 
coln's Inn, CO. Midd., 
Attorney General, vice 
James Hayes, esq., who 
accepted the ofhce of 
Steward of manor of Old 
Shoreham, co. Sussex 

Pierce A 'Court Ashe, esq. 

William A 'Court, esq. 

Bisse Richards, esq., of 
Wimbledon, co. Surrey 

James Dawkins, esq., of 
Laverstock, co. South 'ton 


n (1754). 

Wilham Mabbot, esq., 


of Tad worth Court, co. 


esq., dec'^^ 
James Calthorpe, esq., vice 



James Dawkins, esq., dec*^' 


Sir John Bland, bart. 



Thomas Hayward, esq. 
Henry Digby, esq., vice Sir 


John Bland, bart., dec^^ 


George Bentinck, esq., com- 

monly called Lord George 




Brice Fisher, esq. 



Thomas Conolly, esq., vice 
George Bentinck, esq.. 


commonly called Lord 

George Bentinck, deceased 


Sir John Hind Cotton, bart. 


John Ward, son and heir 

apparent of John Lord 



William Pulteney, esq.. 


commonly called Lord 


Viscount Pulteney 



Thomas Pitt, esq. 



Sir Wilham Calvert, knt.. 


alderman of the city of 


London, vice Thomas Pitt, 
esq., who accepted the 


Stewardship of the Chil- 

tern Hundreds, co. Bucks 


William Pulteney, esq.. 


commonly called Lord 
Viscount Pulteney, re- 


elected after appointment 
as a lieutenant colonel in 

the army 


William Bouverie, esq.i^o 



Julines Beckford, esq.^^o 


Chauncy Townsend, esq. 


Peregrine Bertie, esq. 


Robert Herbert, esq. 


William Herbert, esq. 


Nicholas Herbert, esq., vice 

Wilham Herbert, esq., de- 





Thomas Estcourt Cresswell, 




John Probyn, esq. 


Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


1 GEO. Ill (1761), 

Sir Robert Long, bart. A 

Edward Popham, esq. A 

Thomas Goddard, esq., vice 
Sir Robert Long, bart., 
deceased A 

Thomas Cotes, esq., Vice 

Admiral of the White B 

Wilham Woodley, esq. B 

Wihiam Burke, esq., vice 
Wilham Woodley, esq., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltern Hun- 
dreds, CO. Bucks B 
Sir Thomas Fludyer, knt., 
vice Thomas Cotes, esq., 
deceased B 
Thomas Duckett, esq., of 

Hartham, co. Wilts C 

Daniel Bull, esq. C 

Thomas Fitzmaurice, esq., 
vice Daniel Bull, appointed 
one of the Commissioners 
of Taxes C 

John Calcraft, esq., vice 

Thomas Duckett, esq., dec. C 
Sir Samuel Fludyer, bart. D 
Edward Bayntun Rolt, esq. D 
Sir Thomas Fludyer, knt., 
vice Sir Samuel Fludyer, 
bart., deceased D 

Thomas Gore, esq. E 

Arnold Nesbitt, esq. E 

John Garth, esq. F 

William Willy, esq., of New 
Park, near Devizes, and 
of London, merchant F 

Charles Garth, esq., vice]ohn 

Garth, esq., dec'^ F 

James Sutton, the younger, 
esq., vice William Willy, 
esq., dec'^ F 

Charles Pratt, of Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, co. Midd., 
Attorney General G 

James Hayes, esq., of Holl}''- 

port, CO. Berks G 

Thomas Pym Hales, esq., of 
Brakesburn, co. Kent, vice 
Sir Charles Pratt, knt., 
appointed Chief Justice of 
the Common Pleas G 

Pierce A'Court, esq. T 

Major Gen. William A'Court T 
William Blackstone, esq. P 

Edward Morant, Esq. P 

Thomas Whateley, esq. H 

John Paterson, esq. H 

John, Earl of Tylney, of the 

kingdom of Ireland J 

Thomas ConoUy, esq. J 

John Montague, esq., com- 
monly called Lord Brude- 
nell K 

Robert Brudenell, esq. K 

James Long, esq., eldest son 
and heir apparent of Sir 
Robert Long, bart., of 
Draycot Cerne, co. Wilts, 
vice John Brudenell, esq., 
commonly called Lord 
Brudenell, called to the 
Upper House as Lord 
Montague, Baron Mon- 
tague, of Boughton, CO. 
Northampton K 

Thomas Pitt, esq. O 

Howel Gwynne, esq., of 

Garth, co. Brecon O 

Thomas Pitt, esq., eldest 
son and heir of Thomas 
Pitt, esq., vice Thomas 
Pitt, esq., his father, de- 
ceased O 
Thomas Pitt, esq., re-elected 
after appointment as one 
of theLordsCommissioners 
of the Admiralty O 
Edward Bouverie, esq. M 
Julines Beckford, esq. M 
Samuel Eyre, of New House, 
CO. Wilts, vice Julines 
Beckford, esq., dec'' M 
Chauncy Townsend, esq. S 
Peregrine Bertie, esq. S 
Robert Herbert, esq. N 
Nicholas Herbert, esq. N 
Nicholas Herbert, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as Secretary of the Island 
of Jamaica N 
Henry St. John, esq. R 
Thomas Estcourt Cresswell, 
esq. R 

240 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

8 GEO. Ill 

Edward Popham, esq. A 

Thomas Goddard, esq. A 

Charles Penruddock, esq., 
vice Thomas Goddard, 
esq., dec'' A 

Ambrose Goddard, esq., vice 

Edward Popham, esq., dec'' A 
James Brudenell, esq. B 

Robert Brudenell, esq. B 

William Burke, esq., vice 
Robert Brudenell who 
elected to serve for 
Marlborough B 

William Northey, esq., vice 
James Brudenell, esq., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltern Hun- 
dreds, CO. Bucks B 
William Northey, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as one of the Com- 
missioners for Trade and 
Plantations B 
Benjamin Hopkins, esq., vice 

William Northey, esq., dec'' B 
Thomas Fitzmaurice C 

John Dunning, esq. C 

Sir Edward Bayntun, bart. D 
Sir Thomas Fludyer, knt. D 
Henry Dawkins, esq., vice 
Sir Thomas Fludyer, knt., 
dec'' D 

George Darner E 

Sir Robert Fletcher, knt. E 
Charles Garth, esq. F 

James Sutton, the younger, 

esq. G 

Thomas Duncombe, esq., of 
Barford in the par. of 
Downton, co. Wilts G 

Richard Croftes, esq., of 

Saxham, co. Suffolk G 

James Hayes, esq., of Holly- 
port, CO., Berks, vice 
Richard Croftes, esq., who 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks G 

Charles Fitzroy Scudamore, 

esq. T 

WiUiam A'Court, esq. T 

John St. Leger Douglas, esq. P 
William Hussey, esq. P 


John Stewart, commonly 
called Lord Viscount 
Garlies, re-elected after 
appointment as one of the 
commissioners for trade 
and plantations H 

Whitshed Keene, esq., of 
the par. of St. George, 
Hanover Square, co. 
Midd., vice John Stewart, 
commonly called Lord 
Viscount Garlies, called to 
the Upper House as Earl 
of Galloway H 

Arthur Earl of Donegal, of 

the kingdom of Ireland J 
Thomas Howard J 

Robert Brudenell, esq. K 

Sir James Long, bart. K 

James Brudenell, esq., vice 

Robert Brudenell, dec. K 
W^illiam Gerard Hamilton, 
esq., of St. George's, 
Hanover Square, co. Midd. O 
John Cranfurd, esq., of 

Auchinames, N.B. O 

Edward Bouverie, esq.^^i yi 
Stephen Fox, esq. M 

Jacob Pleydell Bouverie 
commonly called Viscount 
Folkestone, vice Edward 
Bouverie, who accepted 
the Stewardship of the 
Manor of East Hendred, 
CO. Berks M 

Peregrine Bertie, esq. S 

William Blackstone, esq. S 

Charles Dillon, esq., vice Sir 
William Blackstone, knt., 
appointed one of the 
Puisne Justices of the 
King's Bench S 

Nicholas Herbert, esq. N 

Henry Herbert, esq. N 

Henry Herbert, esq., of 
Highcleare, co. South'ton, 
re-elected after accepting 
the Stewardship of the 
Manor of East Hendred, 
CO. Berks N 

Henry Saint John, esq. R 

Thomas Estcourt Cresswell, 
esq. R 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


John Stewart, esq., common- 
ly called Lord Garlics H 

Penistone Lamb, esq., of the 
par. of St. James, 
Westminster, co. Midd. H 

James Stewart, commonly 
called Lord Viscount 
Garlics, re-elected after 
appointment as one of the 
commissioners of police in 
Scotland H 

15 GEO. 
Charles Penruddock, esq. A 
Ambrose Goddard, esq. A 

James Stopford, esq., Earl 
of Courttown in the king- 
dom of Ireland B 
Paul Methuen, esq. B 
James Cecil, esq., commonly 
called Viscount Cran- 
bourne, vice James 
Stopford, Earlof Courtown 
in the kingdom of Ireland, 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltern 
Hundreds, co. Bucks. B 
John Dunning, esq. C 
Isaac Barre, esq. C 
Sir Edward Bayntun, bart., 

of Spy Park, co. Wilts D 

Samuel Marsh, esq., of the 

City of London D 

Arnold Nesbitt, esq. E 

William Earle, esq. E 

Samuel Peach, esq. , and John 
Dewer, esq., vice William 
Earle, esq., deed. E 

John Dewer, esq., vice 
Samuel Peach, esq., and 
John Dewer, esq., whose 
election was declared void E 
John Macpherson, esq., vice 

Arnold Nesbitt, esq., dec''. E 
Charles Garth, esq. F 

James Sutton, esq., of New 
Park, in the par. of 
Bishop's Cannings, co. 
Wilts F 

Sir Phillip Hales, bart.122 g 
John Cooper, esq. G 

Thomas Duncombe, esq., of 
Barford, co. Wilts, vice 
John Cooper, esq., dec''. G 

Henry Saint John, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as one of the Grooms of 
the Bedchamber R 

III (1774). 

Archibald Macdonald, esq., 
vice Richard Smith, esq., 
whose election was de- 
clared void P 

Sir Penistone Lamb, bart., 
Lord Melbourne of the 
kingdom of Ireland H 

George Gordon, commonly 
called Lord George Gordon H 

Charles James Fox, esq. J 

William Straham, esq., of 
New Street, London J 

Charles James Fox, esq., re- 
elected after accepting the 
Stewardship of the Chil- 
tern Hundreds, co. Bucks J 

James Brudenell, esq. K 

Sir James Long, bart. K 

Pinkney Wilkinson, esq,, of 
Burnham, co. Norfolk O 

Thomas Pitt, esq., of Bocon- 
nock, Cornwall O 

Jacob Pleydell Bouverie, 
called Viscount Folkstone M 

William Hussey, esq. M 

William Henry Bouverie, 
vice Jacob Pleydell 
Bouverie, commonly called 
Viscount Folkestone, called 
to the Upper House as 
Earl of Radnor M 

Thomas Francis Wenman, 
esq. S 

Nathaniel Bayly, esq. S 

Samuel Estwick, esq., vice 
Nathaniel Bayly, esq., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the manor of East 
Hendred, co. Berks S 

Nicholas Herbert, esq., of 
Great Suffolk N 

242 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Robert Shafto, esq., vice 
Thomas Duncombe, esq., 
deed. G 

William A'Court Ashe, esq. T 
William Gordon, esq. T 

William Gordon, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as one of the Grooms of 
the Bedchamber T 

Richard Smith, esq. P 

Thomas Brand Mollis, esq. P 
Richard Smith, esq., and 
Henry Dawkins, esq., vice 
Richard Smith, esq., and 
Thomas Brand, 
whose election was de- 
clared void P 

21 GEO. 

Charles Penruddock, esq. A 

Ambrose Goddard, esq. A 

Sir Merrick Burrell, bart. B 

Paul Methuen, esq., of 
Corsham House, co. Wilts B 

Paul Cobb Methuen, esq., 
vice Paul Methuen who 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks B 

Isaac Barre, esq. C 

John Dunning, esq., of 
Spitchweek Park, co. 
Devon C 

James Townsend, esq., of 
Bruce Castle, co. Midd., 
vice John Dunning, ap- 
pointed Chancellor of the 
Duchy and county Pala- 
tine of Lancaster C 

Isaac Barre, esq., re-elected 
after appointment as 
Treasurer of the Navy C 

Isaac Barre, esq., re-elected 
after appointment as Pay- 
master General of the 
Land Forces C 

Henry Dawkins, esq., of 
Standlinch, co. Wilts D 

Giles Hudson, esq., of the 
city of London D 

George Fludyer, esq., of 
Thistleton, co. Rutland, 
vice Giles Hudson, esq., 
deceased D 

Henry Herbert, esq., of 
Highcleare, co. South'ton N 

Charles Herbert, esq., of 
Charles Street, Berkeley 
Square, co. Midd., vice 
Nicholas Herbert, dec"^ N 

Charles Herbert, esq., of 
Queen Anne St., Caven- 
dish Square, co. Midd., 
re-elected after appoint- 
ment as one of the Grooms 
of the Bedchamber N 

Henry Saint John, esq. R 

Robert Scott, esq. R 

III (1780). 

Lloyd Kenyon, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as Attorney General P 

Lloyd Kenyon, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as Attorney General P 

George Augustus Selwyn, 
esq., of Matson, co. Glos. H 

Penistone Lord Melbourne of 
the kingdom of Ireland H 

George Augustus Selwyn, 
esq., re-elected after 
appointment as Surveyor 
General of the Land 
Revenue(i23) h 

George Legge, Viscount 
Lewisham J 

Arthur Hill, Viscount 
Fairford J 

John Calvert, jun., of Albury 
Hall, CO. Herts., vice 
George Legge, commonly 
called Lord Viscount 
Lewisham, who elected to 
serve for the county of 
Stafford J 

James Stop ford. Earl of 
Courtown, in the kingdom 
of Ireland K 

William Woodley, esq., of 
the city of Westminster K 

Pickney Wilkinson, esq., of 
Burnham, co. Norfolk O 

Thomas Pitt, esq., of 
Boconnock, co. Cornwall O 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Paul Benfield, esq. E 

John Macpherson, esq. E 

George Richard St. John, 
vice John Macpherson, 
whose election was de- 
clared void E 
Charles Garth, esq., Recorder F 
Sir James Tylney Long, bart., 
of Dravcot Cerne, co. 
Wilts " F 
Henry Jones, esq., of the 
city of London, vice 
Charles Garth, esq., ap- 
pointed one of the Com- 
missioners of Excise F 
Henry Seymour Conway, 
second son of the Earl of 
Hertford G 
Robert Shafto, esq., of Bar- 
ford, CO. Wilts G 
William A 'Court Ashe, esq. T 
William Eden, esq. T 
Francis Burton, esq., vice 
William Eden, esq., who 
elected to serve for New 
Woodstock, CO. Oxford T 
Wilham Peirce Ashe 
A'Court, esq., vice William 
A 'Court Ashe, esq., dec'' T 
Lloyd Kenyon, esq. P 
Nathaniel William Wraxall, 
esq. P 

George Harding, esq., K.C. 
and Solicitor General to 
Her Majesty, vice Pickney 
Wilkinson, esq., dec'^ O 

John Charles Villiers, son of 
the Earl of Clarendon, vice 
Thomas Pitt, esq., called 
to the Upper House as 
Baron Camelford O 

William Henry Bouverie M 
William Hussey, esq. M 

Samuel Estwick, esq. S 

John Whalley Gardiner, esq. S 
Samuel Estwick, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as Secretary and Registrar 
of the Royal Hospital at 
Chelsea S 

Samuel Estwick, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as Secretary and Registrar 
of the Royal Hospital at 
Chelsea S 

George Augustus Lord 

Herbert N 

William Gerard Hamilton, 

esq. N 

Henry Saint John, esq, R 

William Strahan, esq. R 

24 GEO. Ill (1784). 

Charles Penruddock, esq. A 

Ambrose Goddard, esq. A 

Sir James Tylney Long, 
bart., vice Charles 

Penruddock, esq., dec'' A 

James Graham, commonly 
called the Marquis of 
Graham B 

Robert Manners, esq., of 
Bloxham, co. Lincoln (^ 

James Graham, commonly 
called Marquis of Graham, 
re-elected after appoint- 
ment as Joint Paymaster 
General of the Land Forces B 

Isaac Barre, esq. C 

Paul Benfield, esq., vice 
James Maitland, com- 
monly called Viscount 
Maitland, called to the 
Upper House as Earl of 
Lauderdale J 

James Stopford, Earl of 
Courtown, in the kingdom 
of Ireland K 

Sir Philip Hales, bart., of 
Brymore, co. Somerset K 

James Stopford, Earl of 
Courtown, in the kingdom 
of Ireland, re-elected after 
appointment as Treasurer 
of the Household K 

244 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

James Townshend, esq., of 
Bruce Castle, co. Midd. C 

Joseph Jekyll, esq., of 
Linccln's Inn, barrister at- 
law, vice James Towns- 
hend, esq., dec'^ C 

George Fludyer, esq., of 
Thisleton, co. Rutland D 

James Dawkins, esq., of 
Upper Norton, co. Oxford D 

John WalkerHeneage, esq. i^"* E 

Robert Nicholas, esq. E 

Thomas Estcourt, esq., vice 
Robert Nicholas, esq., 
appointed one of the 
Commissioners of Excise E 

Sir James Tylney Long, 
bart., of Draycot Cerne, 
CO. Wilts F 

Henry Addington, esq., of 
Southampton St., co. 
Midd. F 

Joshua Smith, esq., of Stoke 
Park, CO. Wilts, vice Sir 
James Tylney Long, bart., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltern 
Hundreds, co. Bucks. F 

Robert Shafto, esq.125 g 

William Seymour Conway, 
esq. ; the last election of 
burgesses, so far as relates 
to one of the burgesses, 
having been determined 
to be voidi26 G 

William Eden, esq. T 

William Pierce Ashe 
A'Court, esq. T 

William Egerton, esq. P 

Edward Bearcroft, esq. P 

Edward Bearcroft, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as Chief Justice of Chester P 

George Augustus Selwyn, 
esq., of Matson, co. 
Gloucester H 

Nathaniel William Wraxall, 
esq., of the par. of vSt. 
George's, Hanover Square, 
CO. Midd. H 

Penistone Lamb, Viscount 
Melbourn J 

James Maitland, Viscount 
Maitland J 

John Charles Villiers, esq., 
second son of the Earl of 
Clarendon O 

George Harding, esq., K.C., 
Solicitor General to Her 
Majesty O 

John Charles Villiers, esq., 
re-elected after appoint- 
ment as Comptroller of 
the Household O 

George Harding, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as Justice of the counties 
of Glamorgan, Brecon, 
and Radnor within the 
Principality of Wales O 

John Charles Villiers, esq., 
re-elected after appoint- 
ment as Warden and Chief 
Justice, and Justice in 
Eyre of the Forests, 
Chaces, Parks and War- 
rens, north of the Trent O 

William Henry Bouverie, esq. M 

William Hussey, esq. M 

Samuel Estwick, esq. S 

Chaloner Arcedeckne, esq. S 

John Madocks, esq., vice 
Chaloner Arcedeckne,esq., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Manor of East 
Hendred, co. Berks S 

George Augustus Lord 
Herbert N 

W^illiam Gerard Hamilton, 
esq. N 

Philip Goldsworthy, esq., 
vice George Augustus 
Herbert, commonly called 
Lord Herbert, appointed 
Vice Chamberlain N 

George Augustus Herbert, 
commonly called Lord 
Herbert, vice Philip Golds- 
worthy, esq., who accepted 
the Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds, co. 
Bucks N 

George Augustus North, esq. R 

Robert Seymour Conway, 
esq. R 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 



Sir JamesTylney Long, bart., 
of DraycotCerne, CO. Wilts A 

Ambrose Goddard, esq., of 
Swindon, co. Wilts A 

Henry Penruddock Wynd- 
ham, esq., of Salisbury, co. 
Wilts, vice Sir James 
Tylney Long, bart., dec. A 

James Graham, commonly 
called Marquis of Graham B 

John Stewart, commonly 
called Lord Down B 

James George Stopford, 
commonly called Lord 
Viscount Stopford, of the 
kingdom of Ireland, vice 
James Graham, commonly 
called Marquis of Graham, 
called to the Upper House 
as Duke of Montrose B 

Edward Hyde East, esq., of 
Bloomsbury Square, co. 
Midd., vice John Stewart, 
commonly called Lord 
Down, dec. B 

James George Stopford, 
commonly called Lord 
Viscount Stopford, re- 
elected after appointment 
as Treasurer of the House- 
hold B 

Joseph Jekyll, esq., of Lin- 
coln's Inn, CO. Midd., 
Barrister-at-law C 

John Morris, esq., of Box, 
CO. Wilts, K.C. C 

Benjamin Vaughan, esq., 
vice John Morris, esq., who 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks C 

George Eludyer, esq., of 
Thistleton, co. Rutland D 

James Dawkins, esq., of 
Upper Norton, co. Oxon D 

John Walker Heneage, esq. E 

Thomas Estcourt, esq. E 

Henry Herbert, esq., 

commonly called Lord 
Porchester, vice John 
Walker Heneage, esq., who 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Manor of East 
Hendred, co. Berks E 

III (1790). 

William Beckford, esq. P 

James Adams, esq. P 

Thomas Wildman, esq., vice 
William Beckford, esq., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltern 
Hundreds, co. Bucks. P 

James Wildman, esq., vice 

ThoniasWildman,esq.dec. P 
George Augustus Selwyn, 

esq. H 

Wiliam Assheton Harbord, 

esq. H 

Samuel Smith, esq., of 
Putney Hill, co. Surrey, 
vice George Augustus 
Selwyn, esq., dec. H 

Nathaniel Newman, esq., 
Aldermau of the City of 
London, vice Samuel 
Smith, esq., dec. H 

Paul Benfield, esq. J 

Benjamin Bond Hopkins, 

esq. J 

Sir James Sanderson, knt. 
and alderman of the city 
of London, vice Paul 
Benfield, esq., who ac- 
cepted the Stewardship of 
the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Buck J 

Francis Glanville, esq., of 
Catchfrench, co. Cornwall, 
vice Benjamin Bond Hop- 
kins, esq., dec. J 
James Stopford, Earl of 
Courtown, in the kingdom 
of Ireland K 
Major-Gen. Thomas Bruce K 
Charles William Montague 
Scott, commonly called 
Earl of Dalkeith, vice 
James Earl of Courtown, 
in the kingdom of Ireland, 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltern Hun- 
dreds, CO. Buck K 
George Harding, esq. O 
John Sullivan, esq. O 
WilliamHenryBouverie,esq. M 
William Hussey, esq. M 
Samuel Estwick, esq. S' 
Evan Law, esq. S 

246 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Henry Addington, esq. F 

Joshua Smith, esq., of Stoke 
Park, CO. Wilts F 

Bartholomew Bouverie, esq. G 

Sir WilHam Scott, knt., of 
Doctors Commons, London G 

WiUiam Lord Auckland, of 
the kingdom of Ireland T 

William Pierce Ashe A 'Court, 
esq. T 

Michael Angelo Taylor, esq., 
vice William Pierce Ashe 
A'Court, esq., who accepted 
the Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds, co. 
Bucks. T 

Richard, Earl of Barrymore 
of the kingdom of Ireland, 
vice Michael Angelo Taylor, 
esq., who elected to serve 
for Poole, CO. Dorset T 

Charles Rose Ellis, esq., rice 
Richard, Earl of Barry- 
more, in the kingdom of 
Ireland, dec. T 

Henry Welbore, Lord Vis- 
count Clifden, of the 
kingdom of Ireland, vice 
William, Lord Auckland, 
in the kingdom of Ireland, 
called to the Upper House 
as Baron Auckland of 
West Auckland, co. 
Durham T 

Samuel Estwick, jun., esq., 
vice Evan Law, esq., who 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Buck S 

Edward Wilbraham Bootle, 
esq., vice Samuel Estwick, 
sen., esq., dec. S 

George Augustus Herbert, 
commonly called Lord 
Herbert N 

Lord Viscount Fitzwilliam N 

Philip Golds worthy, esq., 
vice George Augustus 
Herbert, commonly called 
Lord Herbert, called to 
the Upper House as Earl 
of Pembroke N 

John Christopher Burton 
(Dawnay), Lord Viscount 
Downe of the kingdom of 
Ireland R 

John Thomas Stanley, esq. R 

36 GEO. Ill (1796). 

Ambrose Goddard, esq. A 

Henry Penruddock Wynd- 

ham, esq. A 

Major-Gen. Thomas Bruce B 
John Wodehouse, esq. B 

Robert John Buxton, esq., 

vice Thomas Bruce esq. 

[sic], dec. B 

Joseph Jekyll, of the Inner 

Temple, London, barrister- 

atdaw C 

Sir Francis Baring, bart., of 

the city of London C 

George Fludyer, esq., of 

Thistleton, co Rutland D 

Peter Isaac Thellusson, esq., 
of Rendlesham House, co. 
Suffolk J 

Philip Metcalfe, esq., vice 
Samuel Sm.ith, esq., who 
elected to serve for the 
borough of Leicester J 

Charles Bruce Brudenell 
Bruce, commonly called 
Lord Bruce K 

James Bruce, esq. K 

Robert Brudenell, esq., 
vice James Bruce, esq., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltern 
Hundreds, co. Bucks K 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


James Dawkins, esq., of 
Upper Norton, co. Oxon D 

Thomas Estcourt, esq. E 

Henry George Herbert, esq., 
commonly called Lord 
Porchester E 

Henry Addington, esq. F 

Joshua Smith, esq. F 

Henry Addington, esq., re- 
elected after accepting the 
Stewardship of the Chiltern 
Hundreds, co. Bucks F 

Henry Addington, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as Treasurer and 

Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer F 

Edward Bouverie, esq., of 
Squerries Court, co. Kent G 

Sir William Scott, knt., of 
Doctors Commons, London G 

Sir William Scott, knt., re- 
elected after appointment 
as President and Judge of 
the High Court of 
Admiralty of England G 

William Pleydell Bouverie 
commonly called Viscount 
Folkestone, vice Sir 
William Scott, knt., who 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks G 

Henry Welbore, Lord 
Viscount Clifden of the 
kingdom of Ireland T 

Sir John Fleming Leicester, 
Bart., of Tabley Hall, in 
the county palatine of 
Chester T 

William Wickham, esc^.,vice 
Henry Welbore, Lord 
Viscount Clifden called to 
the Upper House as Baron 
Mendip T 

Matthew Gregory Lewis, 
esq. P 

James Wild man, esq., P 

Charles William Montague 
Scott, commonly called 
Earl of Dalkeith " H 

Thomas Everett, esq. H 

Samuel Smith, esq., of New 
Street, Spring Gardens J 

Richard Colley Wesley, Earl 
of Mornington, of the 
kingdom of Ireland, a 
Privy Councillor O 

George Harding, esq.. Jus- 
tice of the cos. of Glamor- 
gan, Brecon, and Radnor, 
within the Principality of 
of Wales O 

Charles Watkin Williams 
Wynn, esq., of Lincoln's 
Inn, CO. Midd . , vice Richard 
Colley Wesley, Earl of 
Mornington, in the king- 
dom of Ireland who ac- 
cepted the Stewardship of 
the Chiltern Hundred, co. 
Bucks O 

Sir George Yonge, bart. knt. 
of the bath, vice Charles 
Watkin Williams Wynn, 
esq., who accepted the 
Stewardship of the Chil- 
tern Hundreds,, co. Bucks O 

John Home Tooke, esq., 
vice Sir George Yonge, 
bart., who accepted the 
Stewardship of the Chil- 
tern Hundreds, co. Buck O 

William Henry Bouverie, 
esq. M 

W'illiam Hussey, esq. M 

Sir Henry Paulet Saint John 
Mildmay, bart. S 

George Ellis, esq. S 

George William Richard 
Harcourt, esq.. Lieut. -Col. 
in the 40th Regiment of 
Foot, vice George Ellis., 
esq., who elected to serve 
for Seaford S 

Simon Harcourt, esq., vice 
George William Richard 
Harcourt, esq., who ac- 
cepted the Stewardship of 
the Chiltern Hundreds, co. 
Bucks S 

Lord Viscount Fitzwilliam N 

Philip Goldsworthy, esq. N 

John Spencer, esq,, vice 
Philip Goldsworthy, esq., 
deceased N 

John Denison, esq. R 

Edward Clarke, esq. R 

248 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire 

42 GEO. 

Ambrose Goddard, esq. A 

Henry Penruddock Wynd- 

ham, esq. A 

Sir Robert John Buxton, 

bart. B 

Sir Nathaniel Holland, bart. B 
Lord Henry Petty C 

Joseph Jekyll, esq. C 

Joseph Jekyll, esq., re-elected 
after appointment as a 
King's Counsel C 

Osborne Markham, esq., vice 
Henry Petty, commonly 
called Lord Henry Petty, 
appointed Chancellor and 
Under Treasurer of the 
Exchequer C 

James Dawkins, esq., of 

Upper Norton, co. Oxon D 
John Maitland, esq., of the 

city of London^^^ D 

Thomas Estcourt, esq. E 

Henry Charles Herbert, esq., 
commonly called Lord 
Porchester E 

Henry Addington, esq. F 

Joshua Smith, esq. F 

Thomas Grimston Estcourt. 
esq., of New Park, co. 
Wilts, vice Henry Adding- 
ton, esq., called to the 
Upper House as Viscount 
Sidmouth F 

John William Ward, esq., 
son of Viscount Dudley 
and Ward G 

Edward Bouverie, esq., of 
Berkeley Square, in the 
city of Westminster G 

Charles Marsham, commonly 
called Viscount Marsham, 
vice John William Ward, 
esq., who accepted the 
Stewardship of the Chiltern 
Hundreds, co. Bucks G 

John, Lord De Blaquiere, 
vice Edward Bouverie, 
esq., who accepted the 
Stewardship of the Chiltern 
Hundreds, co. Bucks G 

John Hamilton Fitz Maurice, 
commonly called Viscount 
Kirkwall, only son of the 
Countess of Orkney T 

in (1802). 

John Pedley, esq. P 

Charles William Montague 
Scott, commonly called 
Earl of Dalkeith H 

Thomas Everett, esq. H 

Magens Dorrien Magens, 
esq., of Cavendish Square, 
CO. Midd., vice Charles 
William Montague Scott, 
commonly called Earl of 
Dalkeith, w^ho accepted 
the Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds, co. 
Bucks H 

Claude Scott, esq., of Sun- 

dridge Park, co. Kent J 

Samuel Scott, of Gower 
Street, Bedford Square, 
London J 

Charles Brudenell Bruce, 
commonly called Lord 
Bruce K 

James Henry Leigh, esq. K 
Nicholas Vansittart, esq. O 
Henry Alexander, esq. O 

Nicholas Vansittart, esq., of 
Great George Street, 
Westminster, re-elected 
after appointment as chief 
Secretary to the Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland O 

William Pleydell Bouverie, 
commonly called Viscount 
Folkestone M 

William Hussey, esq. M 

William Baldwin, esq. S 

Charles Smith, esq. S 

Richard, Lord Viscount 

Fitzwilliam N 

John Spencer, esq. N 

Ralph Sheldon, esq., 'vice 
John Spencer, esq., 
of the Land Tax for the 
county of Oxford N 

Charles Herbert z;fc^ Richard, 
Lord Viscount Fitzwilliam 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Manor of East 
Hendred, co. Berks N 

Henry Saint John, a General 
in the Army, and Colonel 



Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Charles Abbott, esq. T 

Charles Moore, esq., of 
Lambeth Palace, co. 
Surrey, vice Charles 
Abbott, esq., who elected 
to serve for New Wood- 
stock, CO. Oxon T 

Thomas Wallace, esq. P 

47 GEO. 

Henry Penruddock Wynd- 
ham, esq. A 

Richard Long, esq. A 

James George Stopford, 
commonly called Lord 
Viscount Stopford B 

James Henry Leigh, esq. B 

Sir Vicary Gibbs, knt., 
Attorney General, vice 
Lord Viscount Stopford, 
appointed Comptroller of 
the Household B 

Joseph Jekyll, esq., of the 
Inner Temple, K.C., and 
Solicitor General to 
H.R.H. the Prince of 
Wales C 

Osborne Markham, esq., 
barrister-at-law C 

Henry Smith, esq., vice 
Osborne Markham, esq., 
appointed one of the 
Commissioners for execut- 
ing the office of Barrack 
Master General C 

John Maitland, esq., of the 
city of London 

James Dawkins, esq.-" 

Henry George Herbert, com- 
monly called Lord Por- 
chester E 

Thomas Goddard, esq., of 
Swindon, co. Wilts E 

Charles Moore, esq., and 
Michael Symes, esq., vice 
Charles Abbott, esq., who 
elected to serve for the 
University of Oxford and 
Sir William A 'Court, bart., 
I who accepted the Steward - 
I ship of the Chiltern Hun- 
dreds, CO. Bucks T 
I Joshua Smith, esq. F 
ijThomas Grimston Estcourt, 
I esq. F 



Robert Williams, jun., esq. R 
Peter William Baker, esq., 
of Ranston, co. Dorset, 
vice Henry Saint John, 
esq., who accepted the 
Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds, co. 
Bucks R 

in (1806). 

Bartholomew Bouverie, esq. G 

esq. G 

Charles Abbott, esq. T 

Sir William Peirce Ashe 

A 'Court, bart. T 

William Deckford, esq. P 

Benjamin Hobhouse, esq. P 
Magens Dorrien Magens, esq. H 
Thomas Everett, esq. H 

Robert Ladbxoke, esq. J 

Nicholas William Ridley 

Colborne, esq. J 

Charles William Montagu 
Scott, commonly called 
Earl of Dalkeith K 

Charles Brudenell Bruce, 
commonly called Lord 
Bruce K 

James George Stopford, 
commonly called Lord 
Viscount Stopford, vice 
Charles William Montagu 
Scott, commonly called 
Earl of Dalkeith, called 
to the Upper House as 
Baron Tynedale K 

Thomas Andrew Lord 

Blayney O 

Nicholas Vansittart O 

William Pleydell Bouverie, 
commonly called Viscount 
Folkstone M 

William Hussey, esq. M 

William Jacob, esq. S 

John Woolmore, esq. S 

Charles Herbert, esq. N 

Ralph Sheldon, esq. N 

Robert Williams, esq., the 
younger, banker, in the 
city of London R 

Robert Knight, esq., of 
Barrels, co. Warwick R 

250 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

48 GEO. Ill (1807). 

Henry Penruddock Wynd- 

ham, esq. A 

Richard Long, esq. A 

James Henry Leigh, esq. B 

Sir John Nicholl, knt. B 

Joseph Jekyll, esq., of the 
Inner Temple, K.C. and 
SoHcitor General to 
H.R.H. the Prince of Wales C 
Henry Smith, esq. C 

John Maitland, esq., of 

Woodford, co. Essex^^^ D 
James Dawkins, esq., of 

Upper Norton, co. Oxon D 
Henry George Herbert, 
commonly called Lord 
Porchester E 

Thomas Goddard, esq., of 

Swindon, co. Wilts E 

William Herbert, esq., 
L.L.D., of Parkplace, 
Mitcham, co. Surrey, vice 
Henry George Herbert, 
commonly called Lord 
Porchester, called to the 
Upper House as Earl of 
Carnarvon E 

Joshua Smith, esq. F 

Thomas Grimston Estcourt, 

esq. F 

Bartholomew Bouverie, esq. G 
Sir Thomas Plumer, knt., 

Solicitor General G 

Sir Thomas Plumer, knt., 
re-elected after appoint- 
ment as Attorney General G 
James Edward Harris, 
commonly called Viscount 
PltzHarris T 

Charles Moore, esq. T 

Lord Viscount FitzHarris, 
re-elected after appoint- 
ment as Governor of the 
Isle of Wight T 

William Beckford, esq. P 

Benjamin Hobhouse, esq. P 
Magens Dorrien Magens, esq. H 
Thomas Everett, esq. H 

Joseph Hague Everett, esq., 
of Sparsholt House, co. 
Berks, vice Thomas 
Everett, esq., dec. H 

James George Stopford, 
commonly called Lord 
Viscount Stopford K 

Edward Stopford of the 3rd 
Regiment of Foot Guards, 
a Colonel in the Army, 
vice Lord Viscount Stop- 
ford called to the Upper 
House as Baron Salter- 
ford K 

Nicholas Vansittart, esq. O 

Jonas Dupre Porcher, esq., 
of Devonshire Place, co. 
Midd. O 

James Alexander, esq., of 
Wimpole Street, in the 
parish of St. Marylebone, 
CO. Midd., vice Nicholas 
Vansittart, esq . , appointed 
Chancellor and Under 
Treasurer of the Exchequer O 

William Pleydell Bouverie, 
commonly called Viscount 
Folkstone M 

William Hussey, esq. M 

Edward Lascelles, esq., of 
Lower Grosvenor Street S 

Glynn, Wynn, esq., of Lin- 
coln's Inn S 

Henry Lascelles, esq., vice 
Edward Lascelles, esq., 
who elected to serve for 
Northallerton, co. York S 

Francis Whittle, esq., vice 
Glynn W'ynn, esq., who 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks S 

John de Ponthieu, esq., of 
Esher, co. Surrey, vice 
Francis Whittle, esq., who 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks S 

Charles Herbert, esq. N 

Ralph Sheldon, esq. N 

Major General John Murray 
of the 79th Regiment of 
Foot R 

John Cheesment, esq., of 
Spring Gardens, co. 
Midd. R 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Charles Winn AUanson, Lord 
Headley, Baron Allanson 
and Winn of Aghadoe in 
Ireland and bart., vice 
Joseph Hague Everett, 
esq., who accepted the 
Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds, co. 
Bucks H 

Sir George Bowyer, bart. J 

Philip Gell, esq. J 

Abel Smith, esq., cf Wood- 
hall Park, CO. Herts, vice 
Sir George Bowyer bart., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Manor of East 
Hendred, co. Berks J 

Charles Brudenell Bruce, 
commonly called Lord 
Bruce ^ K 

Benjamin Walsh, esq., of 
Lorder {sic) Clapton, in 
the parish of Hackney, co. 
Midd., vice John Chees- 
ment Severn \sic'\, esq., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltern Hun- 
dreds, CO. Bucks R 

Robert Knight, esq., of 
Barrels, co. Warwick, vice 
General Sir John Murray 
bart., who accepted the 
Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds, co. 
Bucks R 

John Attersoll, esq., of Port- 
land Place, CO. Midd., vice 
Benjamin Walsh, esq., 
expelled the House R 

53 GEO. Ill (I8I2), 

Richard Godolphin Long, 

esq. A 

Paul Methuen, esq. A 

James Henry Leigh, esq. B 
Sir John Nicholl, knt. B 

John Jacob Buxton, esq., 
vice James Henry Leigh, 
esq., who accepted the 
Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds, co. 
Buck B 

Joseph Jekyll, esq., of the 
Inner Temple, Attorney 
General to H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales, and K.C. C 
James Abercromby, esq., of 
Lincoln's Inn, Barrister 
at Law C 

James Macdonald, esq., of 
East Sheen, co. Surrey, 
vice Joseph Jekyll, esq., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltern 
Hundreds, co. Bucks C 

Charles Brooke, esq., of the 
City of London D 

Henry Lawes Luttrell, Earl 
ofCarhampton,in Ireland, 
vice Charles Nicholas 
Pallmer, esq., who 

accepted the Stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks H 

W^illiam Hicks Beach, esq., 
of Williamstrip Park, co. 
Glos. J 

Sir Charles Saxton, bart. J 

Peter Patten, esq., vice Sir 
Charles Saxton, bart., 
who elected to serve for 
the city of Cashel J 

Sir William Abdy, bart., 
vice W^illiam Hicks Beach, 
esq., who accepted the 
Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds, co. 
Bucks J 

Charles Brudenell Bruce, 
commonly called Lord 
Bruce K 

Edward Stopford, a Major 
General in the Army K 

s 2 

252 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Robert Peel, esq., of Drayton 
Manor, co. Staffs D 

John Maitland, esq., of 
Woodford Hall, co. Essex, 
vice Robert Peel, esq., who 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks D 

Joseph Pitt, esq., of East- 
court, CO. Wilts E 

Thomas Calley, esq., of 
Burdcross, co. Wilts E 

Joshua Smith, esq., of Stoke 
Park, CO. Wilts F 

Thomas Grimston Estcourt, 
esq., of New Park, co. 
Wilts F 

Sir Thomas Plumer, knt., of 
Cannons, co. Midd., 
Attorney General G 

Charles Henry Bouverie, 
esq . , of Betchworth House, 
CO. Surrey G 

Sir Thomas Brooke Pechell, 
bart., of Aid wick, co. 
Sussex, vice Sir Thomas 
Plumer, knt., appointed 
Vice-Chancellor of England G 

Edward Golding, esq., of 
Maiden Erlegh, co. Berks, 
vice Charles Henry 
Bouverie, esq., who accep- 
ted the Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds, co. 
Bucks G 

Samuel Hood, esq., of Wim- 
pole Street, in the parish 
of St. Marylebone, co. 
Midd. T 

Charles Buncombe, esq., of 
Buncombe Park, co. 
York T 

William Beckford, esq, P 

Benjamin Hobhouse, esq. P 

Magens Dorien Magens, 
esq. H 

Joseph Hague Everett, 
esq. H 

Sandford Graham, esq., of 
Portland Place, co. Midd., 
vice Magens Dorien 
Magen s , esq , , who accepted 
the Stewardship of the 
Manor of East Hendred, 
CO. Berks H 

William Hill, esq., vice Lord 
Bruce called to the Upper 
House as Earl of Ayles- 
bury K 

Josias Du Pre Porcher, esq., 
of Winslade House, co. 
Devon O 

Jamics Alexander, esq., of 
Wimpole Street, in the 
parish of St. Marylebone, 
CO. Midd. O 

William Pleydell Bouverie, 
commonly called Viscount 
Folkstone M 

William Hussey, esq. M 

George Purefoy Jervoise, 
esq., vice William Hussey, 
esq., deceased M 

Benjamin Hall, esq. S 

Benjamin Shaw, esq. S 

Ralph Franco, esq., vice 
Benjamin Hall, esq., who 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks S 

Charles Herbert, esq. N 

Ralph Sheldon, esq. N 

James Lord Viscount Fitz- 
harris, vice Charles 
Herbert, esq., deceased N 

John AttersoU, esq., of 
Portland Place, co.Midd. R 

James Kibblewhite, esq. of 
Gray's Inn Place, co. 
Midd. R 

Richard Ellison, esq., of 
Sudbrooke Holme, co. 
Line, vice James Kibble- 
white, esq., who accepted 
the Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds, co. 
Bucks R 

Robert Rickards, esq., of 
Sloane Street, co. Midd., 
vice John Attersoll, esq., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltern Hun- 
dreds, CO. Bucks R 

William Taylor Money, esq., 
of Walthamstow, co. 
Essex, vice Robert 
Rickards, esq., who ac- 
cepted the Stewardship of 
the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks R 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Joseph Birch, esq., of St. 
James's Place, co. Midd., 
vice Joseph Hague 
Everett, esq., who ac- 
cepted the Stewardship of 
the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks 


58 GEO. HI 

Paul Methuen, esq. A 

William Pole Tylney Long 
Wellesley, esq. A 

John Benett, esq., vice Paul 
Methuen, esq., who ac- 
cepted the Stewardship of 
the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks A 

Sir John Nicholl, knt. B 

John Jacob Buxton, esq. B 

James Abercromby, esq., of 
Lincoln's Inn, barrister at 
law C 

James Macdonald, esq., of 
East Sheen, co. Surrey C 

William Miles, esq., of 
Abbotsleigh, co. Somerset D 

George Spencer Churchill, 
commonly called the 
Marquis of Blandford of 
Blenheim Park, co. Oxon D 

Joseph Pitt, esq., of East- 
court House, CO. Wilts E 

Robert Gordon, esq., of 
Kemble, co. Wilts E 

Thomas Grimston Estcourt, 
esq., of New Park, co. 
Wilts F 

John Pearse, esq., of Chilton 
Lodge, CO. Berks F 

William Pleydell Bouverie, 
commonly called Viscount 
Folkestone G 

Sir William Scott, knt., 
Judge of the High Court 
of Admiralty of England G 

Sir Thomas Brooke Pechell, 
bart., vice Sir William 
Scott, who elected to serve 
fortheUniversity of Oxford G 

Bartholomew Bouverie, esq., 
vice Lord Viscount 
Folkestone, who elected 
to serve for Salisbury G 

George James Welbore Agar 
Ellis, esq. T 

Charles Nicholas Pallmer, 
esq., of Norbiton House, 
CO. Surrey, vice Sandford 
Graham, esq., who ac- 
cepted the Stewardship of 
the Chilton Hundreds, co. 
Bucks H 


William Henry John Scott, 
esq., re-elected after 
appointment as Clerk of 
the Patents and Registrar 
of Affidavits in the Court 
of Chancery T 

Frederick Gough Calthorpe, 
esq. P 

William Beckford, esq. P 

Sandford Graham, esq. H 

Henry Lawes Lutterell, Earl 
of Carhampton H 

Charles Forbes, esq., of 
Fitzroy Square, co. Midd. J 

Kirkman Finlay, esq., of 
Glasgow, N.B. J 

John W^odehouse, esq. K 

James Thomas Brudenell, 
commonly called Lord 
Brudenell K 

James Alexander, esq., of 
Somerhill, co. Kent O 

Arthur Johnstone Crawford, 
esq., of Crawford Burn, 
CO. Down, Ireland O 

William Pleydell Bouverie, 
commonly called Viscount 
Folkestone M 

Wadham Wyndham, esq. M 

Ralph Franco, esq. S 

Francis Nathaniel Conyng- 
ham, commonly called 
Lord Francis Nathaniel 
Conyngham S 

William Leader Maberly, 
esq., vice Ralph Franco, 
esq., who accepted the 
Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds, co. 
Bucks S 

James Lord Viscount Fitz- 
harris N 

Ralph Sheldon, esq. N 

Richard Ellison, esq., of 
Sudbrooke Holme, co. 
Lincoln R 

254: Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

William Henry John Scott, 
esq. T 

1 GEO. 

John Benett, esq., of Pyt 
House, CO. Wilts A 

John Dugdale Astley, esq., 
of Everley House, co. 
Wilts A 

Sir John NichoU, knt. B 

John Jacob Buxton, esq. B 

Sir John Nicholl, knt., re- 
elected after accepting the 
Stewardship of the Chil- 
tern Hundreds, co. Bucks B 

James Abercromby, esq., 
barrister at law, of Lin- 
coln's Inn C 

James Macdonald, esq., of 
East Sheen, co. Surrey C 

William Alexander Madocks , 
esq., of Tregunter, co. 
Brecon D 

John Rock Grosett, esq., 
of Lacock Abbey, co. 
W^ilts D 

Joseph Pitt, esq., of East- 
court, CO. Wilts E 

Robert Gordon, esq., of 
Kemble, co. Wilts E 

Thomas Grimston Estcourt, 
esq., of New Park, co. Wilts F 

John Pearse, esq., of Chilton 
Lodge, CO. Berks F 

George Watson Taylor, esq., 
of Erlestoke Park, co. 
Wilts, vice Thomas 
Grimston Bucknall Est- 
court, esq., who accepted 
the Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds, co. 
Bucks F 

Bartholomew Bouverie, esq. G 

Sir Thomas Brooke Pechell, 
bart. G 

Edward Henry A'Court, 
Captain R.N. T 

Charles Ashe A'Court, esq. T 

Henry Handley, esq., vice 
Charles Ashe A'Court, 
esq., who accepted the 
Stewardship of the Chil- 
tern Hundreds, co. Bucks T 

William Taylor Money, esq., 
of Streatham Park, co. 
Surrey R 

IV (1820). 

William Leake, esq., of 
Devonshire Street, Port- 
land Place, CO. Midd., vice 
Kirkman Finlay, esq., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltern 
Hundreds, co. Bucks J 

James Thomas Brudenell, 
commonly called Lord 
Brudenell K 

John Wodehouse, esq. K 

James Thomas Brudenell, 
commonly called Lord 
Brudenell, re-elected after 
accepting a commission in 
the Army K 

James Alexander, esq., of 
Somerhill, co. Kent O 

Arthur Johnstone Crawford, 
esq., of Crawfords Burn, 
CO. Down, Ireland O 

Josias Dupre Alexander, 
esq., of Freeman tie Park, 
CO. Southampton, vice 
Arthur Johnstone Craw- 
ford, who accepted the 
Stewardship of the Chil- 
tern Hundreds, co. Bucks O 

William Pleydell Bouverie, 
commonly called Lord 
Viscount Folkestone M 

Wadham Wyndham, esq. M 

Jonathan Elford, the 
younger, esq. S 

Nathaniel Barton, esq. S 

Sir Manassah Masseh Lopes, 
bart., of Maristow House, 
CO. Down, and Philip John 
Miles, esq., of Leigh Court, 
in the par. of Abbotsleigh, 
CO. Somerset, vice 

Nathaniel Barton, esq., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltern 
Hundreds, co. Bucks, and 
Jonathan Elford, esq., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Manor of East 
Hendred, co. Berks S 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Frederick Gough Calthorpe, 

esq. P 

John Plummer, esq. P 

Sandford Graham, esq. H 

Henry Lawes Luttrell, com- 
monly called Earl of 
Carhampton, in Ireland H 
George Charles Pratt, 
commonly called Earl of 
Brecknock, vice the Earl 
of Carhampton, deceased H 
Charles Forbes, esq. J 

Kirkman Finlay, esq. J 

James Harris, commonly 

called Viscount FitzHarris N 
Ralph Sheldon, esq. N 

James Hungerford Pen- 
ruddock, esq., vice Lord 
Viscount Fitzharris, called 
to the Upper House as 
Earl of Malmesbury N 

Edward Baker, esq., vice 
Ralph Sheldon, esq., 
deceased N 

Horace Twiss, esq. R 

George Philips, esq. R 

7 GEO. IV (1826), 

John Benett, esq., of Pyt 
House, CO. Wilts A 

Sir John Dugdale Astley, 
bart., of Everleigh House, 
CO. Wilts A 

Sir John Nicholl, knt. B 

John Jacob Buxton, esq. B 

James Abercromby, esq., 
barrister at law, of Lin- 
coln's Inn, CO. Midd. C 

Sir James Macdonald, bart., 
of Woolmer Lodge, co. 
Herts C 

James Abercromby, esq., of 
New Street, Spring Gar- 
dens, CO. Midd., re-elected 
after appointment as 
Judge Advocate General C 

Sir James Macdonald, bart., 
of Woolmer Lodge, co. 
Herts, re-elected after 
appointment as one of the 
Commissioners for Trade 
and Plantations C 

esq., barrister at law' of 
Gray's Inn, vice James 
Abercrombie, esq., ap- 
pointed Lord Chief Baron 
of the Exchequer in 
Scotland C 

Ebenezer Fuller Maitland, 
esq., of Shinfield Park, 
CO. Berks D 

Arthur Gough Calthorpe, 
esq. P 

George James Welbore Agar 
Ellis, esq., of Spring Gar- 
dens, CO. Midd. H 

Edward Thomas Foley, esq., 
of Stoke Edith Park, co. 
Hereford H 

Sir Charles Forbes, bart., of 
Fitzroy Square, co. Midd. J 

John Forbes, esq., of the 
same place J 

George William Frederick 
Bruce, commonly called 
Lord Bruce K 

James Thomas Brudenell, 
commonly called Lord 
Brudenell K 

Thomas Henry Sutton 
Bucknall Estcourt, esq., 
vice Lord Bruce who 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks K 

William John Bankes, esq., 
vice Lord Brudenell, whc 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks K 

James Alexander, esq., of 
Somerhill, co. Kent O 

Josias Du Pre Alexander, 
esq , of Hanover Square, 
CO. Midd. O 

256 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Frederick Gye, esq., of 
Wood Green, co. Midd. D 

Joseph Pitt, esq., of East 
Court, CO. Wilts E 

Robert Gordon, esq., of 
Kemble, co. Wilts E 

John Pearse, esq., of Chilton 
Lodge, CO. Berks F 

George Watson Taylor of 
Erlestoke Park, co. Wilts F 

Thomas Estcourt Grimston 
Bucknall Estcourt, esq., 
of New Park, co. Wilts G 

Robert Southey, esq., of 
Keswick, co. Cumberland G 

BartholomiewBouverie, esq., 
vice Thomas Grimston 
Bucknall Estcourt, esq., 
who elected to serve for 
the University of Oxford G 

Alexander Powell, esq., of 
Hurdcott, CO. Wilts, vice 
Robert Southey, esq., 
who was chosen a burgess 
for the borough of Down- 
ton, without the qualifi- 
cation of estate required 
by law G 

Edward Henry A'Court, esq. T 
Henry Stafford Northcote, 
esq., of Pyne's House, co. 
Devon T 

George Matthew Fortescue, 
esq. P 

1 WM. 

John Benett, -esq. A 

Sir John DugdaleAstley,bart. A 
Sir John Nicholl, knt. B 

John Jacob Buxton, esq. B 
Sir James Macdonald, bart., 
of Woolmer Lodge, co. 
Hants C 

Thomas Babington Ma- 
caulay, esq., of Gray's Inn, 
barrister-at-law C 

Sir James Macdonald, bart., 
of Woolmer Lodge, co. 
Hants, re-elected after 
appointment as Comm- 
issioner for the affairs of 
India C 

Joseph Neeld, esq., of 
Grittleton House, co. Wilts D 

Stratford Canning, esq., of 
Albermarle Street, co. 
Midd., vice Josias Du Pre 
Alexander, esq., who ac- 
cepted the Stewardship of 
the Chilton Hundreds, co. 
Bucks O 

William Pleydell Bouverie, 
cominonly called Viscount 
Folkestone M 

Wadham Wyndham, esq. M 

DuncombePleydellBouvei ie, 
esq., vice Lord Viscount 
Folkestone, called to the 
Upper House as Earl of 
Radnor M 

Sir Manasseh Masseh Lopes, 
bart. S 

Sir George Warrender, bart. S 

Robert Peel, esq., one of the 
Principal Secretaries of 
State, vice Sir Manasseh 
Masseh Lopes, bart., who 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Manor of East 
Hendred, co. Berks S 

John Hungerford Pen- 
ruddock, esq. N 

Edward Baker, esq. N 

Horace Twisse, esq., of the 
Inner Temple, London R 

George Philips, esq., of 
Sedgley, co. Lane. R 

IV (1830). 

George Mathew Fortescue, 

esq., of Grosvenor Square, 

CO. Midd. P 

Sir Sandford Graham, bart., 

of Portland P]ace,co. Midd. H 
Edward Thomas Foley, esq., 

of Stoke Edith Park, co. 

Hereford H 

Sir Charles Forbes, bart., of 

New and Edinglassie, co. 

Aberdeen J 

John Forbes, esq., of Harley 

Street, co. Midd. J 

Thomas Henry Sutton 

Bucknall Estcourt, esq. K 
William John Bankes, esq. K 
James Alexander, esq., of 

Somerhill, co. Kent O 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 


Philip Pusey, esq., of Pusey, 
CO. Berks D 

Joseph Pitt, esq., of East- 
court, CO. Wilts E 

Robert Gordon, esq., of 
Kemble, co. Wilts E 

John Pearse, esq., of Chilton 
Lodge, CO. Berks F 

George Watson Taylor, esq., 
of Erlestoke Park, co. 
Wilts F 

James Brougham, esq., of 
Brougham Hall, co. West- 
morland G 

Charles Shaw Lefevre, esq., 
of Whitehall Place, West- 
minster G 

Edward Henry A 'Court, esq., 
of Heytesbury, co. Wilts T 

Sir George Thomas Staunton, 
bart., of Leigh Park, co. 
South'ants T 

John Weyland, esq., of 
Woodrising Hall, co. 
Norfolk P 

Josias Du Pre Alexander, 
esq., of Grosvenor Square, 
CO. Midd. O 

Wadham Wyndham, esq. M 

esq. M 

Sir Alexander Grant, bart., 
of Carlton Gardens, co. 
Midd. S 

Michael George Prendergast, 
esq., of Regent's Park, 
London S 

John Hungerford Pen- 
ruddock, esq, N 

Henry Lytton Bulwer, esq. N 

Thomas Hyde Villiers, esq., 
of No. 6, Cleveland Court, 
St. James's Place, West- 
minster R 

Philip Henry Stanhope, esq., 
commonly called Viscount 
Mahon of Chevening, co. 
Kent, and of Albermarle 
St., CO. Midd. R 

1 WM. IV (1831), 

John Benett, esq. A 

vSir John Dugdale Astley, 
bart. A 

Sir John Nichol, bart. B 

John Jacob Buxton, esq. B 

Thomas Babington Ma- 
caulay, esq., of Gray's 
Inn, barrister-at-law C 

Lieut. Col. Charles Richard 
Fox of Addison Road, 
Kensington, co. Midd. C 

Thomas Babington Ma- 
cau lay, esq., re-elected 
after appointment as one 
of the Commissioners for 
the Affairs of India C 

Joseph Neeld, esq., of 
Grittleton House, co. 
Wilts D 

Henry George Boldero, esq., 
of Weymouth, co. Dorset D 

Robert Gordon, esq., of 
Kemble House, co. Wilts E 

Thomas Calley, esq., of 
Salthrop House, co. 
Wilts E 

John Weyland, esq., of 

Woodrising, co. Norfolk P 
Edward John Stanley, esq., 

of Lower Brook Street, 

Westminster P 

Sir Sandford Graham, bart., 

of Portland Place, co.Midd. H 
Edward Thomas Foley, esq., 

of Stoke Edith Park, co. 

Hereford H 

Sir Charles Forbes, bart. J 

John Forbes, esq. J 

Thomas Henry Sutton 

Bucknall Estcourt, esq. K 
William John Bankes, esq. K 
James Alexander, esq., of 

Somerhill, co. Kent O 

Josiah Du Pre Alexander, 

esq., of Grosvenor Square, 

CO. Midd. O 

Wadham Wyndham, esq. M 

esq . M 

Sir Ralph Franco, bart., of 

Roborough House, co. 

Devon S 

258 Bepresentatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

Robert Gordon, esq., re- 
elected after appointment 
as one of the Com- 
missioners for the affairs 
of India 

John Pearse, esq., of Chilton 
Lodge, CO. Berks. 

George Watson Taylor, esq., 
of Erlestoke Park, co. 

Thomas Creevey, esq., of 
Bury Street, St. James's, 
CO. Midd. 

James Brougham, esq., of 
Brougham, co. Westmor- 

Philip Pleydell Bouverie, 
esq., of Nether Broughton, 
CO. Leicester, vice James 
Broughton, esq., who 
accepted the Stewardship 
of the Chiltern Hundreds, 
CO. Bucks 

Edward Henry A 'Court, esq . , 
of Heytesbury, co. Wilts 

SirGeorge Thomas Staunton, 
bart., of Leigh Park, co. 

Henry Hanmer, esq., Lieut. - 
Col. and Major in the 
Royal Horse Guards 

Henry Frederick Stephenson , 
esq., of the parish of St. 
George's, Hanover Square, 
in the Citv of Westminster, 
vice Henry Hanmer, esq., 
who accepted the Steward- 
ship of the Chiltern 
Hundreds, co. Bucks 

John Hungerford Pen- 
ruddocke, esq. 

James Dawkins, esq. 

Philip Henry Stanhope, 
commonly called Lord 
Viscount Mahon Cheven- 
ing, CO. Kent and Alber- 
marle Street, co. Midd. 

Henry John George Herbert 
commonly called Lord 
Porchester of High Clere, 
CO. Southampton and of 
Grosvenor Square, co. 




1 No original Returns for this Parliament have been discovered. The 
following list of names has been taken from a document with the head- 
ing : — " Adhuc de Parliamento apud Karliolum in Octabies Sancti 
Hillarii anno xxxv. — Certificacio Vicecomitum Anglic de Militibus 
Civibus et Burgensibus electis ad Veniendum ad dictum Parhamentum." 

2 No Returns found, and only the original Writs de Expensis for the 
County of Wilts. 

^ Revoked before the Return. There is however a Return for 

* This is the only Return made to the first W^rit of Summons. 

^ No Return found except a Writ and Return for Cornwall. 

^ Names illegible. 

'^ Called Malmesbury by mistake in the Return. 

^ Names supplied from the Enrolment of the Writs de Expensis 
(Close Roll, 9 Edw. II, m. 16d.) in the absence of original Returns. 

9 Ditto (Close Roll, 9 Edw. II, mm, 3d. & 6d.). 

1^ Supplied from the Enrolment of the Writs de Expensis (Close Roll, 
12 Edw. II, m. 20d.) in the absence of the original Returns. 

11 Returns nearly illegible. 

1^ Name torn off. 

13 Date of election, 2 Nov.. 1322. 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 259 

1"* The remainder of the schedule wanting. 

^^ Revoked by Writ. There is, however, a Writ with Returns for 
the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk [only]. 

1*' Supplied from the Enrolment of the Writs de Expensis (Close Roll, 
5 Edw. Ill, p. 2, m. 6d.) in the absence of original Returns. 

17 Ditto (Close Roll, 8 Edw. Ill, m. 8d.). 

18 Ditto (Close Roll, 10 Edw. Ill, m. 35d.). 

1^ Mayors and Bailiffs of certain towns are directed to send three or 
four men. [No Wilts towns mentioned.] 

20 No Returns found. Certain counties supplied from Enrolment of 
Writs de Expensis (Close Roll, 14 Edw. Ill, p. 1 m. 2d.). Wilts not 

21 Supplied from the Enrolment of the Writs de Expensis (Close Roll, 
26 Edw. Ill, m. 28d.) in the absence of Original Returns. 

22 See Close Roll, 26 Edw. Ill, m. I4d. 

23 See Close Roll, 27 Edw. III. m. I2d. 

2^* Supplied from the Enrolment of the Writs de Expensis (Close Roll, 
28 Edw. Ill, m. 2Id.) in the absence of original Returns. 

25 Names torn off. 

2^ Supplied from the Enrolment of the Writs de Expensis (Close Roll, 
40 Edw. III. m. 23d.) in the absence of original Returns. 

27 Ditto (Close Roll, 45 Edw. Ill, m. 34d.). 

28 Ditto (Close Roll, 45 Edw. Ill, m. 22d.). No original Returns. 

29 Ditto (Close Roll, 50 Edw. Ill, p. 2, m. 23d.). 

30 Ditto (Close Roll, 2 Ric. II, m. 3d.). 

31 Ditto (Close Roll, 3 Ric. II, m. 18d.) 

32 Names torn off. 

33 Supplied from the Enrolment of the WYits de Expensis (Close Roll, 
4 Ric, II, m. 20d.) in the absence of original Returns. 

34 Names illegible. 

35 Names torn off. 

3^ Supplied from the Enrolment of the Writs de Expensis (Close Roll, 
12 Ric. II, m. 14d.) in the absence of original Returns. 

37 Ditto (Close Roll, 14 Ric. II, m. 30d.) in the absence of Parlia- 
mentary Returns. 

38 Ditto (Close Roll, 15 Ric. II, m. 26d.) in the absence of original 

39 Supplied' from the Enrolment of the Writs de Expensis (Close Roll, 
2 Hen. IV, p. 1, m. 3d.) in the absence of original Returns. 

40 Ditto (Close Roll, 5 Hen. IV, p. 2, m. lOd.). 

41 Ditto (Close Roll, 6 Hen. IV, m. 5d.). 

42 Ditto (Close Roll, 1 Hen. V, m. 12d.). 

43 Names torn off. 

44 Return torn. 

45 Rogerus Kycche on the back of the writ. 

46 A blank left for the Christian name. 

47 Illegible. 

48 Returns illegible. 

260 Representatives m Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

49 See Parliament for 1449. 

^^ "Mortuus " against his name. 

^^ Supplied from the Crown Ofhce List, in the absence of original 

^2 Returns defaced. 

^^ All the names for Wilts are supplied from the Crown Office I_.ists 
(of which there are five for this Parliament), in the absence of original 

^* Christopher Hales in List 3. 

^^ In Lists 4 and 5 the name of Matthew Payntz, esq., is substituted 
for that of John Hippesley, esq. 

^^ Supplied from the Crown Office Lists (of which there are three) in 
the absence of original Returns. 

^^ In Crown Office List No. 2 James Marryn is described as knt. 

^^ Return torn. 

59 Crown Office List No. 2. 

^^ There is a writ dated 14 Mar., 1577 — 8, for the election of a burgess 
for Hindon, vice Richard Polsted, esq., deceased, but no Return has 
been found. 

^^ In Crown Office List No. 2 John Danvers is described as knt. 

^2 In Crown Olfice List No. 2 Henry Knyvett is described as knt. 

^^ Supphed from Crown Office List in the absence of original Returns. 

^* This name is apparently written over an erasure ; the Crown Office 
List gives Robert Bayneham, esq. 

^5 There is an indenture, dated 8 October, returning Thomas Thynne 
alone, another name having been erased. 

^^ There is also a Return, dated 22 December, 1620, for Sir Edmund 
Ludlowe, knt., of Maydenbradly, county Wilts ; but by Order of the 
House of 18 April, 1621 [see Journals of the House of Commons), the 
election of Sir John Davis, knt., and John Anketill, gent., were con- 

^'^ The Crown Office List gives the name of John Maynard, esq. 
(instead of that of Charles Maynard, escp, erased) and Sir Francis 
Popham, knt. 

68 A Writ (dated 2 March, 1623—4), but no Return found. 

^9 Sir Henry Modye, knt. and bart., struck out, and the above sub- 
stituted in the Crown Office List. 

^•^ Walter Longe, esq., was returned for Salisbury and Westbury. 

^1 No Return ; see W^rit for the following single election. 

^^ The Commons Journal do not show how this election was finally 
settled, nor has any further Return been found. 

^^ In the Crown Office List the name of Sir Francis Seymour, knt., is 
struck out, and the above name substituted {see also Commons 

'^4 No W^rit [see Commons Journals). 

''^ No Return. See Writ for the following single election. 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 261 

^^ Supplied from the Crown Office List, which professes to have been 
"taken in the year 1643 or thereabouts," in the absence of original 

^' Probably elected vice William Asheborneham, esq., expelled the 
House ; afterwards disabled. (Commons Journals, 9 December, 1641, 
and 23 March, 1647—8.) 

^^ Probably elected vice Sir Francis Seymour, knt., called to the 
Upper House as Baron Seymour of Trowbridge, 19 February, 1641. 
(Commons Journals, 25 February, 1640 — 1). 

^9 No Return. See Writ for the following single election. Probably 
elected vice Edward Herbert, esq., who, being made Attorney General 
" is to sit as assistant in the Lords House." (Commons Journals, 29 
January, 1640 — 41.) 

^0 No Return. See Writ for the following single election. 

^1 According to the Writ. In the Return he is said to be deceased. 

^^ Return torn. 

^^ On 12 February, 1658 — 9, a new election was ordered vice the 
above, deceased (Commons Journals). 

^* On 11 April, 1659, a new election was ordered vice the above, 
deceased (Commons Journals). 

^^ On 12 Feb., 1658 — 9 a new election was ordered vice Robert Villiers, 
alias Danvers, esq., disabled to sit (Commons Journals). 

86 Another Indenture of the same date (still amongst the Returns), 
returning Edward Ludlow, esq., of Mayden Bradley, and George 
Grobham Howe, esq., was ordered to be withdrawn (Commons Journals, 
18 May, 1660). 

s*" A clerical error for Bath. 

88 Return torn. By order of the House of 27 April, 1660, Seymour 
Bowman and John Norden, esqrs., were to sit " until the merits of the 
case be determined," but no such determination has been found (Com- 
mons Journals). 

89 Another Indenture of the same date (still amongst the Returns), 
returning Francis Swanton, esq., and Richard Grobham Howe, esq., 
was brought before the Committee for Privileges and Elections, and 
recommitted (Commons Journals, 3 May and 14 June, 1660). 

90 Two Indentures. 

91 No Return found. The name of John Trevor, esq., is supplied 
from the following single election. The names of Sir John Trevor, knt., 
and Henry Clerke, esq., are found in a list among Lord Denbigh's 

92 A previous W^rit and Return, dated respectively 23 Jan. and 29 
Jan., 1672 — 3 (still preserved amongst the Returns), were declared void 
by Order of the House, dated 6 Feb., 1672 — 3 (Commons Journals). 

93 Double Return of the same date ; one returning Edward Hungerford, 
esq., and Henry Bayntun, esq., the other Sir Hugh Speke, bart. By an 
Order of the House dated 17 May, 1661, Edward Hungerford, esq., and 
Henry Bayntun, esq., were to sit till the merits of the case were deter- 
mined (Commons Journals). 

262 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

94 A previous Writ and Return, dated respectively 15 Jan. and 1 Feb., 
1672—3, dated 6 Feb., 1672—3 (Commons Journals). 

9^ Double Return of the same date ; one returning Gilbert Raleigh, 

esq., and esq. (name omitted) ; the other Walter Bockland, 

esq. By Order of the House dated 17 May, 1661, Gilbert Raleigh, esq., 
and Walter Bockland, esq., were to sit till the merits of the cause had 
been determined. No final order has been found ; but see the two 
following entries (Commons Journals) . 

9^ A previous WVit and Return, dated respectively 28 Jan. and 1 Feb., 
1672 — 3, were declared void by Order of the House, dated 6 Feb., 
1672 — 3 (Commons Journals). 

9'^ A previous Writ and Return, dated respectively 25 Jan. and 31 
Jan., 1672 — 3, were delared void by Order of the House, dated 6 Feb., 
1672 — 3 (Commons Journals). 

98 Sir Basil Firebrace, knt., was returned by an Indenture dated 9 
Dec, 1690. This election was petitioned against by Sir Humphrey 
Edwyn [knt.] and declared void by Order of the House, dated 1 Dec, 
1691. A new Writ was issued, and Sir Basil Firebrace, knt., was again 
returned. The Return was amended by Order of the House, dated 22 
Jan., 1691 — 2 ; the name of Sir Basil Firebrace, knt., was erased, and 
that of Thomas Talmach, esq., substituted (Commons Journals). 

99 Double Return. By Order of the House dated 29 March, 1690, 
Sir Thomas Fowles, knt., and Walter Grubbe, esq., were declared duly 
elected, and the Indenture by which Walter Grubb, esq., and John 
Methwen, esq., were returned was taken off the file. By further Order, 
dated 22 Dec, 1690, the Return was amended by erasing the name of 
Sir Thomas Fowles, knt., and substituting that of John Methwen, esq., 
(Commons Journals). 

100 Return amended by Order of the House, 17 March, 1698 — 9 ; the 
name of John Chetwind, esq., erased and that of Sir Henry Gough, knt., 

101 Return amended by Order of the House, 13 May, 1701. The 
name of Reynolds Calthorp, esq., erased, and that of George Morley, 
esq., substituted, 

102 Return amended by Order of the House, dated 1 Dec, 1702 ; the 
names of William Trenchard, esq., and Thomas Phipps, esq., erased, 
and those of Henry and Robert Bertie, esq., substituted. 

103 Return amended by Order of the House, dated 28 Nov., 1702 ; the 
name of George Boddington, esq., erased, and that of John Gauntlet, 
esq., substituted. 

104 Return amended by Order of the House of 22 Dec, 1707, the 
name of Tracy Pauncefort, esq., erased, and that of Nicholas Pollexfen 

105 Return amended by Order of 17 Jan., 1705 — 6; the name of 
Thomas Powell, esq., erased, and that of John Webb, esq., substituted. 

106 The name of John Fitzgerald Villars, Lord Viscount Grandison, 
was also returned in the Indenture as having received an equal number 
of votes with Mr. Mompesson. By Order of the House of 11 Dec, 1705, 

Transcribed by Canon F. H. Manley. 263 

the return was amended by erasing John Lord Viscount Grandison's 
name, and everything connected therein relating to him, 

107 Return amended by Order of the House dated 12 Feb., 1708, by 
erasing the name of Sir James Howe, bart., and substituting that of 
Reynolds Calthorpe, esq. 

i'^^ Double return ; the indenture by which George Duckett, esq., and 
Edward Bayntun, esq., were returned, was taken off the file by Order 
of the House, dated 2 Dec, 1710. 

109 Return amended by Order of the House, dated 17 Mar., 1710 — 11, 
by erasing the name of Joseph Ashe, esq., and substituting that of 
Francis Popham, jun. 

110 Double Return ; the indenture of which Josiah Diston, esq., and 
Paul Methuen, esq., were returned, was taken off the file by Order of 
the House, dated 16 Dec, 1710. 

111 Double Return ; the indenture by which Edmund Lambert, esq., 
and Reynold Calthorpe, esq., were returned, was taken off the file by 
Order of the House, dated 2 Dec, 1710. 

112 Return amended by Order of the House, dated 17 Mar., 1710—11, 
by erasing the name of John London, esq., and substituting that of 
Peter Bathurst, esq. 

11^ Return amended by Order of the House, dated 13 May, 1717, by 
erasing the name of Joshua Ward and substituting that of Gabriel 
Roberts, esq. 

11* Return amended by Order of the House, dated 1 June, 1715, by 
erasing the names of Willoughby Bertie, esq., and Francis Annesley, 
esq., and substituting those of George Lord Carbery, of the kingdom of 
Ireland and Charles Allanson, esq. Double Return. The Indenture by 
which George Evans, esq., and Charles Allanson, esq., were returned 
was taken off the file by Order of the House, dated 28 Mar., 1715. 

115 Return amended by Order of the House, dated 13 Dec, 1722, by 
erasing the names of Trevor Lord Viscount Hilsbo rough, in the kingdom 
of Ireland, and Sir John Rushout, bart., and substituting those of 
Giles 'Earle, esq., and John Fermor, esq. 

116 Return amended by Order of the House, dated 26 Mar., 1729, by 
erasing the name of George Legg, esq., commonly called Lord Lewisham 
and substituting that of William Sloper, esq. 

117 Return amended by Order of the House, dated 24 Dec, 1741, by 
erasing the name of Charles Gore, esq. 

118 Double Return. The Indenture by which Sir Edward Turner, 
bart., and William Scott, esq., were returned, was taken off the file by 
Order of the House, dated 15 Dec, 1747. 

119 Return amended by Order of the House, dated 16 Mar., 1747 — 8, 
by erasing the names of John Bance, esq., and Paul Methuen, esq., and 
substituting the names of Chauncery Townsend, esq., and Matthew 
Michell, esq. 

120 Three members having been returned for the city of Salisbury, 
the Return was amended by Order of the House, dated 26 Nov., 1754, 
by erasing the name of Edward Poore, esq. 

264 Representatives in Parliament from 1295 — 1832 for Wiltshire. 

1^1 Return amended by Order of the House, dated 10 Nov., 1768, by 
inserting the name of Stephen Fox, esq., in the indenture, whereby 
Edward Bouverie, esq., was returned, and taking off the file an indenture 
whereby Edward Bouverie, esq., Stephen Fox, esq., and Henry 
Dawkins, esq., were returned. 

122 Return amended by Order of the House, dated 14 Feb., 1775, by 
erasing the name of Thomas Duncombe, esq., and Thomas Dummer, 
esq., and substitutmg those of Sir Philip Hales, bart., and John 
Cooper, esq. 

123 Xwo Indentures, 

12^ Return amended by Order of the House, dated 4 April, 1785, by 
erasing the names of Robert Adamson, esq., and Charles Westley Coxe, 
esq., and substituting those of John Walker Heneage, esq., and Robert 
Nicholas, esq. 

125 Double Return ; by Order of the House, dated 19 July, 1784, that 
by which Henry Seymour Conway, esq., and Robert Shafto, esq., were 
returned, was ordered to be taken off the file ; the names of Edward 
Bouverie, esq., and William Scott, D.C.L., to be erased from the other, 
and the name of Robert Shafto, esq., to be inserted therein. 

126 Double Return ; by Order of the House, dated 11 Mar., 1785, that 
by which William Seymour Conway, esq., was returned was ordered to 
be taken off the file ; the name of Edward Bouverie, esq., to be erased 
from the other, and the name of William Seymour Conway, esq., to be 
inserted therein. 

127 Return amended by Order of the House, dated 28 March, 1803, 
by erasing the name of Charles Brooke, esq., and substituting that of 
John Maitland, esq. 

128 Return amended by Order of the House, dated 23 Feb., 1807 ; by 
erasing the name of Charles Brooke, esq., and substituting that of James 
Dawkins, esq. 

129 Return amended by Order of the House, dated 5 Feb., 1808 ; by 
erasing the name of William Blake, esq. 

The above Lists of M.Ps. for the County and Boroughs of Wilts are 
extracted from the general official Return of 1878, issued by order of 
Parliament, contained in four vols, and available for research in the 
British Museum. This gives the names of all those who have sat as 
M.Ps. from the earliest date at which records survive until the date of 
issue. F. H. Manley. 



A Saxoa Burial of the Pagan Period at Wood- 
bridge, North NewntOn. A burial of the Saxon pagan period 
was unearthed in May, 1935, in the course of road -widening at Woodbridge 
Inn, at the cross roads from Woodborough to Upavon and Pewsey to 
Rushall in the parish of North Newnton. The bank was being cut 
back on the south side of the road leading to Pewsey, at a distance of 
some 142ft. from the Inn door, when on the old chalk level 3ft. to 4ft. 
below the present surface, two skeletons were found. The grave was 
cut into from the east side and the lower limb bones were thrown out 
and scattered, the workmen only realising that it was a human burial 
when they came to the iron unibo or shield boss, which is said to have 
been resting on the chest of one of the skeletons, and the spearhead at 
the shoulder. Mr. A. D. Passmore who subsequently visited the site 
found a narrow ledge in the chalk, all that remained of the grave. It 
seems that the bodies had been buried with heads to the west, feet to 
the east, and must have lain very close together. 

At the west end of the grave there were a number of stones that 
appeared to have been blackened by lire, and ashes, but the bones show 
no trace of burning. 

Further along the bank towards Pewsey several dark patches were 
noticed, and in the field adjoining were seen oblong patches some 6ft. 
by 3ft., where the grass grew longer than elsewhere, that may perhaps 
mark the site of other graves. 

The iron spearhead is of the usual long narrow type with split socket ; 
the total length is 10| inches, the greatest width just above the junction 
of socket and blade is 1| inches ; the socket still shows traces of the 
wooden shaft. 

The iron spiked umbo or shield boss is of the high narrow type, 
3J inches in height to the tip of the spike, but perhaps originally 
slightly higher ; the boss is imperfect but its diameter at its lower outer 
edge was about 5| inches ; there are also three round flat rivet heads or 
studs of iron, one is broken but the two complete ones measure 
1^ inches in diameter ; they were doubtless connected with the wooden 

These objects have been placed in the Society's Museum at Devizes 
with the consent of the County Authorities. 

The Society is indebted to Mr. A. D. Passmore for visiting the site, 
and to his notes the above account is due. M. E. Cunnington. 

The remains of the two skeletons were badly broken and incomplete 
when they reached the Museum, but it was possible to partly reconstruct 
the two skulls and to mend some of the limb bones as recorded in Dr. 
Cave's report below. These bones have been placed on permanent loan 
in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 


266 Notes. 

Report on Human Remains from Woodbridge, North Newnton. 

By Dr. A. J. E. Cave, Assistant Conservator, (Royal College of Surgeons 

of England) . 

Submitted August, 1935, by Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. Referred on 
archaeological evidence to the Pagan Saxon period. 

Specimen No. 1. 

Cranium, mandible, humeri, radii, left scapula, right clavicle, and 
part of left innominate bone of an adult male subject, between thirty- 
five and fifty years of age. 

Skull long, narrow and dolichocephalic. Length, 196mm. ; 
approximate breadth, 142mm. ; minimal frontal diameter, 99mm. ; 
cephalic index, 72 or 73. 

Orbits with gently arched upper rims ; well marked supraciliary 
ridges, almost confluent at the glabella. Metopic suture present. 
Supra-inial portion of occiput bulges markedly as an " occipital boss." 
Characters of cranium suggest male. A right maxillary fragment carries 
teeth (lateral incisor to first molar inclusive) all showing considerable 
crown wearing, all well formed and healthy. An " edge-to-edge " bite 
is present. The mandible had a full complement of teeth at the time 
of death : these manifest considerable wearing, but no disease. The 
jaw suggests considerable masticatory activity and a good degree of 
development of the salivary glands. 

The pelvic fragment suggests a muscular and active male individual. 

Both humeri show a vigorous supracondylar ridge, stout deltoid 
eminence, and well developed tuberosities — all suggesting an active 
male. The radii accord with this. 

The clavicle shows evidence of extreme muscularity, bearing profound 
muscular markings which would indicate great vigour and usage of the 
shoulder and chest muscles (deltoid and pectorals) . 

N.B. — In form, length and configuration of the occiput, the cranium 
agrees more with Neolithic and Ancient British skulls than with the 
typical Saxon skull. 

Specimen No. 2. 

The incomplete skull together with the right clavicle and scapula of 
a young subject aged, roughly, 10 — 14 years, certainly not past the 
stage of puberty. Sex not evident. At the time of death all the per- 
manent teeth had erupted, save the four 3rd molars. All are well 
formed and quite healthy. Accurate measurements of the skull are 
precluded by its damaged condition. It is however mesaticephalic, 
having an (estimated) cephalic index of about 77. Its relative broad- 
ness, as compared with specimen No. 1 is probably explicable on grounds 
of immaturity alone, i.e., it still retains its infantile characters. A 

Notes. 267 

tendency towards the formation of an "occipital boss" is apparent, 
though not so marked as in the previous specimen. Beyond the fact 
that it shows no evidence of injury or disease, this cranium is necessarily 
uninformative. ' A. J. E. Cave, 

20th August, 1935. 

Note on a burial at Amesbury. in December, 1932, 

while planting trees on the northern side of the house named 
"Woodhenge" in the occupation of Mr. Pritchard, of Totterdown, 
Amesbury, the remains of a human skeleton were found ; it seems to 
have been crouched with head to south, and to have lain in a roughly 
circular cist or grave dug into the chalk, about 18 inches deep and 4ft. 
in diameter. The bones were very fragmentary and incomplete, in- 
cluding only a few pieces of skull and no lower jaw. Amongst the soil 
thrown out of the grave were four sherds of plain coarse pottery, in- 
cluding one rim piece, freely mixed with broken flint and very similar 
to pottery found in the excavation of the circles at Woodhenge. While 
^his does not necessarily mean that the burial is of the same period as 
the circles, it was certainly prehistoric and may have been under a 
ploughed-out barrow. A very modern looking bluish glass bead was 
also in soil said to have been thrown out of the grave ; it was sent to 
Mr. Harold Beck, who confirms it being of modern manufacture and 
similar to beads imported before the war from France and Bohemia ; it 
had no doubt been lying in the surface soil somewhere near the grave. 
The site of the burial is about a quarter of a mile south of Woodhenge. 


Blue Stone from Boles Barrow, it is recorded in the 

Magazine (xli, 172; xlii, 431), that the blue stone taken from Boles 
Barrow w^as then (1924) in the garden of Heytesbury House at Heytes- 
bury. It was hoped to schedule this stone for preservation under the 
Ancient Monuments Act, but this was found to be impracticable. In 
1934, therefore, when the house changed hands, it was thought desirable 
to remove the stone to the South Wilts and Blackmore Museum at 
Salisbury, where its preservation is ensured. 

It is as well to take this opportunity of recording that a sarsen stone, 
also believed to have come from Boles Barrow, in size some 3ft. by 2^ft. 
by I ft., that was taken in 1924 from the garden of William Cunnington's 
house at Heytesbury to the garden of 33, Long Street, Devizes, was at 
the same time deposited in the Museum at Salisbury. 


Interment at Tilshead. The local papers of March, 1897, 
noticed very shortly the fact that a skeleton was found by a man, Rolfe 
Kyte, whilst digging in a chalkpit near the village. 

The Rev. C. V. Goddard, then Vicar of Shrewton, wrote at the time 
the following MS. note after visiting the spot : — 

" Kyte in enlarging the pit to the East struck his pick into the skull. 
Then on trying to remove the earth and stones brought up the leg bones. 

T 2 

268 Notes. 

The bones were covered with very large flints. They lay in a hole 
about 1 foot 6 inches deep, 2 feet 6 inches long and 1 foot 6 inches wide. 
I could find, when I visited the place soon after, no trace of pottery, 
coins or flint flakes. The skull was quite thin and the sutures had 
come apart ; the teeth were good, as of a young person. The skull and 
bones were small and all broken, probably by the flints on top of them. 
Kyte said the legs were drawn up and apparently above the body as he 
unexpectedly picked them up before the back bone. An arm lay across 
the body." 

The Skeleton found in the wall of Purton Church. 

The Swindon Advertiser, of Nov. 4th, 1872, contained an account 
(probably written by the Editor, Will. Morris, of Swindon) of the work 
of the restoration of Purton Church in 1872. In this article the follow- 
ing passage occurs. 

" The most remarkable discovery was that of an adult skeleton 
in a most unexpected position, and under somewhat peculiar 
circumstances. In the angle formed by the N. transept and the 
chancel there is a room or chapel. At some time or another, but 
when there appears no record to show, the entrances to this chapel 
were closed up. In course of the restoration these entrances were 
re-opened, the stonework on the west or north transept side being 
taken away and a low oak screen substituted. On the south or 
chancel side, a doorway was discovered of plain Saxon workman- 
ship, which would seem to have been the entrance to the chapel 
from the Church. This doorway however has been again closed, 
and an entrance in the north wall substituted, it being intended to 
use the chapel in future as a vestry. When the workmen were 
engaged in " pinning " the end of the east wall of this chapel into 
the chancel wall they discovered the wall to be hollow about four 
feet from the floor, and on opening the wall they found the skeleton 
aboA^e referred to lying at full length, the head and shoulders lying 
in a cavity cut out in the chancel wall, the remainder of the body 
being in the chapel wall. The cavities in the wall had evidently 
been specially prepared for the reception of the body, and when it 
had been deposited in the position intended for it, the face of the 
w^all was built up and no doubt remained undisturbed until found 
the other day in the manner described. Who was the person buried 
in this singular manner, and for what purpose was this part of the 
Church intended, are questions we cannot attempt to answer, but 
about which we may speculate. Was the building a reclusorium 
and the female a recluse ? We think it more than probable, and 
further that the recess in which the head lay was the outlook 
through which a view of the altar was obtained in the chancel." 
The writer then gives a number of instances of female recluses enclosed 
in ankerholds mentioned in Mediaeval writings, and continues : — 

"Originally there were two windows in it (the chapel), as now, 
one looking west and the other north, a low archway opening the 

Notes. 269 

room to the N. transept. Whea "the room was closed both the 

windows and the archway were so completely and effectively filled 

up that all traces of these were lost and nothing but the dead blank 

walls were left to the eye. Over this room there was a second 

chamber, ascended by an incline rather than by stairs, the whole 

being covered by a heavy stone roof ; the structure of the work 

generally indicates great strength, and such as would be used in a 

place of great security. In the upper chamber the birds used to 

build their nests, and the boys of the village appear to have felt 

no hesitation in getting in there for the purpose of robbing the 

• nests, but they never ventured to enter the lower chamber. There 

was a vague understanding that it was a place not to be entered, 

but why or wherefore no one seemed to know. The tradition had 

been handed down from father to son that the place was not to be 

entered, and that was all. But there was a reason for this, and it 

is supposed to have been known to the late Vicar, the Rev. Canon 

Prower, for some thirty or forty years ago, when it was suggested 

to him that the room should be put in order, and adapted for the 

purpose of a robing room, he requested that reference would not 

be again made to the place, that its history bore some reference 

to a former Vicar, and that a ' dark deed ' had been committed there. 

' Was a female recluse murdered in that room, and was her body 

secretly disposed of in the wall ? ' " 

The following account of the discovery and of the objects found with 

the skeleton was given to me in a letter dated 20th March, 1894, by 

Mr. J. Elton Prower, son of Major Prower, of Purton. A man named 

Skinner, alias Kennett, of Purton, told him [civ. 1875) that all the 

^' finds " during the restoration were taken away by the workmen. 

"There were a lot of images made of brass, but I think they were 
found in or about the spire. In the recess where the bones were found 
was a complete skeleton, also a large dagger with the blade broken . . . 
also a sword — also some parchments (these last Mr. Prower was uncer- 
tain about). The other objects were taken away by the workmen, and 
have disappeared ; the sword however remained in the possession of a 
man at Braydon." Mr. Prower called on his wife. " The cupboard was 
open, and there was the sword inside." She confessed that her husband 
had taken it away from the Church. Mr. Prower paid a second visit to 
the cottage and bought the sword for 10s. and it remained hanging up in 
in the Hall at " Sissels," in Purton, for many years, being eventually given 
back to the Church where it is now preserved. " A medical expert " (one 
account says " the Rev. Mitchell," who had been Chaplain at St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, whilst another says that it was Dr. Waldegrave, 
of Purton) declared that the skeleton was that of a female. Forthwith 
the female became a Nun immured alive for her misbehaviour in the 
wall of the Church, and Mr. C. J. Langston breaks into verse in the 
Argosy of Nov. (?), 1893, entitled " Lines on a Nun immured in Purton 
Church, Wilts, whose skeleton was discovered in 1872." His last stanza 
begins : — 

270 Notes. 

" Four hundred years — her bones are white, 

Mute witness of barbaric creed, &c., &c." 

Whilst a footnote tells us that "Chicken bones and remnants of food, 

evidently passed in to her after having been walled up were discovered." 

The chicken bones are a later addition to the legend. 

The sword has a narrow blade with only one cutting edge, with a 
basket hilt, basket and pommel being damascened with silver. Mrs. 
Prower, widow of Major Prower, writing in 1894, says " A north window 
filled in with stone and almost hidden by ivy was apparent and when 
the stones were taken out the frame was found to have thickly-set iron 
bars. ... A small staircase led up to a tiny low room above, just 
room perhaps for a pallet. The skeleton and weapons were in the wall 
at the foot of the staircase. 

Unfortunately this story was unknown to Mr. Pouting who drew up 
the account of Purton Church in W.A.M., xxiii, 229 — 37. He wrote 
subsequently, " I believe this chamber to have been built for a Sacristy 
and it is not improbable there was a squint in the direction of the altar, 
into which the head and shoulders of the corpse were thrust." If the 
skeleton really was that of a female what was a post-Reformation sword 
doing in her grave ? Was this sword really found in the wall at all ? 

There seems to have been no account by any reliable eye witness of 
its finding, or any report of it until some time after the restoration was 
finished, and even then only by a man who was drunk when he told 
Mr. Elton Prower. E. H. Goddard. 

The Byam Family by Gainsborough. The Times of 

31st January, 1935, contained a notice of this picture exhibited for the 
first time on loan at the Tate Gallery. The Illustrated London News of 
February 3rd gave a full page illustration of it, and quotes an article 
on it in Apollo by Mr. R. R. Tatlock. " The portraits are those of the 
Byam family of Apse Court, Surrey. The male figure is that of George 
Byam ; the lady is Louisa, his wife, daughter of Peter Bathurst, of 
Clarendon Park, Salisbury ; and the little girl is Selina, their daughter. 
She afterwards married the Rev. William Hony, of Liskeard, Cornwall." 
She was the great grandmother of the present owner of the picture, Mr. 
Henry C. Hony, of Hallam, Ogbourne, where for some years past the 
picture has hung. According to family tradition the picture was 
painted at Eastwell, in Potterne, where Louisa died. Its date is fixed 
by the age of the child at 1763 or 4. The picture was recently cleaned 
and ' ' is now in perfect condition and it is an admirable example of the 
artist at a period earlier than that of his famous portrait groups of a 
similar kind." 

The Expenses of a "West Laving^ton Voter in the 
Dorset Election, October, 1831. Amongst deeds and 

papers recently given to the society by Miss Eyre Matcham were a 
number of letters to and from Messrs. Tinney & Cobb, Solicitors, 
Salisbury, m.any of them relating to the Dorset election of October, 
1831, in which Lord Ashley w^as the successful candidate after a long 

Notes. 271 

and strenuous contest, during which Dorset freeholders Hving in 
Wiltshire were shepherded to Dorchester with the utmost diligence. 
These papers, as concerned primarily with Dorset have been handed 
over to the Dorchester Museum, but the account rendered by Mr. 
Richard H. Rigden, apparently of West Lavington, and paid by Messrs. 
Tinney & Cobb, seems worth printing as an example of the legitimate 
expenses of an election at that date. 

" Proceded to the election at Dorchester to vote for my Lord Ashley 
on Friday, Oct. 7th, at 11 o'clock in the morning. 

£ s. d. 

Chaise from Lavington to Sarum, 18 miles 17 

Driver do. 3 

Refreshm* at Sarum to Dinner, &c. 6 6 

Magnet Coach to Dorchester 18 

Driver do. 1 

Negus & Biscuits for Supper 18 
Private Bed at Mr. Davies a Clergyman 

Breakfast at the King's Arms, Saturday mor^ 2 

Dinner at do. 5 6 

My Lord Ashley's success in a pint of Wine 3 

By the Mail Coach back to Salisbury 110 

Sandwich for Supper at Sarum 9 

Beer do. 10 

Light 6 

Bed 2 

Breakfast 2 

At the Black Horse, Dinner, Beer, Wine 5 10 

By the Devizes Mail Homeward 8 

Driver 10 

A True Acct. 5 9 9 
J. Williams, Clk." 

A Case of Penance for Slander at Maiden Bradley, 

X81 1. Among a large number of old papers and documents given to 
the Society by Miss Eyre Matcham was a Letter Book of Mr. Tinney, 
Solicitor, Salisbury, dated 1811. In this book occur the following 
copies of letters written by him, apparently in reference to a case of 
ecclesiastical penance for slander enforced in 1811 : — 

" May 27, 1811. To Mr. Wm. Marley, Maiden Bradley. 
On ace* of the absence of Bush in the Local Militia 1 delay to 
send the penance to the Clergyman till after his return. When he 
reads it in the Vestry Ann Hopkins will take care that her friends 
& relations are all present. I shall send it next Monday & it ought 
to be performed on the Sunday after. I hope to make him pay the 
costs or at least some of them & certainly will make him pay them 
all if he do not deport himself very well & 1 shall write to him to 
that effect." 

272 Notes. 

" June 7, 1811. To the Rev. the officiating Minister of Maiden 

I enclose a penance to be performed by W™ Bush of your parish, 
Blacksmith, before you & the Churchwardens in the presence of 
Ann Hopkins & of such of her friends as she shall choose to be 
present on some Sunday intervening between this day & the 22^ 
of June next, immediately after Divine Service. I am to request 
that you appoint the parties to attend you on some Sunday as 
ordained by the Judge, & you will be so good as to send me notice 
of your appointment to Ann Hopkins & to W" Bush. 

The penance is to be afterwards returned to the Registrar of the 
Lord Bishop of Sarum." 

" June 24th, 1811. To Mr. W™ Bush, Maiden Bradley. 

I find that the penance enjoined for your slander of Ann Hopkins 
is performed. You are aware that the costs of the suit which you 
are decreed to pay amount to seven guineas. I certainly shall not 
be severe to press for immediate payment. I expect that you 
shew your desire to do your duty by remitting to me the largest 
sum in your power without delay. And my conduct towards you 
will depend on the amount of that remittance and your future 
[There is no record of the precise form of the penance. — Ed. H. 


The Will of Thomas Iiambert, Canon of Salisbury 

and Archdeacon of Wilts, 1674. E. Reg^ Curiae Prerogat. 
Cantuar. Extract. In the name of the Blessed and Glorious Trin^ Amen. 
I Thomas Lambert by the mercy of Jesus Christ and the calling of the 
Church of England Priest (being at this time in good and perfect 
understanding) praised be God therefore doe hereby make this my last 
Will and Testament in manner and forme following ffirst I bequeath 
my soul into the hands of my gracious God with my most humble 
thanks for that degree of assurance he has imprinted in me by his Blessed 
Spirit of my Eternal Salvation in and through the meritts and sattisfac- 
tion of my only Saviour and blessed Redeemer Jesus Christ and I 
profess my steadfast and constant resolution to live and dye in the 
Religion now professed and by law established in the Church of England 
and in expectation of a blessed and happy resurrection I desire my 
body may be buried in the Cathedral Church of Sarum in the decent 
manner as my brethren the Residentiaries of this Church used to be in 
that place my Executor shall think fitt and this my last Will and 
Testament made in the fear of God and in perfect love and Charity 
with all the world whose pardon I humbly begg and with my heart 
forgive as I expect for Christ's sake to be forgiven is written with my 
own hand and my name subscribed thereunto. Imprimis I give to my 
dear and loveing wife Mrs. Anne Lambert for her great and tender care 
and love she has shewn to me and mine the siime of two hundred pounds 
in Gold. Item for the better Assurance and secureing to her the eight 

Notes. 273 

hjindred pounds I had with her in marriage I doe declare it to be her 
owne and upon our agreement in marriage I was only to have the use 
of it for my life and after my decease I promised it should be returned 
to her as her own proper money though the bonds and mortgages are 
taken in my name but are now in her hands and keeping (viz) the 
mortgage of Mrs. Susannah Dove widow for five hundred pounds one 
mortgage for one hundred and twenty pounds of Alice Dyer widow of 
Corton in the County of Wilts as alsoe two bonds of one hundred pounds 
apeice of my cousin Edmund Lambert son to Thomas Lambert all which 
amounts to the summe of eight hundred pounds and therefore I charge 
my Executor on my blessing not to trouble her in any wise 
but see it faithfully and truely performed but the mortgage of 
Alice Dyer widow I desire my Executor may have in his hands 
(for reasons I have acquainted him with) , paying to my dear wife 
Mrs. Anne Lambert one hundred pounds instead thereof Item I give 
to my daughter Lambert my Coach and paire of Horses Item I give 
to Mrs. Anne Reyas (?) six pound Item I give to Mrs. Jane Bayly six 
pound Item I give to every one of my Household servants that shall 
be liveing with me at the time of my decease twenty shillings apeice 
Item I give to my Sister Cole (?) a gold ring of twenty shillings Item I 
give to my brother John Lambert . . gold Ring .... Item I give 
to my cousin Tho. Lambert Esq. the sume of five pound to buy him a 
peice of plate Item I order my Executor to give a Dole of 6d. apeice 
to two hundred poor people of the citty of New Sarum I desire my 
Executor to give to the rest of the nearest of my kindred such Rings 
as he shall see fitt Item I give to the poor of the parish of Boyton and 
Corton the sume of twenty pounds to be improved (?) for their Benefitt 
according to the Direccon of my loveing Cousin Tho. Lambert Esqre. 

and his heires and the minister of parish for the time 

being and the profitts thence ariseing to be distributed yearly among 
the poor on every Easter Monday Item I give to the poor of my Parish 
of Sherington the sume of twenty pounds to be imployed for the 
advantage of the said poor according to the direccon of my loveing 
Cousin Tho. Lambert Esqr. and his heires successively and the Minister 
of the said Parish for the time being and the profitts thence ariseing to 
be by them distributed yearly among the poor of the said Parish on 
every Easter Munday Item I give to Mrs. Anne Coleman widow one 
Gold Ring of twenty shillings Item ten pounds to the ffabric of the 
Cathedral Church of Sarum all other my Goods and Chattells together 
with my leasehold of two yard lands and one yard land of freeland 
called Cantelow lyeing in Corton in the County of Wilts with all my 
Bonds Mortgages and Bills I give and bequeath to my loveing son Tho. 
Lambert whom I make the full and whole Executor of this my last 
Will and Testament to which I have here sett my hand and seale the 
one and thirtieth day of Jai. 1690/1691 Tho. Lambert declared and 
published to be my last Will and Testament in the presence of Richard 
Kent Tho. Haskett. [Proved 5 April, 1695]. 

[The above is printed from a copy of the will amongst a number of 

274 Notes. 

papers recently given to the Society by Miss Eyre Matcham. Thomas 
Lambert, Rector of Boyton and Sherrington, became Canon Residentiary 
of Sahsbury in 1666 and Archdeacon of Sarum in 1674. He died 
Dec. 29th, 1694, aged 78, and was described on his tombstone in the 
Cathedral as having been Domestic Chaplain at Salisbury to King 
Charles II in 1667J. 

Sheriff's Javelin Men and their Javelins, in the 

Wiltshire Gazette, 15th Nov., 1934, Capt. B. H. Cunnington has a short 
but interesting article on this subject. Javelin men were originally a 
body of yeomen retained by the sheriff as an escort and bodyguard 
for the safety of the Judge of Assize. An act of Ch. II's reign relieved 
the sheriff from the burden of keeping more than 40 javelin men ! and 
they were finally abolished by the act of 1859 — 60 which allowed the 
use of police in their place. This bill was brought in by Mr. Darby 
Griffith, M.P. for Devizes, in 1860. When Robert Parry Nesbit, of South- 
broom House, M.P. for Chippenham, 1856, was sheriff in 1849, he had 
19 javelin men (whose names are given), dressed in drab trousers and 
coats, red waistcoats and high silk hats with gold bands. They were 
paid 5s. a day with expenses. In 1855 when Simon Watson-Taylor was 
sheriff the same men were employed, but wore plum-coloured livery, 
with silver buttons bearing the sheriff's crest, and a silver band round 
their hats. The javelins used by Mr. Nesbit in 1849 were sold many 
years ago and bought by the late Mr. Henry Cunnington who presented 
them to the Museum. They are illustrated in this article, as also are 
the set used by George Heneage Walker Heneage of Compton Bassett, 
sheriff in 1829. These were bought at the sale of the contents of 
Compton House by Mr. C. E. Neate, of Devizes, in whose possession 
they still are. Both these sets have spear heads with tassels below the 
head. The large set of twenty, also illustrated was recently given to 
the Museum by Mr. J . Porter Faussett, of Littlefields, Moor Park, Herts, 
together with the sheriff's coach now placed in the Barton Barn at 
Bradford-on-Avon. These are halberds, not spears. The coach belonged 
to Sir Ralph Ludlow Lopes, of Hey wood, who was sheriff in 1869, but 
his escort consisted of police. Whether the halberds were used on 
this occasion, or on either of the previous occasions when Abraham 
Ludlow, of Heywood, was sheriff in 1810, or when his son, Henry 
Gaisford Gibbs Ludlow, held the office in 1850, does not seem clear. 
Both the coach and halberds were removed from Heywood to East Hill, 
Frome, an estate of the Porter family, after the death of the first Lord 
Ludlow of Heywood. 

Miniature of Jane Seymour by Wenceslaus Hollar. 

The Connoisseur, Dec. 1934, p. 385, illustrates a miniature which was 
formerly in the possession of the Howard family and has lately come 
into that of Dr. G. C. Williamson, who describes it as obviously of Jane 
Seymour, upon the back of which is this inscription : — " Jane Seymour 
Queene — Johanna Seymour Regina Anglise — W. Hollar pinxit post 

Notes. 275 

Holbeinium ex Collectione Arundeliarum." Lord Arundel met Hollar 
in Cologne and brought him back to England in 1637. He engraved 
many plates from pictures in Lord Arundel's collection. 

Potterne 1850—1900, by T. Smith. Copied from 
the original notes by Mr. Smith with illustrations 

by W. R. Smith. llin. x 8in., pp. 118. This note book was 
left by the will of Joshua Smith, who died Nov. 29th, 1934, to the 
Society's Library. It is beautifully written in a sort of copper plate 
and is illustrated by 18 good pen drawings of buildings and views in 
Potterne, and portraits of old Potterne worthies. The diary was written 
in 1921 and was given by the writer to his brother, " Josh " Smith, who 
bequeathed it to the Society's Library. The writer disclaims any 
literary ability and says of the book — " It is just a repository of facts 
of an interesting character in an interesting village." 

It is not in any sense a history of the place. No buildings are 
described, no landowners or family connections are mentioned. The 
writer was a Wesleyan and the religious life of the village occupies a 
considerable portion of his reminiscences, written somewhat from the 
Puritan and Wesleyan point of view, in which the Chapel and the 
United Sunday School are more in evidence than the parish Church and 
its organisations. There is however no undue bias shown, but he is 
obviously inclined to think that the Church counted for more in the 
spiritual life of the parish in the old days when the Revered Mr. 
Meddhcott was Vicar before the Church was restored, and new-fangled 
notions were introduced, when the line between Church and Dissent 
was less distinctly drawn than it is in modern days He, how^ever, 
freely acknowledges the enormous advance in many ways during the 
last 60 years in the general welfare of the people. 

The " Lanes " in Potterne were " Saddleback," " Broad," " Limers," 
" Lyes," " Folly," " New," " Coxhill," " Kitmer," " Pump," " Rooks," 
" Franklin's," " Pounds," and " Five Lanes." 

"The "Shoots" or steep entrances or exits were " Waylands," 
" Barbone," and " Chilsbury." One end of the village was " Butts," 
the other "Wick." The streets were "The Street," "Duck St.," 
"Lower St.," and "Silver St." The springs were "Sugar Well," 
" Horse Well," " Wick Well," " Grubs Shrub Well," and " Bottomless 
Well." There were six public houses, " The Bell " at the Butts, " The 
Crown " in Crown Place, " The Upper Organ " at School Corner, " The 
Middle Organ" now "The King's Arms," "The George," and 
" Colemans," at Little End. Of these three had skittle alleys. Skittles 
indeed in those days was the chief pastime, allied with drinking and 
gambling for beer. There were six mills, two at Drew's Pond, at 
Rangebourne, at Five Lanes, at Whistley (The Snuff Mill), and 
Holloway's Mill. There were four bootmakers, three tailors, two 
blacksmiths, three carpenters, and a bricklayer family. The Wesleyans 
had a Chapel in Coxey Lane which flourished for many years but was 
closed during the Great War. Miss Wogan's Academy, a private school 

27(3 Notes. 

in a cottage opposite the Porch House, for those who could afford to 
pay Is. a week is mentioned as doing good work. Potterne in those 
days had a bad name for hoohganism, and " Potterne Lambs " were 
proverbial for mischief ; they were said to excel in work, drinking, and 
fighting. A good deal is said of the work of the temperance societies 
in this respect. The ordinary wages were for men fromi 9s. to 10s. a 
week, for women 8d. a day, for boys and girls who went to work when 
eight or ten years old from Is. to Is. 6d. a week. The many charities 
now amalgamated provided amongst other things fawn greatcoats for 
six old men, and red cloaks for six old women, for whom there were two 
separate galleries in the Church before the restoration. The Church 
bellringers seem to have been held in the lowest esteem. John Lipit 
was the foreman, and "Lipit's Gang" was the synonym for all that 
was disreputable. In the way of games, football was unknown, cricket 
was only played occasionally, bandy and rounders were popular, in 
addition to skittles, and also " chivvy." The Whit-Monday Club 
Festival was the great day in the year, and the proceedings are described 
very fully, as well as those at Potterne " Veast." 

The " The Little Tree " {not the " One Tree ") was planted in 1815 
by Gen. Hunt Grubbe to commemorate the battle of Waterloo. The 
spring, ".Pitchers and Pans," in the wood between Nine Hills and the 
Asylum supplied christening water in the old days, especially among 
Wesleyans, not for any " superstition " but for " sentimental reasons." 
Altogether these notes are written from a quite unusual point of view, 
and for that reason are the more valuable. 

The Cartulary of Lewes Priory. Portions of this 

cartulary, now in the British Museum, relating to other counties have 
been printed, and it was suggested that our Society should print the 
portion relating to Wiltshire. The matter was discussed by the 
committee, but in view of the small amount of new information 
contained in the Wiltshire portion of the cartulary, it was thought that 
it would not be worth spending the considerable sum necessary to print 
it. Mr. George Kidston, of Hazelbury, however, very kindly offered 
to procure and present to the Society's Library a set of photostats of 
that portion of the cartulary connected with Wiltshire, and this he has 
done, together with a rough MS. transcription by himself of the greater 
part of the MS. This has been bound up together in one volume and 
placed in the Library. Mr. Kidston reports as follows : — " The 
documents, as was to be expected, deal mostly with the Priory of 
Monkton Farleigh and chiefly with endless disputes between the Prior 
of Lewes, the Earls of Hereford, and the monks of Monkton Farleigh 
as to the right of appointment of the Prior of Monkton Farleigh ; but 
the churches of Winterbourne Basset and of a place which I read as 
Canberga, and have not been able to identify, seem to have been 
granted direct to the Mother House of Lewes and not to the Priory of 
Monkton Farleigh. The only document of really special interest, in 
my view, is the Confirmatory Charter of Humphrey de Bohun HI, 

Notes. 277 

confirming the grants of his family and others of land, etc., to Monkton 
Farleigh Priory. . . . This was well known to Canon Jackson, who 
has made use of it in his article on Monkton Farleigh Priory {W.A.M., 
iv, 267)." There are 20 sheets of photostats representing 38 pages of the 

CalstOUe CllUrch. Two mediaeval sepulchral slabs are illus- 
trated in The Wiltshire Gazette, Aipril 11th. 1935. One is a coffin slab 
with incised cross found built into the foundations of the south porch, 
when this was underpinned some years ago, and now placed in the tower. 
The other is of a less common character, the upper half of a sepulchral 
slab with indents for the brass lombardic letters of an inscription in 
Norman French round the slab, and down the centre the indent of a 
cross, probably of the 13th century. " Ici git " is legible but the name 
is chiefly on the missing half of the stone. This stone lies in the floor 
under the altar. 

Oyster Shells used in Masonry of the 13th Century 

in Salisbury Cathedral. A new door has been cut through 
the wall of the north choir aisle of Salisbury Cathedral, opposite the 
Audley Chantry. It was formally opened for use on Feb. 2nd, 1935. 
Mr. H. Messenger, Diocesan Surveyor, writes that he asked the masons 
employed in cutting through the wall whether they had found any 
oyster shells, and they at once produced one. " That part of the 
Cathedral cannot be later than 1230 or so. The shell is very flat, not 
like the coarse shells 1 got from the top of the spire some years ago, or 
those in the walls of the Harnham gate of the Close. And here is an 
interesting detail, the shells were in the vertical joints only. I always 
thought shells were used in the beds, to even up the courses and save 
the mason's labour in making two fair faces, but I do not see the object 
in putting shells in the vertical joints of such wonderfully exact masonry 
as that in our Cathedral. The shells were well in from the face, so that 
their presence was not suspected from the outside. The interest of the 
discovery lies in the fact that, following the contention of the late Mr, 
C. E. Pouting, it had been commonly held that oyster shells were never 
used in this way in buildings earlier than the 14th century. Here 
however is work, as to the date of which there can be no doubt, in 
which they are found to have been used before the middle of the 
13th century." 

ThePreservationofAvebury and its Surroundings. 

The Times of May 31st, 1935 contained an article by the Rt. Hon. W. 
Ormsby Gore, M.P., First Commissioner of Works, which was accom- 
panied by a short leading article, and was reprinted at length in the 
Wiltshire Gazette of June 6th, 1935. The article begins thus : — 

278 Notes. 

"Out of the 4,000 scheduled monuments I would select two as 
being of outstanding international as well as national importance, 
namely, Avebury and Hadrians Wall. It is my hope that with the 
co-operation of the local landowners and public authorities and the 
generosity of interested bodies, these monuments, which have 
suffered all too severely from neglect and vandalism in past 
centuries, may be preserved without further damage by the carry- 
ing out of schemes to secure them for all time, and to enable such 
further archaeological research as is clearly needful to proceed." 
The writer goes on to describe Avebury as it exists to-day. "The 
largest megalithic circle in the world." . . "Can any date yet 
be assigned to the Avebury complex or any of its various parts ? 
Within broad limits it can. The megalithic avenue and the circle 
almost certainly belong to the end of this period (2250 — 1750 B.C.), 
namely to the period of the dominance of the Beaker folk 
when they were still in the Neolithic stage of culture before the 
earliest use of copper or bronze had become known to them. No 
metal of any kind has been found associated with other evidences 
of ' Beaker ' culture at Avebury. . . . They had dogs and 
cattle (including the domesticated bos primigenius) , pigs, goats, and 
sheep, but no horses . . . they obtained by trade axes of 
' foreign stone ' from as far away as Craig Llwyd (near Penmaen- 
mawr in N. Wales, and even imported from the Niedermendig lava 
beds of the Rhine. Burials of the ' Beaker ' people were found last 
summer in specific association with the erection of megaliths in the 
avenue. Implements of this ' Beaker ' culture have also been found 
at the higher levels in the causewayed camp on Windmill Hill. On 
Windmill Hill the strata immediately below evidences of the 
' beaker ' folk's occupation yielded abundance of coarse elaborately 
ornamented pottery bowls with a very distinct neck and significant 
' shoulder ' similar to what is called Peterborough ware. 
At Avebury this culture is known as ' Neolithic B.' Probably, but 
again not certainly the long barrows of the Avebury complex belong 
to it. . . . But the earliest and from the Windmill Hill strati- 
fication the largest occupation of the area would seem to have been 
an even earlier culture . . . now known as the ' Windmill 
Hill ' culture or ' Neolithic A.' Two of its features were the use of 
' leaf-shaped ' arrowheads and a peculiar type of fine, smooth, 
unornamented, round-bottomed pottery, apparently imitating the 
forms of leather vessels." 
The writer goes on to say that, in accordance with Mr. Keiller's view, 
the stones of the avenue uncovered last year proved that contrary to 
the hitherto accepted belief the stones were really roughly shaped and 
faced before erection. The article concludes thus: — "The Office of 
Works to-dav has effective guardianship only over Silbury Hill, the 
West Kennet long barrow, and, thanks to the initiation and 
generosity of Captain Cunnington, the Sanctuary on Overton Hill, 
The visible megalithic stones are scheduled and cannot be interfered 

Notes. 279 

with without the approval of the Office of Works, but the remainder 
of the Avebury complex is in the private ownership of a number 
of small landowners. If this supremely important archaeological 
area is to be adequately safeguarded as it should be, a scheme under 
the town and county planning act is essential ... of all such 
schemes the Avebury scheme, in my opinion, has priority from an 
archaeological standpoint. The site is unique, not only in Britain 
but in Europe, and it is important that the work of conservation 
and scientific investigation should proceed without further delay." 

Early Telephones of Wiltshire Make. Capt. B. H. 

Cunnington had an extremely interesting article in the Wiltshire Gazette, 
July 6th, 1933. 

" In 1877 the late Alfred Cunnington (eldest son of the late Henry 
Cunnington of Devizes) constructed a set of telephones from sketches 
and descriptions published in The Scientific American. These were 
fitted up in the Old Town Hall, Devizes, between the ground floor and 
the cellars. The following year Mr. Cunnington worked on improved 
types of instruments, and early in 1870 he began the work of connecting 
the Old Town Hall with Southgate House, then the residence of his 
family. He did not live to see the completion of his work, as he died 
the end of April that year. His brothers carried on the construction, 
and thus, in the summer of that year, was installed in Devizes what in 
all probability was the first telephone put up for practical purposes in 
England. It is true there was a telephone in that popular home of 
science, the Polytechnic, in London, but it was used only for demon- 
stration purposes. These very early telephones, which are here 
illustrated, were given by Alfred Cunnington to the late Mr. Charles 
Clarke. ... In a letter written in March, 1905, he says — " Shortly 
after Mr. Cunnington had set up his first telephones he discarded these 
earlier instruments for others he made of an improved pattern, and 
those discarded — and in every probability the first that were ever used 
— were acquired by myself and are still in my possession. One, a 
double instrument for both ears, still has the original roughly-covered 
wires attached to it. These early instruments I had in use myself 
between my place of business in Devizes and the house of a friend only 
two doors away." 

They were in use until the National Telephone Company obtained 
exclusive rights about 1883, and Capt. Cunnington describes how they 
were hastily dismantled under a threat of pains and penalties by that 
company. They were however used again during the war at Bourne- 
mouth as a means of communication between the Provost Marshal 
(Capt. Cunnington) and his clerks. They were exhibited at a scientific 
soiree in the Town Hall, Devizes, in 1879, and again about 1900 at 
Edison's exhibition of electrical appliances in London. They were 
given by Mr. Clarke to Capt. Cunnington who has now placed them on 
permanent loan in the Scientific Museum, South Kensington. 

280 Notes. 

The Arms of Mrs. Anne Earle, of Harpeuden, 

Herts. Amongst the memorials in Harpenden Church, Herts., is one 
to Anne, widow of Wilham Earle, of Malmesbury, who died 1776, 
aged 33. It bears a shield of arms of six quarterings. Cussans 
in his History of Herts describes these quarterings rather incorrectly 
it seems, as the monument was and still is placed on the south wall of 
the tower, too high for easy inspection ; but he does not attempt to 
identify them. A consultation of Burke's General Armory in 
conjunction with Papworth's Dictionary of Coats of Arms, reveals the 
negative fact that none of the quarterings represent the Earle Arms. 
Hence, the positive deduction was that they represent the lady's family 
arms. It was therefore necessary to find her maiden name, with the 
sole clue that her husband was a Malmesbury man. As a result of a 
search through the indexes of the Wiltshire Archcsological Magazine the 
lady's name was found to be Estcourt, and a reference there to 
Wiltshire Notes and Queries, viii, 433, produced, in an article on Burton 
Hill House and its Owners, considerable information about the lady and 
her husband. He was William Earle, a widower when she married 
him in 1766, and son of a former incumbent of Malmesbury. Apparently 
he was not armigerous, but the lady made up for this deficiency, as she 
herself was daughter and heiress of Edmund Estcourt, of Shipton Moyne, 
Gloucestershire, and her mother was Anna Maria, daughter and coheiress 
of Charles Yate, of Colthrop, in Standish, Gloucestershire. 

The Visitations of Gloucester, 1623 (Harleian Society's Publications, 
xxi), and 1682 (Fenwick and Metcalfe, 1884), together with F. Were's 
Heraldry of Gloucestershire [In Bristol and Gloucestershire ArchcBological 
Society's Transactions, vol, xxviii), thereupon supplied all the information 
necessary to complete the identification of the quarterings, namely 
Estcourt, Beauboys, Yate, Berkeley, Box and Nourse. The alliances 
which they represent are as follows : — 

ESTCOURT. Maiden name of Mrs. Anne Earle. 

BEAUBOYS. An ancestor John de la Estcourt married Alice, 
dau. and heir of John de Bello Bosco (Beauboys). 

YATE. Edmund Estcourt (d. 1758) married Anna Maria, dau. 
and coheir of Charles Yate, of Colthrop. 

BERKELEY. John Yate married Margaret, dau. and heir of 
John Berkeley. 

BOX. Walter Yate married Joan, dau. and heir of John de Box. 

NOURSE. William Yate, of Colthrop, married Mary, eldest dau. 

and coheir of Thomas Nourse. 

It is not at present apparent how Mrs. Earle came to be buried at 

Harpenden. Her husband's will describes him as of Chelsea College, 

Middlesex, and Malmesbury. He died in 1774 : and his will made in 

1768 was proved in that year. Herbert C. Andrews, M.A. 

Notes. 281 

Bronze Dagger, Ashton Keynes. Mr. o. G. s. Crawford 

writes that he learns from the Rev, M. T. Milhng that the spot where 
the bronze dagger was found at Ashton Keynes, referred to in W .A.M., 
xlvi, 103 — 4, was on the east side of the road running north from North 
End, in a small enclosure, 100 yards north of spot level 289, Wilts 6 inch 
Ordnance Sheet, 4 S.E. Lat. 51, 39' 25" ; Long. 1, 56' 21". 


The Straw Plaiting Industry in Wiltshire, it does 

not seem to be generally known that straw plaiting was at one time a 
cottage industry in Wiltshire. Through the kind intervention of Mrs. 
Bussell, of Marlborough, a series of " straw splitters " has recently been 
given to the Society's Museum by Mr. J. Farley, of Westbrook Farm, 
Little Avebury. It was traditional in Mr. Farley's family that the 
implements had been used by his grandmother in straw work but in 
what way was not known. 

Luton being the centre of the straw industry, a couple of Mr. Farley's 
mysterious little implements were sent there and the Curator very 
kindly identified them as " straw-splitters." Though the Luton Museum 
has a large collection of splitters and other objects connected with the 
straw plaiting and straw hat industry it had no splitters of quite this 
pattern, so it seems not improbable that the pattern was more or less 
local to Wiltshire. 

The splitter consists of an iron cutter in a wooden handle, the blades 
of the cutter being arranged like the spokes of a wheel. The pin pro- 
jecting from the centre of the cutter is inserted into the straw and the 
straw being then pressed against the cutter it is thus split into as many 
" splints " as there are spokes, i.e. blades. In our series the number of 
spokes varies from four to eight but at Luton they run up to nine ; our 
handles vary in length from 3^ to 5 inches. 

In the interesting hand-book published by the Luton Museum it is 
stated that the splitters were invented about the beginning of the 19th 
century ; it is not certain by whom, but it is generally credited to a 
French prisoner of war in the Napoleonic period. Before this the finer 
plaits were imported from Italy, but after this invention the splitting 
process became an important part of the English straw plaiting industry. 
Previously attempts had been made to split the " pipes " as the straws 
were called, with sharp knives, but the work was slow and needed great 
skill and therefore had been little practised. 

The work of straw plaiting seems to have been carried on in the 
neighbourhood of Avebury and Winterbourne Monkton, and it is stated 
in the hand-book published by the Luton Museum that it was also done 
round about Savernake. It is unlikely that 'straw hats were made 
locally, the finished plaits would have been sold to the hat makers, as 
they were in Bedfordshire and elsewhere. 

If any one who sees this note should come across further evidence of 




straw plaiting in Wiltshire, and perhaps of other splitters, the Curator 
of the Society's Museum at Devizes, would be glad to hear of it. 

The Society is indebted to Mr. C. W. Pugh for the drawings of the 
splitter. M. E. Cunnington. 

The illustration shows a straw sphtter with wooden handle 5 inches 
in length, the longest in our series — a, the iron cutter with six blades 
out of its handle ; b, shows the iron cutter set in its handle ; c, a side 
view of the same showing the projecting pin over which the hollow 
straw is placed ; d, the same showing a straw in the process of being 
divided into six sections or " splints." 

Avebury Church, Roodloft. The late Mr. C. E. Pouting, 
writing in 1920, gives the following particulars of this interesting 
feature : — 

" The parapet of the loft seems to have been preserved owing to its 
beauty at the time the lofts were removed under Elizabeth, for Mr. 
Kemm could remember when the east wall over the arch was covered 
with lath and plaster work on studs, and on this being removed the 
parapet was found fixed to the wall beneath, and it was there that it 
remained until Miss Butler, of Kennet, undertook to pay for the screen 
and loft being restored, and this was my first introduction to this Church. 

Notes. 283 

A lot of round oak timbers were lying about, having been taken from 
the demolished roof of the south aisle, and I employed an excellent 
joiner to do the work under my constant direction. I found some pieces 
of the old mullions of the screen which had been used as joists under 
the floor of the pews. These I re-used and copied for the new ones. 
Mr. Bryan King had put aside some of the traceried heads, so that I 
had full evidence of the screen itself. The cove is all new but I followed 
the evidence afforded by the mortices for ribs in the lower beam of the 
parapet and the exact moulding was indicated by the " shoulders " of 
the tenons, where they abutted against it. These parts being out of 
the reach of pahit showed the clear outline of the rib moulding, so there 
was little left to conjecture. Parts of the parapet were decayed and 
broken away, and on these being renewed and painted to match the old, 
it was unfortunately decided to repaint the whole, but the old colours 
were reproduced as closely as we could get them. The not very success- 
ful paintings in the panels of the screen were done by an amateur. The 
restoration of the Church was begun under a London architect who 
renewed the south aisle without any regard to what he found and actually 
lowered the beautiful three light window some 2ft. because it came in 
the way of his new corbel and brace ! The proportions of the window 
in a photograph which I have — taken before the Church was touched — 
were very different from what exists now. He also rebuilt the squat 
picturesque porch to his own design, and had designed a new high- 
pitched roof of pitch pine for the nave but, fortunately, he had got no 
further than carrying up his high gable wall and coping it before he 
found that he could no longer work with the Vicar and threw up the 
job. So the wall was taken down and the old roof remains. 
There is no doubt that both north and south aisle roofs rested on the 
Saxon string course as the former does now." 

Highway Church. The late Mr. C. E. Ponting made the 
following notes on this Church in 1906 : — 

"This Church was rebuilt by Butterfield in 1867, with the exception 
of part of the north wall of the nave with the north doorway which is 
in situ. This doorway is of the 12th century, a semi-circular arch with 
heavy label, which with the jambs is chamfered. Under the w^est win- 
dow is the foot of a coffin slab with the base of an incised cross of the 
14th century. There is a modern stone screen with the oak cornice of 
one of the 15th century painted and gilded, with vine pattern. There 
are some old bench ends in the nave, also two ends used for a priest's 
stall in the chancel, of 16th century type, with linen -fold pattern panel 
and two roses carved in the terminals at back and front of each end. 
The font looks like a 13th century one recut in the 17th century." 
Kelly, however, states that '•' the old screen and wooden beam have 
been preserved. " With regard to this Mr. Ponting subsequently w^rote — 
" I do not seem to have detected any old stonework in the screen, but 
it might well have been scraped. The fact, however, that the oak beam 
is evidently part of an old screen, seems against there having been one 

u 2 

284 Notes. 

of stone before the restoration ; but of course it may have belonged to 
an oali loft over a stone screen." 

The entire cost of the rebuilding in 1867 was borne by the late Rector, 
Archdeacon Harris, Vicar of Bremhill. ; 

AldbOUrue Church Bells. A recent visit to Aldbourne 
Church enabled me to collect some information omitted from my book 
on Wiltshire Bells (p. 6), which may be of sufficient interest to put into 

In the base of the tower hang three peal-boards, recording the ring- 
ing of Grandsire Triples in 1791, 1806, and 1857 respectively. Of these 
the earliest is interesting for the names of the ringers, which are as 
follows : — 

1. — J. North 5. — W"^ Lawrence (called the Bobbs) 

2. — W" Gwynn 6. — Broome Witts 

3.— Edne Witts 7.— Ja« Wells 

4. — Levi Pizzie 8. — Jo^ Orchard 

The name of Wm. Gwynn occurs on the 2nd bell, dated 1787, which 
also bears the name of another Pizzie. James Wells, who rang the 7th, 
is of course the well-known bellfounder. But even more interesting is 
the name of Edne Witts. His name occurs in the registers as born in 
1764, and he was the son of another Edne, who died in 1788. The 
father is otherwise only known to history as the maker of the sanctus 
bell at Culham, Oxon. (See Church Bells of Wilts, p. 312). 

In the same place lies a small bell, merely dated 1854, now disused. 
This appears to have escaped my notice on previous visits. I may also 
note that a complete list of bells cast at the Aldbourne Foundry now 
hangs under the tower. H. B. W^alters. 

St01ieheilg"a. The Proceedings of the Society of Avtiquaries of 

Scotland, 1933 — 34, vol. Jxviii, pp. 81 — 96, contains a paper by H. E. 
Kilbride-Jones, F.S.A., Scot. " Stone circles : a New Theory of the 
Erection of the Monoliths," of which pp. 90 — 94 form a special section 
headed " The Theory as applied to Stonehenge," with illustrations of 
the base of stones No. 56 and 7. The paper deals chiefly with the 
Aberdeen circles, but the writer claims that his theory, applied in the 
first place to these Scotch circles is of general application to practically 
all stone circles, and more especially to Stonehenge. He believes that 
the base of the stones were intentionally pointed, and that this provision 
of a pivot on which the stone could be revolved, together with, 
apparently, in the case of the Scotch stones, a similar point at the top 
of the stone, were essential to the erection of the stone by the method 
which he describes in elaborate mathematical terms as requiring vastly 
less labour than the methods suggested by Dr. Gowland, or Mr. Stone. 
His account of the " new theory " is highly technical and not precisely 
easy for the non-mathematical mind to comprehend. It seems, how- 
ever, that there is a good deal to be said for the notion that the bases 
of the stones were pointed intentionally — as for example the base of the 
leaning stone at Stonehenge — before erection. 



Iron Sword from Battlesbury. The illustration below 

is from a sketch by Dr. H. P. Blackmore, of Salisbury, of an iron 
sword, 33 inches long, apparently of the 11th century, said to have 
been found or dug up by a shepherd at Battlesbury Camp, Warminster, 

in January 1899. It now appears to be lost, being last heard of in the 
possession of the late Mr. Bladworth, of Belmont, Warminster, who had 
promised it to the Salisbury Museum. The Controller would be glad to 
hear from anybody who can give any information as to its present 
whereabouts. F. Stevens. 

Iia Tene I Fibula from Salisbury. There has recently 

been deposited in the Salisbury Museum a fine La Tene I, Phase B, 
fibula, which is now published for the first time. It was found close to 
St. Mark's Church, at the north-eastern edge of the city, on what was 
probably an ancient trackway. It is 2'3ins. long, of bronze, strongly 
made. The spring has four coils, with the chord external to the bow ; 

a solid bronze rivet is placed inside the coils. The bow is quite plain. 
The foot ends in a flattened knob, from which springs a triangle having 
a smaller knob at the other two angles. These two knobs fit closely 
around the bow fairly high up, giving a triangular opening to the foot. 
On comparison with the illustrations in Dr. Cyril Fox's paper in Arch 
Camb., June 1927, this would appear to be an uncommon type. 

F. Stevens. 

286 Notes. 

Heraldry of Wiltshire. A Roll of Arms is being compiled 
by the Rev. R. St. John B, Battersby of Chittoe Vicarage. This will 
comprise as nearly as possible the armorial bearings of all families m 
any way connected with the county, both ancient and modern. At 
present these are scattered, occurring in some thirty different publica- 
tions, rolls, and manuscripts. It is hoped that their collection under 
one cover will be of great use to students of heraldry and genealogy. 
The work will contain those arms collected in the Church Heraldry 
surveys of Schomberg and Battersby, and those in the Smith MS. as 
well as certain Rolls in the British Museum and College of Arms. In 
addition all the arms in the visitations of Wiltshire (1565 and 1623) will 
be included. The compiler will be grateful for a note of any armorial 
bearings, which, not having been granted by authority and therefore 
not appearing in any records have, nevertheless, been used by Wiltshire 

The work is well in hand and should be ready for publication during 
the coming year. 

Interments at Bradenstoke Abbey, in 1933 a pit was 

dug in a walled space S. of the Abbey buildings and 30 yards from the 
S. wall of it. In this at about four feet deep were five skeletons 
apparently of middle aged men buried without order, three skulls being 
close together and two more further away. No exact details could be 
gathered as most of the bones had been disturbed by sightseers. In the 
ground were a few bits of medieval pottery, including the spout of a 
jug which seems to be of the 14th century. A. D. Passmore. 

Cricklade Drainagre. A good deal of excavation was made 
in the above town in 1934, a large trench was carried along the E. edge 
of the inhabited area, and was continued round the N.E. angle into a 
meadow on the N. side, and later a trench was carried through the E. 
part on the N. side of Calcutt Street. 

The work was constantly visited but very little was found. The E. 
trench produced nothing, but near Abingdon Court Farm it skirted the 
old entrenchment which encircles Cricklade. Here, traces of a gap 
through the bank were noticed, the ground being curiously strewn with 
small nodules of chalk which must have been brought at least ten miles. 
In the meadow to the N. large tanks have been built, the excavation for 
one disclosed a space of ground roughly set with small stones. This 
was thought to be the Roman Road but was not, being too small and 
too far to the W\ 

The most interesting part was the Calcutt Street trench. This passed 
through the old town bank which had, however, been levelled at this 
spot. The ditch was cut through and was well seen as a basin-shaped 
hollow in the clay; it was 24ft. wide at top and 5|ft. deep. Diligent 
search was made for a wall which is supposed to have stood at this spot 
but nothing was seen except a patch of lime mortar outside the ditch, 
which may be comparatively modern. 



Three bits of Roman pottery found were right on the surface, 
possibly collected elsewhere and thrown out on a garden. 

Owing to the drought and very low water I was enabled to walk 
along the bed of the Thames where the Roman Road crosses it, but 
could see no traces of the crossing, no stones, no bridge foundations or 
any sign of the road in either of the banks, which were here free of 
herbage and presented a clean-cut vertical bank about 5ft. high. These 
were searched for hundreds of yards each way. Had the Roman Road 
existed at this place as a paved road it must have been seen . The con- 
clusion is inevitable that at this low-lying and flood-infested area the 
old road was carried across on a wooden causeway. 

A. D. Passmore. 

The Roman Road on Hiuton Down S.£. of 

WanborOUgh Plain Farm. The Roman Road from 
Cirencester to Speen after passing S. through Foxhill (Wanborough) 
leaves the modern road track and is seen passing through ploughed 
fields on the E. side. Later at a point where the Aldbourne Road 
meets others from Baydon and Wanborough, it is well seen on the open 
down and is in almost perfect condition, except that a series of pits 
have been made along the crest of the road to obtain stone. The 


Section of Roman Road and Lynchets S.E. of Wanborough 
Plain Farm. 

down here slopes rather sharply down to the modern road and has 
been cut into by three long and narrow lynchets of a shape that is 
usually held to be of Saxon origin or later. The middle lynch of 
this group, however, has been used by the Roman engineer for the 
bed of his road, and there can be no question whatever that the Roman 
Road is of later date than the lynchet itself. It can therefore be no 
longer said that all narrow lynchets are of Saxon date. 

A. D. Passmore. 

288 Notes. 

Earth Circle at Sudden Farm, Burbage. in 1933 

Major Allen saw from the air a large earthen circle immediately 
S. of the above farm buildings. It consists of a wide ditch surrounding 
a large circular space 348 feet in diameter with the ground sloping away 
to the S. and E. Exactly in the centre is a small tump 22ft. in diameter 
and 2ft. high. The whole thing looks like a huge disc barrow unfinished. 
In August, 1933, by the kind permission of Mr. F. Gent and the 
tenant, a trench was cut through the central mound down to undisturbed 
ground. This produced a flint pot boiler and three flakes only. 

A. D. Passmore. 

The Meux Excavation at Avebury. At the end of 

the last century Sir Henry Meux, of Dauntsey House, carried out 
several excavations in N. Wilts, none of which were recorded. It will 
be remembered that the writer recovered the story of the opening of 
the chambered long barrow in West Woods by a mere chance, as all this 
work was done with the greatest secrecy, as also was the removal of 
fireplaces and panelling from old farmhouses on the estate about the 
same time. 

At Avebury a spot on the S.E. side was chosen to cut a trench 
through the bank, about 124 yards south of the Avebury — Rockley 
road. The trench still shows plainly. 

Four feet below the crest of the bank a curious box-like structure 
formed of chalk blocks was uncovered which contained twenty deer 
horn picks of large size, all worn down by use, the tines being almost 
gone. They were evidently old tools, collected and deposited there. 
The cutting was continued down to a depth of eighteen feet when the 
old turf line was reached ; the lower part of the bank was extraordinarily 
loose and cellular being made of large pieces of chalk. I well remember 
as a boy visiting the work and looking into the holes with a rolled-up 

On the old turf level were fou id three worked flints with greyish- 
white patina. One is an ordinary scraper made from a semi-circular 
shaped flake ; the round side is finely worked all round while the flat 
side is plain and sharp, the bulb below has been chipped away. It is 
Ifins. long. 

The two other flints here illustrated, a saw two and three-eighths of 
an inch long formed from a thin flake and serrated on both edges, and 
a finely worked chisel-edged or " petit tranchet " arrowhead the wings 
of the edge being broken off apparently since its discovery. These flints 
were found under the bank in undisturbed soil on the old ground level 
and afford valuable material for dating purposes. In the present con- 
fused state of opinion it seems useless to discuss them, but they seem 
to be of late Neolithic or Beaker date. If this opinion is correct then 
Avebury cannot have been made before that period. 

Most elaborate plans and sections were made of this excavation which 
together with the finds were sent to Dauntsey House and scattered at 
the sale there during the war. However, one of the above-mentioned 

Flint Saw and " Petit Tranchet " arrowhead from the 

original surface under the bank at Avebury. 

Slightly enlarged. 

Notes. 289 

picks and the flints have passed into my hands. They bear the un- 
mistakable hand- writing of the excavator, who has lately examined 
them and confirmed the above details of the work carried out under his 
charge. The ihustrations are slightly over full size. 

A. D. Passmore. 

An Early Oil Painting of Salisbury in the 

Museum ^ Sahsbury is a city which lends itself to a panoramic 
view, by reason of its situation in the valley with hills rising sharply 
on all sides. For example, the outlook on the city from Harnham Hill 
is singularly beautiful, with the winding river in the foreground, Old 
Saruni frowning in the background and the city with its churches nest- 
ling about the Cathedral. The gasometers may be deplored from an 
artistic point of view, and, possibly, certain tall chimneys bring a 
modern note into the picture, which makes for discord in the composition. 

Yet another equally fine "prospect " (as our grandparents would have 
called it) is from the rising ground of Elm Grove, looking at the city 
with the Green Croft in the foreground, and Harnham Hill standing up 
behind the Cathedral. This point of view seems to have been a favourite 
one with the artist of the 18th century, since it enabled him to compass 
the view in a neat composition, which grouped the city between the 
church of St. Martin and that of St. Edmund, with the Cathedral as a 
centre-piece. A well-known example of this is the engraving made by 
Samuel and Nathaniel Ruck in 1734, which illustrates quite a number 
of buildings, man}^ of which no longer exist. 

What would seem to be a still earlier picture than this is an oil 
painting, measuring 58 by 22 inches, which hangs in the Museum, and 
which may very likely be the earliest existing picture of the city. The 
artist has chosen as his view point a spot somewhere in what is now 
Manor Road, and from it looked down upon Salisbury. On his left the 
rise of Milford Hill obscured the greater part of St. Martin's Church, 
but its spire stands up bravely above the hill top. The next point to 
claim attention is the old Winchester Gate, towards which a gay 
Georgian coach and four and a waggon with eight horses are laboriously 
making their way. The Winchester Gate was demolished in 1771, 
though until a few years ago its flint and rubble abutment was visible 
at the top of Winchester Street, just below Eyre's Almhouses ; while a 
vanished public house on the opposite side of the road was called " The 
Gate House." The other gate of the city, called the Castle Gate, stood 
in Castle Street, somewhere about No. 106. The Royal Arms which 
formerly formed part of it may be seen in the wall of Hussey's 
Almhouses, at No. 97. The gate was removed as an obstruction to 
traffic in 1784, and the work of demolition took four years. 

Outside the Winchester Gate and running across the Green Croft 
diagonally to " The College " (now the Council House) the Rampart 
comes into the picture, the gables of the houses in Green Croft Street 
alone being visible above it. At Salt Lane a footpath appears to cross 

^ This note appeared in The Salisbury Times, Sept. 13th, 1935. 



Notes. 291 

the Rampart, after which it pursues its course to " The College," where 
it may still be seen in the garden, and eventually to the Castle Gate 
already referred to. This, too, was levelled in 1771, and similar work 
took place in February, 1895, in the Milford Street section. On the 
sky-hne are the chalk downs of Harnham, unbroken by either wood or 

The city itself appears as a huddle of roofs, broken here and there by 
an upstanding feature, which usually belongs to some well-known 
public building. For example, on the left of the picture between the 
spire of St. Martin's and the Winchester Gate, may be seen the bell-cote 
of the Trinity Hospital, which is, with the exception of St. Nicholas' 
Hospital, the oldest charitable foundation in the city, having been 
founded by Agnes Bottenhara, before 1379, and subsequently enriched 
by gifts of land and houses from pious benefactors. In the reign of 
Richard IT, John Chandler, a wealthy citizen, placed it under the 
mastership of the Mayor. Later it received a Charter of Incorporation 
from James I. To the right of the Trinity bell-cote may be seen the 
square tower of the Bishop's Palace, then visible, but now hidden 
behind trees and houses. 

Standing more or less in the centre of the picture and to the right of 
the Cathedral is the old belfry, which was demolished by Wyatt in 1790. 
It stood quite close to the North Porch, and in a dry Summer the 
outlines of its foundations can still be traced. It was, as may be seen, 
a line square building of two. storeys, with a wooden turret, surmounted 
by a spire above the bell chamber. It dates from the year 1334, a time 
when there was no spire to the Cathedral, which possessed a heavy peal 
of eight bells, only one of which (the sixth) still remains, and hangs in 
the central tower to-day. It was recast by William Purdue in 1661. 
The rest of the bells were sold in 1777. 

This is how the belfry came to be erected. In the year 1331, the 
Cathedral Chapter complained to their absentee Treasurer and absentee 
Dean (one of whom was a Frenchman and a nephew of the Pope, and 
the other an Italian and Bishop of Avignon) that the weight of the bells 
was so great that they feared for the security of the Cathedral. This 
seems almost to suggest that even without the spire the foundations 
were beginning to give. Apparently the absentee Dean and Treasurer 
authorised the needed repairs, and it is a matter for deep thankfulness 
that Richard of Farleigh was called in. He was a fine builder and a 
daring one. Moreover he already had conceived the idea of the present 
spire, and having that in view he suggested that the bells should be 
placed outside the Cathedral in a special belfry. It is fairly clear, 
therefore, that the belfry had to be built first and the bells hung in it, 
before the spire could be commenced. The belfry also played an 
important part in Ludlow's defence of the city against Lord Goring in 
1645, as it was the last spot which he defended after his brilliant dash 
into the Market Place with his handful of men. 

On the right of the bell tower may be seen the square tower of St. 
Clement's, the old church of Fisherton, pulled down in 1852. Still 

292 Notes. 

further to the right may be seen the gables and attic of the old Council 
House. Then comes St. Thomas' Church, and below it on the right the 
"College " (Council House). This house replaced a religious establish- 
ment, the College of St. Edmund, which passed into the hands of Sir 
Wadham Wyndham in 1657. An early drawing of the house, dated 
1670, shows the typical gables and muUioned windows of the Stuart 
period, but by the time this painting was made, a parapet had replaced 
the gables, and sash windows had ousted the mullions. Finally, in the 
extreme right of the picture is a square tower which defies identification. 
There is no evidence of any kind which can throw any light upon the 
matter. Unluckily, Buck's print of 1734 just stops short of this 
mysterious building. A possible conjecture may be that it was a water 
tower used in connection with the then supply of water, which must 
have been very limited, owing to the number of wells within the city. 
Certainly Salisbury was not so extensive then as it is now, but the 
picture shows a very satisfying proportion of red tile roofs, with only 
occasional patches of slate, and it has an atmosphere of peace ; 
wayfarers in broad-brimmed hats rest by the roadside ; women with 
bundles on their heads walk unscathed on the London Road. Hurry 
and bustle would seem to be unknown. Did it not take four years to 
pull down that terrible obstruction to traffic, the Castle Gate ? 

Frank Stevens. 


Captain The Hon. Creoffrey William Algernon 

Howard, died June, 1935, aged 58. Born February 12th, 1877, 5th 
son of 9th Earl of Carlisle, educated Trinity Coll. Camb. He was 
for some time an underwriter at Lloyds. He acted as Parliamentary 
Private Secretary to his friend, Mr. Asquith, in 1910. In the war he 
acted as temporary Captain in the Royal Marines 1914 — 19, and was 
mentioned in despatches. Liberal M.P. for the Eskdale division of 
Cumberland 1906 — 1910, and for the Westbury division of Wilts 
191.1—18, and the Luton division of Bedfordshire 1923 — 24. After 1924 
he retired from active politics to devote himself to the management of 
his estate, Castle Howard, in Yorkshire. He became Ld. Lieutenant of 
the N. Riding 1931. He married 1915 the Hon. Ethel Christian, eldest 
daughter of F. M. Lord Methuen, who died 1932. He was Vice- 
Chamberlain of H.M. Household 1911 — 15, and Junior Lord of the 
Treasury 1915—1916., J. P. for Yorks 1922. 

Rev. Gordon Soames, died suddenly March 14th, 1935, 
buried at Mildenhall. Son of the Rev. Charles Soames, J. P., Rector of 
Mildenhall. Educated at Trin. Coll., Camb. B.A. 1883, M.A. 1889. 
Deacon 1887, Priest 1888 (York), Curate of St. Silas, Sculcoates, 
1887—92 ; Thornhill Lees (Yorks) 1892—94 ; Rector of Mildenhall 
1894 until his death. One of the few remaining examples of the old- 
fashioned country parson, he was fond of sport, and years ago hunted 
regularly with the Ted worth hounds. 

Sir Thomas Henley, died May 14, 1935, aged 75. Born at 
Wootton Bassett, he went to Australia in 1883. He served during the 
war in Egypt, France and England as Commissioner of the Australian 
Comforts Fund. He was knighted for his good work in this capacity. 
He was Minister of Works and Railwavs in New South Whales in 1922, 
and was six times Mayor of Drummoyre, his home town. He did a great 
amount of work in connection with the water supply of Sydney. He 
married Charlotte Smith, of W^ootton Bassett,- in 1886. His son Leslie 
was killed in the war, his two daughters survive him. He always visited 
Wootton Bassett during his visits to England. 

Obit, notice, A^. Wilts Herald, May 17th, 1935. 

Ivan Temple Rule, died May 2nd, 1935, aged 67. Buried at 
St. John's, Warminster. S. of the Rev. John Rule. Spent some years 
in educational work in America, and settled at Nunton on his return 
to this country. He married Susan Dodge, who survives him. He 
took a very prominent part in Church matters in the south of Wilts, 
and held many Diocesan posts. He was a member of the Executive 
Committee of the Diocesan Conference, and w^as on the committee of 
half-a-dozen other Diocesan bodies, includins? the Board of Finance. 

294 Wilts Obituary. 

He was Secretary of the Church of England Temperance Society, 
Treasurer of the Friends of the Cathedral, and was closely associated 
with the Salisbury and S. Wilts Museum. In many ways his death is 
a great loss to southern Wiltshire. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, May 9th, 1935. 

Edmond George Petty- Fitxmaurice, 1st Baron 

Fitzniaurice, died June 21st, 1935, aged 89. Buried at Bremhill. 
Born June 19th, 1846, 2nd son. of the 4th Marquess of Lansdowne. 
Educated at Eton and Trinity Coll., Cambridge, where he became 
President of the Union. M.P. for Calne 1868—85, and for the Cricklade 
Division of Wilts 1898 -1905. " In the House he distinguished himself 
by his Radicalism with strong leanings towards Nonconformity and 
he supported Edward Miall's motion for Disestablishment and the 
bill for the abolition of University Tests. ... In 1872 he 
addressed a meeting of the underpaid and unenfranchised Wiltshire 
agricultural labourers. Later he threw himself with his friend. 
Lord Eversley, into the movement for the protection of commons 
and open spaces. . . . He laid the foundations by constant 
study and travel on the Continent of his profound knowledge of 
European politics and diplomacy." 
In 1880 he was appointed H.M. Commissioner for the reorganisation 
of the European provinces of Turkey under the Treaty of Berlin. In 
1882 he was the second British Plenipotentiary at the Danube Naviga- 
tion Conference in London. In 1883 he became Under Secretary for 
Foreign Affairs. He was one of the five Local Government Boundary 
Commissioners in 1887. He became chairman of the new Wiltshire 
County Council and also of the Court of Quarter Sessions. "He set 
his mark on every branch of local administration, agriculture, 
boundaries, highways, public health, and above all education — and 
Wiltshire, hitherto one of the most backward counties in England, 
became a model of progress." In 1905 he was raised to the House 
of Lords and again held the office of Under Secretary for Foreign affairs. 
" As the representative of the Foreign Office in the House of 
Lords with his temporate and well-arranged speeches he was much 
more effective than he had been in the Commons. It says much 
for the character of the two men (Sir Ed. Grey was Foreign 
Secretary) that their association was one of perfect harmony. He 
possessed Grey's complete confidence and acquired a high reputa- 
tion." In 1908 Mr. Asquith appointed him Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster with a seat in the Cabinet, but ill-health compelled 
him to resign office a few months later, and his public career came to 
an end. " He was as much interested in the younger generation as in 
his own and many a youth in the Wiltshire Secondary Schools 
owedhisuniversity career to Fitzmaurice's unobtrinsive munifence." 
He was a Fellow of the British Academy, a member of the Historical 
MSS. Commission, a Trustee of the National Portrait Gallery, and Hon. 
D. Litt of Bristol University. He married, 1889, Caroline, d. of W. J. 

Wilts Obituary. 295 

Fitzgerald, of Connecticut, U.S.A., but the marriage was annulled and 

he leaves no heir. 

He lived for the latter portion of his life at I.eigh House, Bradford- 

on-Avon. " The town of Bradford and its people owe much to Lord 
Fitzmaurice, for apart from great private philanthropy he was 
largely instrumental, with Mr. John Moulton, in providing the 
town with its Public Baths, and every organisation in the place 
had his generous support and practical sympathy. He was keenly 
and personally interested in the building and establishment of the 
Secondary Schools at Calne and Bradford and the latter school 
practically owes its existence to him. In addition to being a 
generous donor to the Building Fund he personally endowed the 
school to an extent that has been of lasting benefit. He retained 
the chairmanship of the Governors to the end, and gave the Victory 
Field for recreation." 
Long obit, notices, Times, June 22nd ; Wiltshire Gazette, June 27th ; 

Wiltshire Times, June 22nd, 29th, July 6th, 1935. 

He was the author of : — 

The Influence of tlie Rise of the Industrial Classes on Thoug-ht and 
Manners in Modern Society. Being- the Trinity Colleg-e Prize Essay, 

1867. Camhridg-e, Macmillan & oo , 18S8. 8vo., wrappers. For 

private circulation. 
The Eng'lish Land Question (being- an address delivered in the Town 

Hall of Calne, Jan. 12th, 1872.) Price Foux'pence. Calne, A. Heath, 

Printer, Market Place. Pamphlet, demy 8vo., pp. 26, not including 

Ifife of William, Earl of Sheltaurne, afterwards First Marquess of 

Lansdowne, with Extracts from his Paxiers and Correspondence. 

London, Macmillan & Co. 1876 — 6, 3 vols., Sva. Price £2. Vol. I, 

1875, pp. xii + 413 (A.D. 1737—1766). Vol. II, 1876, pp. vi + 377 

(1766—1776). Vol. Ill, 1876, pp. viii + 597 (1776—1805). 
Ditto, 2nd and Revised Edition. 2 vols., 8vo., 24s. 
Address as President of the Wiltshire Archseolog-ical and Nat. Hist. 

Society, 1882. Wilts Arch. Mag., xxi, pp. 6 — -13. 
Essay (one of a series) in " Local Government and Taxation in the United 

Kingdom," edited by J. W. Probyn, 1882, cr. 8vo. 
Edington Church (and its associations) . Article in Westminster Gazette, 

Dec. 7th, 1900. [Reprinted in Wilts County Mirror, Dec. 14th, 

Devizes Gazette, Dec. 20th, and Wiltshire Times, Dec. 29th,] 
Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick. An Historical Study, 

1735 — 1806. Longmans, 1901. 8vo., cloth, 6s. 2 portraits and 

Map. [A reproduction in book form of two articles in the Edinburgh 

Review. Reviewed Times, March 28th, 1901 ; Guardian, Aug. 28th, 

" Cromwell " an address delivered at the unveiling- of a Statue at St. 

Ives. Good Words, Jan., 1902, pp. 39—43. 
The Life of Granville Georg-e Leveson Gover, Second Earl Granville, 

KG., 1815 1891, with portraits. In two volumes. Fourth im- 

296 Wilts Obituary. 

pression, third edition, Longmans, Gre3n & Co., 39, Paternoster Row, 
London, New York, and Bombay, 1905. 30s., cloth 8vo. Vol. I, 
pp. X + 543, 5 portraits and illusts. Vol. II, pp. xiv + 537, 3 
portraits and illusts. Reviewed Tunes Literary Supplement, Daily 
Telegraph, and Spectator. 

The Boundaries of the Administrative Coanty of Wilts, with an intro- 
duction and four maps. By Lord Fitzmaurice and W. L. Bown. 
Printed by Georg-a Phillip h Son 1920. Wrappers, 4to., pp. 28. 

Canon Robert George Livingstone, died June 23rd, 

1935, aged 97, buried at Brinkworth. Son of Will Livingstone, of 
Westport, CO. Mayo, Ireland. Educated at Rossall, scholar of Oriel 
Coll., Oxford. B.A. 1860, M.A. 1863, Deacon 1863, Priest 1864, Oxon., 
Curate of S. Mary the Virgin, Oxford, 1864—67, Chaplain and Tutor of 
Pembroke Coll ,Oxon, 1864-95, Senior Dean 1873— 95 ; Fellow 1866—96; 
Rector of Besselsleigh, Berks, 1894—95 ; Rector of Brinkworth 1896 until 
hisdeath. Rural Dean of Malmesbury 1900 — 11 ; Examining Chaplain to 
Bishop of Bristol 1899—1914 ; Proctor in Convocation 1903 — 19 ; Hon. 
Canon of Bristol 1903 until his death. During his incumbency the 
Church was restored in 1902 — 3 at a cost of ^2,800 and an organ installed 
at a cost of ^600. He was held in the highest regard by the people of 
Brinkworth, and two years ago an additional bell was added to the 
Church tower at a cost of ^100, inscribed " Given by the parishioners 
of Brinkworth to commemorate the good work done by Canon 
Livingstone in this parish." An appreciation in the Wilts and 
Gloucester Standard June 29th, 1935, says of him "Canon Livingstone 
belonged to a type now rapidly passing away, of Scholar-Rector. He 
was essentially an Oxford Don, with courtly manners of the old 
school marked by absolute simplicity and freedom from affectation. . . . 
He was a man of fine and wide scholarship and literary tastes with a 
keen sense of style. He kept himself thoroughly abreast of modern 
literature, he had the latest books and read them." He retained all his 
faculties in a wonderful way to the end. 

Long obit, notices, Wiltshire Times, June 27th ; Wilts and Gloucester 
Standard, June 29th, 1935. 

He was the author of : — 
An Old Time Parson. Bristol Diocesan Review, Jan. 1922, p. 11. 

Francis James Bates, died suddenly 13th July, 1935, aged 
68 years. Buried at Hankerton. He succeeded his uncle, Mr. F. E. 
Bates, as agent for the Earl of Suffolk at Charlton. He was an 
Alderman of the County Council, and a member of several of its 
committees. He was J. P. for W^ilts. He held a prominent place in 
Wiltshire Freemasonry. He had been Chairman of Hankerton and 
Charlton Parish Councils. He was active in all district and parochial 
matters, and his death was greatly regretted. He never married. 

Obit, notice with portrait, Wiltshire Gazette, July 18th, 1935 : N. Wilts 
Herald, July 19th, 1935. 

Wilts Obituary. . 297 

Jeremiah Andrew I>loyd, died May i7th, aged 75. He 

was for 36 years art master at Marlborough College. By his will he 
left £2,500 to the College, for a Scholarship in art for the sons of 
professional men ; ;^2,500 to the Royal College of Art, S. Kensington 
for a Scholarship for male students ; £4tOO to the Rector and Church- 
wardens of St. Peter's, Marlborough, for the benefit of widows and aged 
spinsters ; ;£200 to Savernake Hospital as well as further sums to other 
charitable institutions. 

Dora Winifred Strong-, died August 24th, 1935, aged 44. 
Buried at Pevvsey. Daughter of the Rev. J. Williams, Rector of 
Rhymney, Monmouth. She married Arthur Strong, of Sharcott Farm, 
and afterwards of the Manor Farm, Pewsey. " To all the workpeople 
on her husband's farms and the members of their families Dora Strong 
was as a fairy godmother," and all sorts of organisations in Pewsey 
wnll be the poorer by her death, especially the Young Men's Club, in 
which she was deeply interested. She leaves five sons and three 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, 29th August, 1935. 

Rev. Aueurin Gabe-Jones, died 13th July, 1935, aged 65. 
Buried in Kemble cemetery. B.A. Lampeter ; Deacon 1894, Priest 
1895 (Llandaff), Curate of Pentrebach, Glam., 1894^^-96; Hanwell 
1896-98; Ashton Keynes 1898—1908; Fishponds 1908—9; Tetbury 
1909 — 14; Vicar of Kemble 1914 until his death. He leaves a widow 
and one daughter. 

Obit, notice and portrait, A^. Wilts Herald, 19th July, 1935. 

J. E. Ashby. died October 8th, 1935, aged 74. Buried at Steeple 
Ashton. Born ia Somerset, he came with his parents to Seend when 
two years old ; after about four years the family moved to Spiers Piece 
Farm in Steeple Ashton in 1869. In this farm he succeeded his father, 
and occupied it until his death. Joining the Wilts Yeomanry in 1876, 
he served in it for 30 years, becoming Quarter-Master Sergeant, and 
was regarded as one of the finest swordsmen in any Yeomanry Regiment. 
He was one of those selected to represent the Wilts Yeomanry in 
Australia at the proclamation of the Commonwealth. As a farmer he 
took a prominent part in his district, and was the first chairman of the 
Trowbridge branch of the National Farmers' Union. He was for years 
chairman of the Westbury Rural Council, and afterwards vice-chairman 
of the W^arminster Council. At Steeple Ashton he was a member of all 
sorts of Parochial Councils and Committees and chairman of most of 
them. He formed and took great interest in the Steeple Ashton branch 
of the British Legion. " He was regarded as the father of the village — ■ 
one to whom many people went for counsel and advice in times of 
doubt or difficulty. His death ... is a loss not only to Steeple 
Ashton but to Wiltshire." 

Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, 10th Oct., 1935 ; Wiltshire Times ^ 
12th Oct,, 1935. 


298 Wilts Obituary. 

The Rev. Iionls Garnaut Cawker, died Sept. 28th, 

1935, aged 69. Buried at Broad Town. Educated Jesus Coll., Oxford. 
B.A. 1890. Deacon 1896. Priest 1897 (Exeter) . Curate of St. Mary's, 
Devonport, 1896—98; St. Paul's, Devonport, 1898— 1901 ; Yetminster 
with Chetnole (Dors.) 1901—14 ; Vicar of Broad Town 1914 until his 
death. He leaves a widow, a son, and a daughter. 
Obit, notice, A^. Wilts Herald, 4th October, 1935. 

Douglas Eyre, died Oct. 29th, 1935, aged 75. Born I7thOct., 
1860, s. of Richard Eyre and Isabella Catherine his wife, of Shaw House, 
Newbury. Educated at Winchester and Keble Coll., Oxford, 1879. 
Solicitor 1886, Barrister Lincoln's Inn, 1894. His family were owners 
of Brickworth and Landford in S. Wilts. He was a keen churchman 
who will be remembered chiefly for his self-sacrificing work for the 
Oxford House Settlement in Bethnal Green, where he acted as Head 
during the War, and was for a long period of years the Hon. Secretary. 
In recognition of his work there a service of plate was presented to him, 
which he left by his will to Salisbury Guildhall. The Salisbury Museum 
has received from him many gifts. 

Obit, notice and appreciation by the Bishop of London in The Times. 



[N.B. — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The 
Editor appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or 
views, in any way connected with the county, to send him copies of 
their works, and to editors of papers, and members of the Society 
generally, to se id him copies of articles, views, or portraits appearing 
in the newspapers.] 

Reports on (1) The Non-Marine MoUusca, and (2) 
The Animal Remains from the Stoneheng^e Exca- 
vations of 1920—6, by A. S. Kennard, A L.S., F.G.S., 
and J. Wilfred Jackson, D Sc, F.Cr.S. Antiquaries 

Journal, vol. xv. No. 4, Oct. 1935, pp. 432—440. 

After giving the hst of the Mollusca identified Mr. Kennard sums 

up his conclusion thus : — 

" It must be admitted that this is a very unsatisfactory faunule 
to deal with, and it is quite impossible to arrive at any definite 
conclusions : one can only make tentative suggestions. It must be 
remembered that many species of land Mollusca (and these are all 
land forms) are very adaptable to changes of environment. Species 
that prefer moisture and shade will, if once established, still exist 
in the most unlikely situations, so that great caution must always 
be exercised. Moreover, snails are not equally distributed over 
any area. They occur commonly in one place and a few yards 
away none can be found, though, so far as can be seen, the two loci 
are the same. The list from Stonehenge is almost identical with 
that obtained from Juniper scrub on Easton Down {W.A.M., xlvi, 
235 — 8). It is composed of two groups, one the open down species, 
and a ' relict ' series still managing to maintain an existence in spite 
of adverse circumstances. At Easton Down the Juniper scrub 
would afford the needed shade, but this certainly did not exist at 
Stonehenge when these snails lived there. One may safely assume 
that the scrub had been removed and that it was grassland, but 
there is no clue as to when this was done. Taking all the facts 
into consideration, it would appear that the conditions must have 
been slightly damper than those now existing. We now know that 
during Beaker times in many parts of the Wiltshire Downs snails 
simply swarmed everywhere, denoting much damper conditions. 
The faunule from Stonehenge is very different from that. There is 
a number of absentee species such as Vortex lapicida (Linn.), 
Arianta arbustorum (Linn.), Cepaea hortensis (Mull.), etc. 

Of particular interest is the total absence of Poniatias elegans 
(Mull.), for I failed to detect a single fragment of this easily 
distinguished species. It would appear that this species never 
lived at Stonehenge, for fragments of this species have been detected 
in samples of soil from localities where it has long been extinct. 

v 2 

300 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

We now know that the damp conditions had changed considerabl}^ 
in Middle Bronze times, and that damp-loving species were dying 
out {W.A.M., xlvi, 218—24). 

The Stonehenge faunule, however, indicates a later stage in this 
process than that found at Easton Down. On the evidence, one is 
justified in concluding, that Stonehenge is not earlier than the 
Middle Bronze period, and may be later. The great question is 
how much later ? It is certainly pre-Roman ; and so far as evidence 
goes at present, and I am only referring to moUuscan evidence, it 
is pre-Early Iron Age. 

It is true that I have only been able to examine a few series of 
this age from Wiltshire, but the downland conditions were well 
marked in all of them. At Stonehenge Trochulus hispidus (Linn.) 
was not the downland form but one usually associated with slightly 
damp conditions. The mollusca indicate a date between the 
Middle Bronze and the Early Iron Age." 

As to the animal bones fiom the lower (silt) layer. Dr. Jackson 
remarks, "there is to be noted the scarcity of sheep remains and 
the total absence cf those of the horse. The remains of these 
animals appear to be rare in early sites." "A further point of 
interest is the presence of the remains of a large-horned ox from 
the lower (silt) layer. These remains agree essentially with those 
from Woodhenge and other early sites, and do not belong to the 
typical Celtic shorthorn {Bos hvachyceros) =longifrons so common 
in occupation sites of the Early Iron Age." On the other hand he 
says of the traces of horse, pig, sheep, and ox from the upper layers 
of the site, and more especially of the latter : — " These (bones of 
ox) and the other remains, agree with similar remains from 
Glastonbury, etc., and indicate animals smaller than the Black 
Kerry cow used by Pitt-Rivers as a test animal." 

Highworth, Wilts. The Official Guide issued 
under the auspices of the Highworth Rural District 
Council. E. J. Burrow & Co., Cheltenham. Pamphlet, 

'if >' 4|, pp. 20. Illustrations of Church and War Memorial, 
Hannington Hall, Old Houses in Swindon Street, High Street and 
Market Square. The notes are verv short. The Pre-reformation 
Chalice and Paten are the only things described in any detail. St. 
IMary's, Cricklade, Chancel Arch is said to be "Roman," an obvious 
misprint which should not have escaped the editor. 

Bishop Burnet's Theological College, and Earlier 
Theological Schools at Salisbury. By M. E. Roynon. 

The Savuui Record, Oct., 1935, pp. 18 — 21. 

Salisbury seems to have been always notable for its Theological 
learaiag. The " Domus Vallis Scholarium "of Bishop Giles de Briclport 
for 20 poor scholars and Bishop Walter de la W'ylve's foundation of St. 
Edmund's College for Theoloi^ical stude.its only, were famous in their 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 301 

day. In 1 179 the Lateran Council ordered that every Cathedral Church 
should provide a master to teach " the clerks of the Church " and other 
poor scholars gratis, and in 1215 it was further ordered that in every 
Metropolitical Church a Theology master must be provided. At Salisbury 
as in other Cathedrals it was part of the Chancellor's duty to regulate 
the schools of the city and diocese, but later he became responsible for 
teaching in a Theological school only. His school was always for the 
" Clerks of the Church " who received dispensation from residence in 
their parishes to attend it. The Chancellor soon delegated his divinity 
lectures to "fit and grave doctors," and Chancellor Adam de Esseby in 
1240 arranged that in future the Prebend of Bricklesworth should be 
annexed to the Chancellor's office to pay the lecturer. In 1536 the 
•Chancellor was paying £4: annually " to a reader of sacred Theology." 
But in 1535 the Chancellor was obliged to provide lectures twice a week 
■except in vacation time. In 1558 lectures were to be given three times 
a week at 9 a.m., and all the staff of the Cathedral were to be present. 
These lectures were changed into sermons on holy days before 1634, 
and as the Colleges of De Vaux and St. Edmund had been dissolved, 
there remained apparently no Theological teaching in Salisbury. Bishop 
Gilbert Burnet 1689 — 1715 deploring the want of Theological training 
at Oxford determined to found a Diocesan Theological College, " a 
nursery of studies in divinity." He selected ten men, who were to live 
with Dr. Daniel Whitby, Rector of St. Edmunds, to each of whom he 
made, out of his own pocket, an allowance of ^80 a year, and during 
the eight months of the year when he was in residence at Salisbury 
they came to him daily for an hour's lecture. The University of Oxford 
however ' made such a noise against this seminary as if it had been set 
up to discredit their manner of education " that the Bishop " was forced 
to lay aside his design " after it had flourished for five years. 

Geoffrey of Monmouth and Stonehenge. By 

A. Shaw Mellor. An article in the Wiltshire Gazette, April 11th, 
1935. Mr. Shaw Mellor sets forth in this article what other writers have 
pointed out, especially of recent years, since the general acceptance of 
the fact that the blue stones of Stonehenge came from Prescelly, in 
Pembrokeshire, that the story of Merlin removing the circle of Killaraus, 
in Ireland, and setting it up at Stonehenge, instead of being merely a 
fairy tale of magic and enchantment, does really contain a kernel of 
fact, viz., that the blue stones were brought, if not from Ireland, at 
least from far away in the west, in S. Wales, and that Merlin with his 
magic knowledge of the ways of transporting and erecting great stones, 
does represent dimly the presence of some master mind, who with or 
without a knowledge of the architecture of Mediterranean countries, did 
succeed in giving Britain a monument such as neither his predecessors 
or successors ever even attempted to erect. 

Stonehenge. a good popular account in Univritteii History b^'- 
H. R. Hall, pp. 250—261, 8vo., 1934. 

302 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Merino Sheep in Wilts. The A^. Wilts Herald of March 
29th; 1935, has a long article by G. S. S. with illustrations of the 
experiment in sheep breeding carried out at Cowcroft Farm, Ogbourne 
St. George, by Mr. H. G. Shields. The farm is 830ft. above sea level, 
Mr. Shields, who had been a wool farmer in Australia, conceived the 
idea of producing a type of sheep which should provide wool superior 
to that of any of the existing English breeds, and to this end he began 
by obtaining with much difficulty a pure-bred Merino ram. After some 
eight years experimenting he has succeeded in creating a flock said to 
produce the best wool in England ; their blood being three-fifths 
Southdown and two-fifths Merino. Not only the quality but the quantity 
of the wool has been improved, the fleece of the Merino-Southdown 
weighing double that of the Southdown. Pure-bred Merinos cannot 
stand the climate of the downs. 

Some Royal Visits to the City and Cathedral 
Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Salisbury. 
A Lecture given by Canon J M. J. Fletcher, MA., 
F B. Hist.S., Assistant Librarian of the Cathedral, 
on June 24th, 1935, Price 3d. Pamphlet, 8vo., pp. 15. 

The list of the Sovereigns begins with Hen. Ill, who visited the 
Cathedral three days after its dedication in 1225, and again on the 
Christmas following. He was present again at the opening of the 
Cathedral following its completion in September 30th, 1258. Richard II 
attended the ProvincialChapter of the Friars Minors in 1393. Visits 
are recorded of Hen. AT (five times) ; Ed. IV, Rich. Ill, Hen. VII (twice) ; 
Hen. VIII (three times) ; Ed. VI, who gave a gilt cup worth £10, with ^20 
of gold in it, and Elizabeth, who also gave ^20. James I came many 
times, and the King's House in the Close is so called from his having 
stayed there, and the arms of Prince Henry in one of the windows, 
mark, it is suggested, the room in which he slept when staying here 
with the King. Sometimes however he stayed at the Bishop's Palace, 
and sometimes at Mr. Sadler's. Charles I was here several times, and on 
one occasion " solemnly healed " {i.e., touched for the King's evil) in 
the choir of the Cathedral. Charles II was at Salisbury several times. 
James II was here with his army on Nov. 18th, 1688, when the Chapel 
at the Palace was " occupied by Popish Priests " who however were 
ousted in favour of the Anglican Chaplain. Will. HI entered the city 
a fortnight later. 

George I visited Salisbury in 1722, and distinguished himself by lavish 
gifts to Cathedral and city. Geo. HI was frequently there on his way 
to Weymouth, and on one occasion gave to the Cathedral the organ 
now in St. Thomas Church as a gift " from a gentleman of Berkshire " 
(then in the Diocese). This organ remained until removed in 1876 to 
make way for Miss Chafyn Grove's magnificent instrument. The Duke 
and Duchess of Kent with the infant Princess Victoria, then eight 
months old, stayed at the Palace in 1819, on which occasion she is 
recorded to have pulled off the Bishop's wig. Shortly afterwards the 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 303 

Duke's body rested in the Cathedral for a night, he having died at 
Sidraouth. Q. Victoria visited SaUsbury again in 1830 and in 1856. 
The visits of many other royal personages are mentioned. 

Old Froxfield, the Village, the Church, the College 
(Duchess of Somerset Hospital). By the Rev. 
Alfred George Barley, Vicar and Chaplain, 1935 

Price One Shilling. Pamphlet, Cr. 8vo., pp. 32, 7 illustrations. 

This is a useful little account of the parish of Froxfield put together 
by the Vicar who gives the sources of his information and does not lay 
claim to any expert knowledge himself. The guesses as to the deriva- 
tion of the name might perhaps have been left out. The story of the 
discovery of the Roman pavement and the Rudge Cup in the well 
adjoining, follows Sir R. C. Hoare's account, and on the strength of a 
more modern suggestion, favours the idea of its having been a votive 
offering at a sacred spring. Its presence at Alnwick Castle is accounted 
for by the fact that Lord Hertford, the 7th Duke of Somerset, dying in 
1750 bequeathed it to his daughter who became Duchess of Northumber- 
land. There are a few notes on the Manor, and the Manor mill is 
located at Oakhill Farm. The population is stated to have decreased 
from 505 in 1811 to 285 at the present day. The writer is perhaps too 
sanguine in relying on herring bone masonry in the Church walls as 
proof of existing Saxon work. A curious fact as to the registers is 
recorded, viz., that out of thirteen pages which contain the rewritten 
entries from 1561 to 1611, four belong to Great Bedwyn and have by 
some unexplained mistake got bound up with the Froxfield register. 

Some account is given of the Rev. Lewis Evans, F.R.S., who was 
Vicar cir. 1821, in which year he built, of Bath freestone, an observatory 
against the east end gable of the cottage outside and abutting on the 
south of the Vicarage garden, by means of which the exact time correct- 
to the 100th part of a second was always obtained by the Vicar, who 
was also responsible for the erection of a sundial on the face of one of 
the houses in the quadrangle of the hospital. Of old names occurring 
in the registers. Chapman, Alder, Pike, Fabian, Dysmore, and Green 
are mentioned. The Church it is noted was reseated and renovated in 
1854 at a cost of ^218 2s. 7d., and was thoroughly restored in 1892 
at a cost of about /^ 1,000 when a new roof to the nave, bell turret, 
vestry and organ chamber, south porch and chancel arch were all built. 

The story of the foundation and subsequent history of the Somerset 
Hospital founded 1694 by Sarah, Duchess of Somerset, for clergy and 
lay widows is usefully given at some length. 

Out of Fashion on the Farm. Horse Bells. The 
Flail, and The Wooden Bottle. A useful article in the 

Wiltshire Gazette 25th July, 1935, on agricultural appliances no longer 
in use, recalls that the carter when he conveyed a load of sacks of corn or 
anything of that sort, invariably carried a big bundle of straw on the 
top, provided apparently for the purpose of covering the sacks if rain 
came on. By unwritten law the straw became the carter's perquisite at 

304 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

the end of the journey, so it was never forgotten. The first threshing 
machine is said to have been used somewhere near Westbury considerably 
over 100 years ago, and to have cost ;^10 or £12. The " Wooden Bottle " 
of the harvester, like a minature barrel, is described. 

Malmesbnry Abbey Restoration. The a^. Wilts Herald 

of Aug. 9th, 1935, describes, with two illustrations, the work which has 
been in progress for nearly a year, at a cost of more than /^l.OOO, of 
securing and repairing the stonework of the vaulting of four bays of 
the nave, to which attention was first called by the fall of plaster in 
March 1934. 

Salisbury Public Library Treasures, by H. H. 

Sates. Mr. Bates has a series of articles in the Salisbury Times, 
June to August, 1935, on the chief treasures of the Library, not merely 
from a bibliographical point of view, but with pleasant talk of the 
authors and their work and influence, as he discourses on the editions 
of Milton, Bunyan, Herbert, Pope, Addison, Defoe, and Johnson, and 
on the books more especially concerning Wiltshire and Salisbury, the 
Cathedra], Old Sarum, Stonehenge, and W^ilton. A most readable and 
interesting series of notes. 

The Wiltshire Ancestry of William Penn, 
Founder of Pennsylvania. By Richard Parsons. 

Wiltshire Gazette, Sept., 1935. It is said that Hen. VHI entrusted the 
care of his children, Ed. VI and the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth, to 
Sabella, wife of David Penn of Penn Manor, co. Bucks. They had two 
sons, John of Penn whose male line became extinct in 1732, and 
William, a monk of Glastonbury. At the dissolution of the monasteries 
the Kmg out of respect to the memory of his parents Sabella and David, 
gave William certain lands belonging to the Abbey, in Braden Forest, 
on which he built a house called Penns I>odge, and married and had 
a son, William, of Minety, and of Penns Lodge, whose will leaving his 
propertv to his daughter-in-law and six grandchildren is printed here in 
full. Of these six the eldest, Gejr^e the heir, left only a daughter who 
married a Pleydell, and the estate passed to that family. 

The second son, Giles, was a Bristol merchant, and was the father of 
Admiral Sir W^illiam Penn, whose son was the first "Proprietor" of 
Pennsylv^ania. Sir Will. Penn was born at Bristol 1621, was knighted 
1665, died 1670, and was buried in Redcliffe Church, Bristol. The 
founder of Pennsylvania married, secondly, Hannah Callowhill in 1696. 
There is a Callowhill in Minety, and a Callowhill Street in Bristol. 

Hannington. The Records of a Wiltshire Parish. 
By Claude B Pry Grloucester, printed by John 

Bellows, 1935 Cloth and buckram, small 4to., pp. 148. One 
hundred copies printed. 

The illustrations are : — A folding reproduction of the six inch 
ordnance map of the parish ; view of the Hall with cuts of the Freke 
Arms, and two other tablets, and a Rainwater head of 1691 ; 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 305 

Hannington Wick Chapel in 1810 ; Manor Farm, Hannington Wick ; 
S. (Norman) doorway of Hannington Church ; and a reproduction of a 
deed of 1482. 

This excellently produced book is a notable addition to the small num- 
ber of Parish Histories of Wiltshire. In the preface the author says :^ 
"It is an obscure country parish, but from its records we may learn 
something of the conditions which formerly prevailed in a small 
agricultural community. . . . The old deeds, of which translations 
are given in the appendix, the extracts from the early Court Rolls and 
the later ones from 1628 to 1864, the Enclosure Agreement of 1632, a 
series of surveys and plans of the Manor together with a large number 
of old documents relating to the parish, all of which came into my 
possession, have provided an interesting study and formed the found- 
ation of the present volume." 

In the boundaries of the parish as specified in a survey of 1591 
" Gosspell corner" on Bidebrook is explained as the spot where the 
Gospel was read during the Perambulation. This is interesting as bear- 
ing on the meaning of " Gospel Oak " at Cricklade. " The Parish Lanes, 
which date from the time of the enclosure of the common fields early in 
the 17th century comprise a considerable area of grass which formerly 
provided good pasturage. Regulations for pasturing cattle, etc., in the 
common lanes were made from time to time by the Manor Court. In 
1721 it was ordered and agreed that anyone who paid one shilling to the 
poor rate might stock one sheep in the common lanes and for two 
shillings to the poor rate one cow or horse or two sheep . . . The 
lanes might not be stocked before Lady Day and were to be hained on 
1 December. In 1723, cattle depastured in the common lanes were to 
have a keeper constantly with them and were to be penned up every 
night out of the lanes. . . . The present practice is to let the lanes 
in 11 lots to the highest bidder at the annual parish meeting in March." 
The most distinguished native of Hannington was probably Narcissus 
Marsh, Archbishop of Armagh, the son of William Marsh, a yeoman 
farmer, who was born in 1638 and was educated, as he tells us in his 
diary, by Mr. Nigel Pleydell, of Lushill, Mr. Dudley minister at 
Highworth, Mr. Crouch minister of Hannington, and Mr. Thos. Hedges 
minister of Rodborne, " in all of which schools I never was so much as 
once whipt or beaten." The Marsh family are traced at Hannington 
for several generations and Mr. Fry is satisfied that the Hist, of 
National Biography is wrong in connecting the Archbishop's family with 
Kent. The house of Robert Marsh, the Bishop's grandfather, which 
stood on the west side of Nell Hill was burnt down in 1673 and was 
never rebuilt. The land on which it stood is marked " Burnt Close " 
on a map of 1758 and on another as " Proby's Burn Close." 

The history of the descent of the Manor is traced from its gift to 
Glastonbury by Q. Elfrida down to the present day and a pedigree of 
the Freke family is given. The common fields are described and the 
history of their enclosure by agreement of all parties concerned in 1632, 
a very early example, as most of the enclosures in North Wilts were 
brought about by Act of Parliament between 1770 and 1810. 

306 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

In connection with the building of the house (it was not until 1836 
that it was called the Hall) the following account for the furnishing of 
the garden in 1654 is interesting : — ■ 

£ s. d. 

100 Damaske Rosetrees 10 6 

2500 Licorish plants 18 

200 Sparagus plants 4 

^c. of hartechocks 2/6 and phisick plants 5/- and hamper xviiid. 

fig trees of London 1/-. 

The chapter on Hannington Hall, one of the most picturesque houses 
in the county, is excellent. The house was built by the two brothers, 
Raufe and William Freke, in 1653. A plan of the Manor of about 1647 
shows the " Parsonage " house close to the Vicarage, and it was on this 
site that the existing Hall was built. It seems probable that the 
entrance with the room on each side and the rooms over, really con- 
stituted the old " Parsonage House " and were absorbed in the new 
building, which was finished in 1654. From this date till 1836 the 
house was probably little altered. The descent of the property is traced 
in the Freke family to 1835 when Col. Henry John, great nephew of the 
Rev. John Freke, inherited it, and took the name of Freke. He at once 
began large alterations and additions on the south front as the inscrip- 
tion on the orangery and the parapet of that front show. The exterior 
was refaced, the porch with rooms over was built, the parapet on that 
side, and the two bay windows were added, and in the interior the 
ceilings of the entrance hall and the rooms on either side were put up, 
and the oak pannelling was removed. The exterior alterations of 1836 
were in harmony with the rest of the house, except that sash windows 
were introduced. These were replaced by casements in 1922. 

Col. Freke died 1848, his widow married Capt. Willes Johnson who 
painted the six round pictures let into the walls of the large French 
drawing room which he built about 1852. The present oak staircase 
dates from this period. Col. Freke's daughter, Florence Mary Spenser 
Freke, the heiress of Hannington, married in 1862 Ambrose Denis 
Hussey, who took the name of Hussey Freke. In his time the stables 
were rebuilt, and in 1863 the house was enlarged by the building of the 
kitchen wing and the courtyard at the back. The hexagonal building 
near the stables was formerly the well house, in which it is said that the 
water was pumped up by a horse walking round and round. Ambrose 
Hussey Freke died 1907, and his widow in 1921 sold the estate to the 
present owner, the author of this book. The plaster ceiling and oak 
panelling of the dining room were added in 1929, and the 17th century 
mantelpiece in the hall came from an old house pulled down in Bristol. 

Byde Mill mentioned in Domesday was called after its owners, the 
Byde family, whose name appears from 1391 onwards. It is now Byde 
Mill Farm. 

The old Vicarage adjoined the Parsonage. In 1654 it is described as 
having "two roomes belowe stairs and one Garrett Roome without 
chimnev over them " and beins: in a " ruinouse " condition. The then 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 




Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 




Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 309' 

Vicar, James Crouch, exchanged it for a house occupied by Thomas 
Butcher. This house was enlarged or rebuilt in 1658, and was pulled 
down in 1723 when the present Vicarage was built on the same site by 
the then Vicar, Richard Burton, the interior being reconstructed in 
1856 by J. B. Smeaton, Vicar at the time. 

Yorke House in the village was the home of the Yorke family who in 
the 16th and 17th centuries were copyhold tenants of the Manor. The 
site of the Cross shown on a 17 th century map and of the stocks was 
in front of the present Post Office. At Hannington Wick a Chapel of 
Ease was built by Thomas Freke in 1714. This was pulled down in 
1874. The Manor Farm at Hannington Wick is a gabled house of cir. 
1640 (with a later porch) built by Thomas Savery, a member of a family 
connected with Hannington since the 14th centur3^ Mr. Ponting's 
description of the Parish Church is given, and it is mentioned that 
William Freke offered to rebuild it in the centre of the parish, if the 
parishioners would pay for the haulage of the materials. Happily the 
parishioners did not accept this offer. The story of the disputes between 
Hannington and Kempsford as to the repair of the w^ooden bridge over 
the Thames in the 15th and 16th centuries is told at some length. The 
present stone bridge was only built in 1841. 

Of Place names Chesselpeece is a field name from the gravel that 
underlies it. Stert's Farm appears in 1549 as Le Stert. Until the 
Reformation, " The Sepulchre half acre " provided 2d. yearly for the 
light before the Easter sepulchre from Maundy Thursday to Easter, 
and the name still attached to the land in the Enclosure Agreement of 
1632. "A noate of the Churchyard mounds " shows that the wall or 
boundary of the Churchyard was kept in repair by the Lord of the 
Manor and the freeholders and tenants, the length for which each was 
responsible varying according to the extent of his land. The Vicar had 
to maintain 3|^ feet adjoining the stile, whilst the stile and gate in 
' Pisworth ' was repaired by the parish. In the Churchwardens' 
Accounts 1635 — 1820 an entry occurs between 1641 and 1647 " Fore 
Church brasse bought of the parishe at ^'3." This is taken to refer to 
monumental brasses sold, but if so, and if the price was as it was in 
other cases, 4d. or 3d. a pound, there must have been a very unusual 
number of bra'sses at Hannington. There are several entries of 
payments for keeping dogs out of Church, the last being in 1783 when 
John Ballo was paid 6s. for " Whiping the dogs." In 1709 there are 
two examples of penance " Pd. when Jobson tooke penance and for ye 
sheet 1 — 7," " Pd. when Edward don took penance 2 — 0." The Court 
Rolls before 1628 have disappeared, but they existed in 1651 when 
Raufe Freke made a number of extracts from them of the 14th and 15th 
centuries, which are here printed. In a grant of Free Warren to the 
Dean and Canons of St. Mary's, Leicester, in 1356 the list of game 
includes " Roe, Hare, Rabbit, Partridge, Pheasant, Woodcock, Quail, 
Rail, MaUard and Heron." The Court Rolls from 1628 to 1864 are 
still preserved at the Hall. 

The historv of the descent of the adv^owson, the great tithes of the 

310 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Rectory, and the Vicarage, is given at considerable length, with a list 
of the Vicars and and patrons, with as full biographical details as is 
possible, and there is an appendix of translations of important deeds 
in full. Throughout the book, which is eminently readable, obsolete 
words and customs are sufficiently explained and there is an excellent 
index at the end. Altogether it is a real addition to the best books on 

Trial excavations in the east suburb of Old Sarum. 
By John F. S. Stone and John Charlton. Antiq. joum., 

vol. XV, pp. 174—192, April, 1935. Two Folding plans. Leland, in 1540, 
says that there were two gates to Old Sarum, east and west, with a " faire 
suburbe " outside each of them. " In the est suburbe was a paroch 
Churche of S. John, and ther yet is a chapelle standing." During the 
construction in 1931 of the new main road west of the farm and Old 
Castle Inn nothing was found, except a few fragments of pottery, but 
in making a new accommodation road east of the new main road, twenty 
skeletons were found in two parallel lines. In 1932 four more skeletons 
were found on the other side of the wall by the tenant of the farm, Mr. 
O. H. Barnes, whilst digging a cesspit in the extreme north corner of his 
paddock. Mr. Barnes reported that some of these skeletons had iron 
nails through their hands or feet. This, however, seems to be explained 
by the fact that these graves were dug through the debris of previous 
buildings containing many roofing slates, some of them with the nails 
still in them, and that these were mixed up with the contents of the 
graves. The present tenant recalls that during the last century 
numbers of skulls were found whilst ploughing the fields on the other 
side of the old main road, and The Salisbury Journal, April 7th, 1834, 
and July 16th, 1881, record the finding of several skeletons at this spot. 
During the excavations four square Norman cesspits were found and 
dug out, on the bottom of one of which was found a silver penny of 
Will, the Conqueror. The foundations of one of the buildings excavated, 
though extremely fragmentary, went to show that it was surrounded 
by graves, but had no graves within it, and as carved fragments of 
stone and marble of 13th century work were found, it is suggested that 
this may have been the site of the Chapel of St. John, mentioned by 
Leland, which is known to have been destroyed in 1548. Fragments 
of Portland and Chilmark stone, Hurdcote green sand, Purbeck marble, 
Kimmeridge shale and Cornish slate tiles, and glazed Cockscomb 
Ridge tiles were found. 

The skeletons, 49 in number, appeared, with one exception, to have 
been buried without a cofiin, simply shrouded in cerecloth tied in a 
bunch above the head. A black substance at the head seemed to be 
the remains of this cloth. All the skeletons lay on their backs, and 
were roughly orientated. Nothing was buried with them. The skulls 
and long bones have been sent to the College of Surgeons. The pottery 
fragments from the Norman cesspits are carefully described and figured, 
they were mostly cooking pots, but fragments of a boot-shaped 
crucible were found. 




Presented by Mr. A. D. Passmore : Plaster cast of Bronze Palstave 
found at Ashton Keynes. 
Placed in the Museum on loan by The Corporation : 
Bronze Standard Yard Measure inscribed " Borough 
of Devizes. Imperial Yard." Date 1847. Found 
amongst old metal in a builder's yard. 
,, Mr. a. Shaw Mellor : Small Earthenware Pot found 
in quarry at Box. 


Presented by The Author, Dr. J. F. S. Stone : " Trial Excavations 
in the East Suburb of Old Sarum." Reprint from 
Antiq. Journ., April 1935. 
,, Mr. F. Stevens (Salisbury Museum) : Papers and Deeds. 
., Mr. F. Porter Faussett : A parcel of Election Broad- 
,, ,, The Author, Mr. A. D. Passmore : "A Beehive Cham- 

ber at Ablington, Gloucestershire," Reprint from 
Transactions of Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch. Soc, 

High worth Official Guide. 

Photos of Saxon Spear, &c., from Woodbridge Inn, 
N. Newnton, and Roman Bronze Weight (?) from 

Old Deeds and Papers. 
,, The Author, Canon J. M. J. Fletcher : " Some 
Royal Visits to the City and Cathedral Church of 
Salisbury. 1935." 
,, The Author, The Rev. A. G. Barley : " Old Froxfield, 
the Village, the Church, the College. 1935." Cr. 8vo. 
,, ,, Mr. E. C. Gardner : Photograph and old papers. 

,, The Author : Miss V. C. C. Collum : " The Tresse 

Iron Age Megalithic Monument (Sir Roberts Mond's 

excavation). Its Quadruple Sculptured Breasts and 

their relation to the Mother- Goddess Cult " 1935. 4to. 

,, ,, Mr. W. Nelson Hayden : Photographs. 

,, Mr. H. W. Dartnell : "The Naturalists' Diary, by 
C. Roberts, 1900. (Marlborough and Giessen.)" 

"Sermons at Marlborough College," 1866, 1867, 

"Marlborough College Prolusiones," 1879, 1883. 
"Antiquities of Marlborough College," 1859, 2nd 

312 Additions to Museum and Library. 

Presented by The British Record Society : Six Wiltshire Deeds. 
,, The Author, Mrs. Ethel M. Richardson, (formerly 
of Purton) ; "The Story of All Saints, Ennismore 
Gardens (Knigtsbridge), 1935." Cr. 8vo. 
,, Mrs. Cunnington : " Gentleman's Magazine Library. 

Topography, Wiltshire, &c." Large 8vo. 
,, The Author, Mr. Claude B. Fry: " Hannington : 
The Records of a Wiltshire Parish." 1935. Small 
,, Lt.-Col. R. H. Cunnington : Military Engineering in 
the Early Iron Age (Article reprinted from British 
Archaeological Journal, June, 1935). 
,, Mr. a. Cossons : Four Acts of Parliament relating to 

Wiltshire Turnpikes. 
,, Mr. W' . G. Jones : MS. notes on the Nisbet family of 
Southbroom, and the Crests on the Lodge at South- 
broom House. With illustrations by Miss P. Alcock. 
,, The Marquis of Lansdowne : Calne Union Parochial 
Lists, Statistics of Pauperism, Abstracts of Accounts, 
&c., 1882—86. Bound 4to. 

Wilts County Council Minutes, Feb., 1896— Mar., 
1899. Bound 4to. 

Richard Faulkner Curry, H.M. Inspector of Schools. 
By one who worked with him. 1907, 8vo. 

Schools Inquiry Commission, Vol. XIV, South- 
W'estern Division. Special Reports (W^iltshire, &c.), 
1868. Large 8vo. 

A Guide to Farleigh Hungerford. By Canon J. E. 
Jackson. 2nd Edition, Taunton, I860. 4to. 
Bradford and District. (Pamphlets bound up). 
Calne. By Canon J. E. Jackson. Reprint from 
W.A.M. Bound folio. 

Wilts County Boundaries 1930—34. Bound 8vo. 
Chippenham Causeway Papers, &c. Bound 4to. 
,, Canon E. H. GoDDARD : Crockford's Clerical Directory, 

" Antiquity " for 1925. 
,, An Anonymous Donor: A parcel of Old Wiltshire 
Deeds and Papers. 

8 OCT 1951 

Pviiiled and u\ ^. ti. uuodvvarci. iixcliaiiKe KiuldiUK.-'i Slalioii Kuad. J>evize.s- 


of the Magazine in separate wrapper 3s. 6d. This still remains one of 
the best and most reliable accounts of Stonehenge and its Earthworks. 

AUBREY, F.R.S., A.D. 1659—1670. Corrected and enlarged by the 
Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, M.A., F.S.A., 4to., Cloth, pp. 491, with 46 
plates. Price ;^1 7s. 6d. 

8vo., pp. vii. + 510. 1901. With full index. In 8 parts, as issued. 
Price 13s. 

DITTO. IN THE REIGNS OF HEN. Ill, ED. I, and ED. II. 8vo., 
pp. XV. 505. In parts as issued. Price 13s. 

DITTO. THE REIGN OF ED. III. Svo., pp. 402. In six parts as 
issued. Price 13s. 

WILTSHIRE, STONEHENGE. and AVEBURY, with other references, 
by W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S., pp. 169, with 4 illustrations. No. 89, 
Dec, 1901, of the Magazine. Price 5s. 6d. Contains particulars as to 
947 books, papers, &c., by 732 authors. 

THE TROPENELL CARTULARY. An important work in 2 vols., 
Svo. pp. 927, containing a great number of deeds connected with property 
in many Wiltshire Parishes of the 14th and 15th centuries. Only 150 
copies were printed, of which a few are left. Price ^1 2s. 

Parts. Price 16s. (N.B. — Separate Parts can no longer be sold.) 

1195 TO 1272, BY E. A. FRY. 8vo., pp. 103. Price 6s. 


The Society has a considerable number of 17th and 18th century 
Wiltshire Tokens to dispose of, either by sale or exchange for others 
not in the Society's collection. 

Apply to Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot., Curator, 
Museum, Devizes. 

BOOKBINDING. Books carefully Bound to pattern. 

Wilts Archaeological Magazine bound to match previous volumes, 
Or in Special Green Cases. 

We have several back numbers to make up sets. 

C. H. WOODWARD, Printer and Publisher, 

Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 


TAKE NOTICE that a copious Index for the preceding eight 
volumes of the Magazine will be found at the end of Vols, viii., 
xvi., xxiv., and xxxii. The subsequent Volumes are each fully 
indexed separately. 

The annual subscription is 15s. 6d., the entrance fee for new 
Members is 10s. 6d. Life Membership .£15 15s. 

Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society for 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to the 
Financial Secretary, Mr. R. D. Owen, Bank Chambers, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply of 
Magazines should be addressed. 

The Numbers of this Magazine will be delivered gratis, as issued, to 
Members who are not in arrear of their Annual Subscriptions, 
but in accordance with Byelaw No. 8 " The Financial Secretary 
shall give notice to Members in arrear, and the Society's 
publications will not be forwarded to Members whose Subscrip- 
tions shall remain unpaid after such notice." 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secretary : 
Canon E. H. Goddard, F.S.A., Red Gables, Nursteed Road, 


To be obtained of Mr, R. D. OWEN, Bank Chambers, Devizes. 

WILTSHIRE DOWNS, by the Rev. A. C. Smith, M.A. One Volume, 
Atlas 4to., 248 pp., 17 large Maps, and 110 Woodcuts, Extra Cloth. One 
copy offered to each Member of the Society at ;^1 Is. A few copies only. 

504 pp., with Map, Cloth. By the Rev. T. A. Preston, M.A, Price to 
the Public 16s. ; but one copy offered to every Member of the Society 
at half-price. 

TIQUITIES IN THE SOCIETY'S MUSEUM, with 175 Illustrations. 
Part I. Price Is. 6d. 

Part II. 2nd Edition, 1935. Illustrated, 2s. 6d. By post 3s. 

Price Is. APPENDIX No. I, II, and III, 3d. each. 

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BACK NUMBERS of the MAGAZINE. Price to the Public, 8s., 
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these prices. 

Archaeological & Natural History 


No. CLXIV. JUNE, 1936. Vol. XLVII. 

Contents. ^^^^ 

The Eighty-Second General Meeting of the Wiltshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society 


2nd, 1935 313—320 

An Old Malmesbury Minute Book : By Sir Richard H. 

Luce 321—326 

A Grant by the Abbess of Wilton Dated 7 May, 28 

Henry VIII, 1536 : By The Rev. A. W. Stote-Blandy 327—329 

A Medieval Dispute as to Right of Presentation to 
THE Rectory of Somerford Magna : By Canon 
F. H. Manley , 330—334 

Additional Notes with regard to Larmer, Wermere, 
Rev. W. Goodchild 335—339 

A Rate made this 19th Day of August anno Dom. 
1695, for & towards the repair of the p.ish 
Church of Calne, Etc., being Two Poor Rates : 
Transcribed by C. R. Everett 340—344 

Box Parish Records — Sidelights on Life in a Wilt- 
shire Village in the Past : By A, Shaw Mellor ... 345 — 357 

The Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts : By Frank Stevens, 

O.B.E., F.S.A ,. 358—378 

Notes on the Prebendal Mansion of Sherborne 
Monastery, commonly known as the King's House, 
IN THE Close of Sarum. 1220—1850 : By C. R. 
Everett, F.S.G 379—405 

An Unrecorded Group of Barrows and other Earth- 
works at Ford, Laverstock : By J. F. S. Stone, 
D. Phil 406—411 

Two Egyptian Limestone Scarabs Found in Wiltshire : 

By the late G. H. Engleheart 412—415 

Two Egyptian Limestone Scarabs Found in Wiltshire : 

By P. L. Collignon, Ph.D 416—419 

Wall Paintings Formerly in Highworth Church : By 

Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, Hon. F.S.A. Scot .- 420—421 

Wilts Obituary.... 422 — 430 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 431 — 440 

Additions to Museum and Library 441 — 442 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1935 443 — 446 


Tile Stamp in Winchester Museum , 359 

Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts, Fig. 2 362 

Figs. 3 and 4 363 

Fig. 5 366 

Plates I— 7 368—374 

King's House, 15th century ; King's House, 20th century ; 
East View of the King's Hdusc before the alterations ; 
South-west View of the King's House before the alter- 
ations ; East View of the King's House since the alter- 
ations ;. King's House, Diocesan Training College, The 

Close, Salisbury, East Front, April, 1936 384—385 

Ford, Laverstock — Plate I, General Plan of Earthworks ; 
Plate II, Aerial Photograph of Ende Burgh (Hand 
Barrows) and surrounding Earthworks ; Plate HI, Vessel 

from Cist 1 408—409 

Limestone Egyptian Scarab found at Ludgershall 414 

LiiTiCstone Egyptian Scarab found near Stonehenge 415 

Mural Painting formerly in Highworth Church ; Mural 
Painting of an Angel formerly in Highworth Church ; 

Mural Inscription formerly in Highworth Church 420 — 421 

Devizes : — C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road, 




NO. CLXIV. June, 1936- Vol. XLVII. 





July 31st, August 1st, and 2nd, 1935.1 

Only once before, in 1867, the Society had met at Hungerford. This 
year the Annual General Meeting was held in the Town Hall which had 
been kindly placed at the disposal of the Society by the Town Trustees. 
About 40 members were present at the meeting. The President of the 
Society, Mr. F. Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A., was in the chair. The Hon. 
Secretary read the 


" Membership. — On July 12th, 1935, the number of members was: 
Two honorary members, 16 life members, and 396 annual subscribers, 
415 in all ; seven less than in 1934, and 27 less than in 1931. There 
were six deaths and twelve resignations during the year. Although in 
other respects the condition of the Society is satisfactory, the actual 
number of members, upon which the life and work of the Society really, 
in the long run, depend, has now been slowly decreasing for several 
years. It is greatly to be desired that all present members will do their 
best to bring in new members in the coming year. 

Finance. — The General Fund : this fund had a balance on January 
1st, 1934, of ^493 16s., and ended the year with one of ^545 17s., a gain 
on the year of £62 Is. The two numbers of the Magazine cost ^237 4s., 
and a grant of £50 was made to the Museum Enlargement Fund. The 
sale of Magazines and books, including a considerable number of copies 
of the Society's publications, which have been many years in stock, 

1 The fullest account of the meeting is to be found in the Wiltshire 
Gazette, Aug. 1st, 8th, and 15th, 1935. 


314 The Eighty -second General Meeting. 

brought in ^44 7s. 8d., and the balances of the annual meeting and the 
single day's excursion came to ^35 12s. 8d. 

The Museum Maintenance Fund, beginning the year with a deficit 
■of ^32 16s. 7d., ended with a balance of ;^41 17s. Id. This satisfactory 
result was due to the fact that the special appeal issued during the year 
brought in ;£111 13s. 9d., as well as the promise of a good many more 
regular subscriptions to this fund. The efficiency of the Museum and 
Library really depends chiefly on these annual subscriptions. Special 
appeals can only be made occasionally, but the ordinary expenses of 
the Museum must be met regularly year by year if it is to be kept up to 
the standard it has now reached. The annual subscriptions for the 
year amounted to ^30 9s. 6d. and admissions to the Museum and don- 
ations in the box produced ^10 9s. 9d. 

The Museum Purchases Fund began the year with a balance 
of ;^129 12s. lid. and ended it with one of ^93 Os. 7d. The chief 
expenses during the year were the purchase of the Dictionary of 
National Biography and the cost of binding and repairing MSS. 

The Museum Enlargement Fund increased from ^444 9s. 2d. to 
^534 Os. 6d. The year's rent of the caretaker's rooms was, as usual, 
added to the fund, together with a grant of ^50 from the General Fund, 
and one donation of £10. 

The Life Membership Fund, from which one-tenth is annually carried 
to the General Fund, decreased from £^2 7s. to ^75 19s. 7d. 

The Register of Bishop Simon of Ghent Fund, which had a balance 
of ^6 17s. 6d. at the beginning of the year, distributed the concluding 
Part VIII of the Register to the special subscribers, and the remaining 
balance of -£5 2s. 9d. was transferred to the General Fund. 

The Wansdylce Excavation Fund was also closed and the balance of 
£4, 8s. 9d. was handed over to the Museum Enlargement Fund. 

The Bradford-on-Avon Barn Account. At the beginning of the year 
the balance on this fund stood at ^53 5s. 4d., and the admissions to the 
Barn and the sale of pamphlets brought in £16 6s. 9d., but in addition 
to the annually recurring small expenses, extensive repairs costing 
^61 2s. 8d. had to be met by a loan of ^18 from the General Fund, 
which will be repaid as funds come in. 

On the whole, the financial position of the Society may be said to be 
satisfactory at present. 

The Museum. — The most notable gifts during the 3^ear have been 
those of the Sheriff's coach, the old plough, and the old Wiltshire 
waggon, which are especially mentioned under the "Bradford Barn 
below. With the coach, Mr. F. Porter Faussett gave a fine set of 
Sheriff's javelins, which have been placed on loan at the Devizes Assize 

The second edition of Part II of the " Catalogue of Antiquities " by 
Mrs. Cunnington, has recently been published. It is fully illustrated 
and compares favourably with the catalogue of any other provincial 
museum in England. The provision of new locks to all the cases, 
rendered necessary by the theft of a number of the bronze implements. 

The Eighty-second General Meeting. 315 

was an expensive work, which the success of the special appeal enabled 
the committee to carry out. 

The Library. — During the past year a considerable number of Books 
of General Reference on many subjects, beginning with the Dictionary 
of National Biography, have been addded to the Library, some by 
purchase, but many others by gift. In this way a side of the Library 
which was somewhat weak before has been much strengthened to the 
advantage of those who use it for consultation. To contain these Books 
of Reference, a new double standing bookcase has been provided from 
the Museum Maiatenance Fund. The use of the Library as a whole 
has been very greatly simphfied by the fact that by the generosity of 
Mrs. CunningtOD the whole of the cases have been fitted with new locks 
which can all now be opened by a single key. The whole of the books 
also have been labelled by the Hon. Librarian, so that there should be 
no danger in future of books being replaced, after use, on the wrong 
shelves, and so practically lost to subsequent readers. The Society is 
indebted also to Mr. G. Kidston and Captain Cunnington for the 
considerable cost of the repair and rebinding of three volumes of MS. 
Manorial Records, and to the former also for his gift of photographs of 
all that portion of the Lewes Cartulary which relates to \\'iltshire. To 
Mr. B. H. Hankey we owe a valuable gift of eleven old maps of Wiltshire, 
all new to the Society's already large collection ; to Mr. H. Rivers Pollock 
for. 24 excellent photographs of characteristic inhabitants of Erchfont at 
the present time, a series which might well be added to by similar series 
from other Wiltshire parishes ; to Dr. G. S. A. Waylen, for the original 
pen drawing of a " Punch " cartoon of George Wyndham by L. H. 
Ravenhill ; to the British Record Society for a number of old Wiltshire 
deeds ; to the Salisbury Museum and Mr. F. Stevens for various papers 
and items of interest ; and to Major Allen and Mr. Passmore for an 
album of admirable air photographs of earth circles near High worth. 

The Magazine. — The half-yearly numbers 160 and 161 were issued 
punctually in June and December, 1934. The latter contained the full 
index to Vol. xlvi. The Editor has again to thank authors of papers 
who have kindly borne the cost of the blocks illustrating them ; a great 
help to the Society. 

The Bradford Barn. — As has been mentioned under the heading of 
Finance, considerable repairs had to be undertaken during the past 
year. The accumulation of earth against the south and east walls had 
caused serious dampness and consequent disintegration of the masonry, 
and under the advice of the late Sir Harold Brakspear, who most kindly 
gave his professional help without charge to the Society, the earth on 
these sides has been cleared away and the walls attended to. The 
suggestion made some time ago that the Barn should be utilised for the 
preservation of old Wiltshire farming and other trade apparatus and 
implements now rendered obsolete by the introduction of machinery, 
has been brought to the front, by the presentation to the Society of a 
High Sheriff's coach by Mr. F. Porter Faussett, an old W^iltshire waggon 
by Capt. Broome, and an old plough by Mr. Barclay Uncles, which 

\\- 2 

316 The Eighty-second General Meeting. 

have been placed in the Barn. It is most desirable that members of 
the Society and others who ma^^ know of the existence of any such 
articles, now in danger of loss or destruction, should endeavour to 
secure them for the Barn collection, and to that end should communicate 
with Mr. H. Rivers Pollock, of Erchfont Manor, Devizes, who has 
undertaken to act as the Society's representative in the matter of the 
collection of obsolete implements and apparatus and the general 
supervision of the Barn, whilst Mr. R. T. Christopher, of Bradford, 
kindly looks after matters on the spot. In this connection a suggestion 
has been made that the electric light should be installed in the Barn, but 
the Committee has decided that this at present is not a necessity, and 
that the Barn funds would not justify the expenditure it would entail. 
Excavations. — During the 3^ear Dr. Tancred Borenius carried out 
extensive excavations laying bare the foundations and plan of th6 
Royal Palace of Clarendon. These diggings are being extended at the 
present time, and it is understood that an account of the work already 
done will be published shortly. 

At Avebury, Mr. Alexander Keiller continued his excavations on the 
line of the Kennet Avenue into the autumn of 1934, setting up again 
all the buried stones which he discovered, and securing the land covered 
by his diggings for the future. He is already at work again on this 
year's four months' programme of digging on the Avenue. 

At Highworth, Mr. A. D. Passmore cut sections through some of the 
series of earth circles of a new type, the discovery of which is due to 
Major G. W. G. Allen and himself, and has described the results in the 

At Old Sarum, Dr. J. F. S. Stone and Mr. John Charlton uncovered 
and noted a number of interments of early mediaeval date just outside 
the gate of the old city, and Dr. Stone published his account of them 
in the Antiquary' s Journal. 

During the process of road widening at Manningford, two or three 
Saxon interments were uncovered, and the objects found with the 
skeletons have been given to the Museum by the County Council 

At Totney Hill, Kingsdown, Box, Mr. A. Shaw Mellor has excavated 
a curious mound containing fragments of human skeletons, which he is 
describing in the December Magazine. 

The Annual Meeting of 1934, — held at Salisbury under the presidency 
of the late Sir Harold Brakspear, was largely attended (112 tickets were 
taken), was enjoyed by all who were present, and a substantial balance 
was earned for the general fund. On the other hand, the single day's 
excursion at Oldbury Camp, arranged in June, 1935, was spoiled by 
torrential rain, only a handful of hardy members reaching the meeting 
point. This was the first occasion since the institution of these 
excursions that the programme has not been fully carried out. 

The Preservation of Avebury. — In the Times of May 31st, 1935, 
appeared a very important article by the Rt. Hon. W. Ormsby Gore, 
M.P., First Commissioner of Works, entitled " Avebury, Relics of Three 

The Eighty-second General Meeting. 317 

Cultures, a Great Prehistoric Site," dwelling on the national importance 
to archaeology of the site and its surroundings considered as a whole, 
including Avebury itself, the Kennet Avenue, the Sanctuary, the 
Beckhampton Stones, Silbury and Windmill Hills, and urging that 
nothing less than a scheme under the Town and Country Planning Act 
is (in the words of the leading article commenting on the proposal) 
" essential for the preservation of this unique site from desecration, and 
still more from the sort of "development" that makes research 
prohibitively expensive." Our own Society will most earnestly agree 
with the words with which Mr. Ormsby Gore concludes his article : 
" Of all such schemes (of preservation of archaeological remains, etc.), 
the Avebury scheme, in my opinion, has priority from an archaeological 
standpoint. The site is unique, not only in Britain but in Europe, and 
it is important that the work of conservation and scientific investigation 
should proceed without further delay." What has already been done 
for Stonehenge can surely be accomplished for Avebury also. 

The President for 1936. — The Committee recommend that Mr. F. 
Stevens be re-elected President for the year 1936, and he has expressed 
his willingness to serve if re-elected. The Committee also recommend 
the appointment as members of the Committee of Mr. Alexander 
Keiller, F.S.A., of Avebury, and Mr. C. P. Isaac, of Devizes, in the 
place of the late Sir Harold Brakspear, K.C.V.O., and Mr. J. J. Slade, 
who has resigned on leaving the county. 

The Report having been adopted, the officers of the Society were 
reappointed en bloc with the addition to the Committee of Mr. Alexander 
Keiller, F.S.A., in the place of Sir Harold Brakspear, and of Mr. C. P. 
Isaac in the place of Mr. J.J. Slade who resigned on leaving the county. 
On the recommendation of the Committee the meeting requested the 
President to continue in office for another year, and Mr. Stevens con- 
sented to do so. The President having spoken of the great loss sustained 
by Mediaeval Archaeology in general by the death of his predecessor. Sir 
Harold Brakspear, went on to suggest that the Natural History side of 
the Society's activities might be stimulated, if a special Natural History 
Day could be arranged. As to the question of the County Coat of Arms 
he said that the matter was at the moment in a state of suspension, but 
he quite believed that a coat of arms which would meet the wishes of 
all parties would eventually be decided upon. Mr. S. R. H. Ghey then 
drew attention to the desirability of the Society taking up the work of 
transcribing the Parish Registers of the county. Canon Goddard agreed 
that this work was most desirable but expressed some doubt as to 
whether workers would be forthcoming to carry out so large and 
laborious a business. In the somewhat similar work of transcribing 
Church and Churchyard memorials he had found that many people were 
quite ready to undertake to do the work, but very few indeed actually 
did it. The President suggested that the matter should be considered 
by the Committee. 

On the conclusion of the business meeting, members proceeded in their 

318 The Eighty-second General Meeting. 

cars and charabancs to Shalbourne Church, where the Vicar gave an 
niteresting address on the history of the Church and parish. From 
here they went on to Totterdown House and were very kindly entertained 
at tea in the garden by Mr. and Mrs. J. P. R. Marriott. Here those 
members whose interests are prehistoric, were gratified by the sight of 
two pottery vessels quite recently discovered in a sand pit close to the 
road about a quarter of a mile from the house, one a perfect " Beaker " 
of quite abnormal size, and the other a bowl on four feet of a type 
known on the continent but extremely rare in England. Both appear 
undoubtedly of Beaker age. Unfortunately they were found a short 
distance over the Berkshire boundary, and so were beyond the juris- 
diction of the Wiltshire vSociety. 

At 7 o'clock the annual dinner was held at the Three Swans Hotel, 
which was the headquarters of the meeting. After this members crossed 
the road to the Town Hall opposite, where they were officially welcomed 
by the Constable, Dr. T. G. Starkey Smith, and the Town Trustees. 
Mr. H. D. O. W. Astley, who was for nearly 50 years Towm Clerk, also 
welcomed the Society. The President then read his Presidential address, 
on Mediaeval Floor Tiles, which will appear in due course in the 


The long string of motor cars left the Market Place at 9.40 for Combe 
Hill where, at the foot of the high wooden post representing the Gibbet, 
which the tenant of the farm is bound by his lease to renew from time 
to time, Capt. Cunnington talked to the members on Gibbets in general 
and the origin of this example in particular. After this the large com- 
pany of members walked along the ridge to the earthworks of Walbury 
Camp on which Dr. Williams Freeman, who knows all this country 
better than anybody else, and has given special attention to the earth- 
works, gave a very interesting address. Happily the weather was all 
that could be desired and everybody enjoyed the magnificent view which 
this spot, the highest ground (975ft.) in the south of England, east of 
Som.erset and Devon, affords. The beauty of the more sheltered slopes 
just below the crest of the down was enhanced by the unusually brilliant 
display of the Yellow Ragwort, then in full flower. This may be a 
pernicious weed from the agricultural point of view, but it certainly 
gave those members who saw it on this excursion something worth 

Kintbury Church was the next point visited. Here as at Shalbourne 
the roof is a good example of the painted decoration in which Messrs. 
Bodley & Garner were conspicuously successful in many restorations 
carried out about 1880. The next item on the programme was luncheon 
at the Chequers Hotel, Newbury. After this, members assembled at the 
Museum, recently established, and beautifully fitted up, where the 
indefatigable curator, Mr. H. J. E. Peake, F.S.A., gave an account of the 
contents of the collection. Leaving the Museum at 3.30 the next stop was 
at Avington, the most interesting Norman Church in this part of 

The Eighty-second General Meeting. 319 

Berkshire. The Vicar, the Rev. G. D. M. Hughes, described the httle 
building which has a plain nave with large and much depressed chancel 
arch, and a large tub-shaped font. The Vicar's remarks were supple- 
mented by a few words from Canon Goddard. From Avington the cars 
proceeded to " Lovelock's " House, where Captain and Mrs. Burmester 
most kindly entertained the large party at tea, after which it was time 
to return to Hungerford. 

The evening meeting was held in the Town Hall where an admirable 
address without note of any kind on " The Newbury Region " was given 
by Mr. H. J. E. Peake, presenting a general view of the archaeology and 
history of the district from the earliest prehistoric times. 


The motor cars left Hungerford at 9.40 and made a first stop at 
Shefford Woodlands Church. This was not on the programme, but the 
attention of the members had been called to it especially, by Mrs. 
Burmester, on the preceding day. It turned out to be well worth a 
visit. Outside it is a plain unpretending little building having been 
until a year or two ago a Wesleyan Chapel, which, being disused, was 
converted into a Chapel of Ease to Shefford, and was fitted up as a War 
Memorial. The interior came as a great surprise to everyone. It has 
been completely fitted up with really beautiful amateur oak carving, 
very largely, if not entirely, the actual handiwork of Capt. Burmester 
himself, as a war memorial, with the names of those who fell carved in 
relief on the backs of the seats. The " font " is a very curious little 
pillar piscina from Avington Church, presumably of Norman date, but 
with unusual carving suggesting pre-Norman influence. The next stop 
was at East or little Shefford, where the old Church in the fields, now 
disused but kept in fair repair, was visited. The two fine Fettiplace 
monuments are the chief ol)jects of interest. 

The Church of W^est or Great Shefford was the next point on the 
programme. Here the very curious tower at the west end, circular in 
its two lower storeys of the transitional Norman period, with an 
octagonal storey of the 15th century, at the top was the chief attraction. 
After this the cars left for Lambourne Church which was described by 
the Vicar. It is a fine building, somewhat over restored in 1850 and 
1861. The adj oining almshouses, picturesque though of modern building, 
were also visited, and lunch at the Red Lion Hotel followed. After 
lunch the cars made for Littlecote, where the house and garden were 
most kindly thrown open by Sir Ernest Wills, the Lord Lieutenant of 
Wilts, and as the programme allowed ample time, members were able 
to wander about over the wonderful garden at their leisure as well as 
to see the manv treasures of the house. This afternoon at Littlecote 
was one of the chief attractions of the meeting, which was brought to 
an end in the pleasantest way by tea at Bodorgan House, Ramsbury, 
where Admiral and Mrs. Hyde Parker most kindly entertained about a 
hundred members. Admiral Hyde Parker drew attention to a large 
number of curious somewhat cubical bricks each bearing a star or a 

320 The Eighty-second General Meeting. 

shell in relief, which were built into various walls upon the premises. 
Nobody had hitherto been able to assign either date or use for these 
bricks, and the members present were unable to throw any fresh light 
on the subject. 

So ended a very enjoyable meeting, at which the weather had been 
entirely propitious. The number attending had been large and the 
balance carried to the Society's General Fund was satisfactory. 


By Sir Richard H. Luce. 

The earliest extant Minute Book of the old Malmesbury Corporation, 
one of its most treasured possessions, has recently been undergoing 
overhaul and repair at the Record Office, in London, and during this 
time it has been my privilege, by the kindness of the owners, to make 
a short survey of it. 

It will be remembered that when a new Corporation was granted to 
the Borough of Malmesbury at the time of the Local Goverment 
Reform in 1886, the old Corporation was permitted to remain in being 
as a perpetual Close Corporation for the management of the Commoners' 
Lands and other properties among which were their old records. 

This book which consists of a folio volume, bound in pasteboards 
roughly covered with an old parchment deed, dates from the year 1600 
and carries the record of the Corporation's proceedings down to the 
year 1721. 

It was considerably damaged by time and wear. The binding was 
giving way and many of the leaves were loose, though happily none 
were missing. The paper was stained by damp and its musty smell 
proclaimed the presence and ravages of mildew. 

There is nothing to show whether this book had a predecessor, as it 
has no Title page or Introduction. But it is obvious that the minutes 
are carrying on the record of a constitution and procedure which was 
well established and needed no explanation. 

The record is in English except that Latin is used on one or two rare 
occasions for the heading of a Minute, apparently when the recorder 
chanced to be an Attorney with a particularly legal mind. 

Up to the year 1638 the writing is in the "Secretary" Script of 
Elizabethan times, often very difficult to decipher. But after that date 
it changes gradually but fairly rapidly to modern style. 

The meetings recorded, called the " Borough Court," were held once a 
year, on the first Tuesday after Trinity Sunday and occasionally, when 
business was contentious, they were adjourned. On rare occasions 
meetings were held at other times of the year in addition. 

The Corporation consisted of an Alderman and twelve Capital 
Burgessess, the Alderman and two Stewards being elected from and by 
the Capital Burgesses each year at the Borough Court. 

The old Malmesbury Abbey records^ show that the constitution of 
the governing body of the Borough, then probably the same body as 
the Merchants' Guild, was much the same in the reign of King 
Edward I as at the beginning of the 17th century, consisting of an 
Alderman, two Stewards (Senescalli), and an Inner body of Burgesses 
(intrinseca) whose number was not then limited to twelve. 

1 Registrum Malm : Rolls Series, vol. ii, p. 153. 

322 An Old Malmeshury Minute Book. 

Some evidence given by an old inhabitant before an official enquiry 
in 1634,1 stated that 68 years before there had been only ten capital 
burgesses but that the number had subsec^uently been fixed at twelve 
besides the Alderman. 

The parchment cover is part of an old deed faced inwards bearing 
date 1711, showing that an attempt was made to preserve the 
contents somewhere about the time that it ceased to be used. 

The book begins with a sort of index of the more important special 
Memoranda contained in it, in the same handwriting as that of the last 
entries which are signed 

" Israel May, Clerk." 

The annual record usually consists of a heading giving the names of 
the Alderman and the two Stewards, the date and place of the meeting, 
according to a set formula, the first entry being as follows : — 

" The accompte of Edmonde Hobbes taken at the place accustomed, 
the 22 daie of Male, for all such Rentes and Fynes as he hath received 
this yeare, William Sargant & Robt Gillow the Stewardes, within the 
yeare of the Raigne of our Soveraingne Ladie Elizabeth, the two & 
fortithe, anno domini 1600." ^ 

Then follows an account of monies paid and received and of new 
" brethren " admitted to the Common with the amount of their entrance 
fee or " Income." 

All through the book the fee for a town born man, or one who had 
married a town born woman was 5/-. Others, who had been resident 
in an " antient house or tenement over 3 years " were admitted for an 
" Income " varying from £\ to ^2. 

The record also gives the names of the Alderman and Stewards elected 
for the ensuing year. 

There is little difference in the entries down to 1609, when there is a 
gap until 1612. 

We know from other sources that during this period great disputes 
were going on about the constitution of the Borough and about the use 
to be made of the property belonging to the Freeholders. 

The main portion of this property was a tract of land, about a mile 
from the town to the extent of five hydes or about 600 acres, which 
had been given to the Burgesses of Malmesbury, and all their successors, 
by King Athelstan, for their assistance against the Danes ; known as the 
King's Heath. During the 16th century apparently, part of this land 
had been ploughed up and divided into a series of allotments, of which 
13 of the better portions had been allotted to the 13 capital burgesses, 
another 24 to a second grade of members called " Twenty Fours " or 
" Assistants," and yet another series of smaller holdings to a class called 

or "Commoners," had 

1 Excheq. E. 134. 9. Charles I, 75. 

2 This Edmonde Hobbes was possibty the grandfather or great uncle 
of the philosopher, Thos Hobbes. 

By Sir Richard H. Luce. 323 

to be content with grazing rights on the remaining portion of the land 
which had not been broken up. 

This division of the land, of which there is no exact record, seems to 
have been greatly resented by a section of the inhabitants ; so much so 
that some of the holders were molested in the possession of their 

In 1607 an action was brought in the High Court of Chancery by the 
then Alderman, Humfrey Elkington, against a certain Walter Dolman 
and other inhabitants of Malmesbury asking for an injunction to be 
issued against these disturbers of their rights, and an order or 
decree was issued by the Lord Chancellor granting this injunction on 
May 9th, 1608. Further actions were unsuccessfully brought to upset 
this decree, which thenceforward became the title on which the 
Burgesses and Landholders based their rights to their respective 

After 1612, to protect the rights of the various classes of Commoners, 
a slight alteration was made in the administration. In future there 
were four stewards instead of two, one to represent each of the four 
divisions-of Commoners. 

The formula at the head of the Minutes now became : — " According 
to a decree heretofore made in his Majtie's High Court of Chancery." 

After this things went on without much change until 1635, when 
after further litigation and enquiries, a new Charter was granted to the 
town by K. Charles I, incorporating the Borough by Letters Patent. 
This Charter, in Latin and of considerable length, detailed the constitu- 
tion of the corporation with its different classes, and the methods of 
election and duties of the officers. It made the Alderman a Justice 
within the Borough and introduced one new officer into the constitution, 
to be called the High Steward. He was to be elected at the Court and 
must, the Charter says, be " honest and skilful in the law." 

The first High Steward, nominated by the Charter, was Walter 
Norborne, Esq., a gentleman of wealth and position in the County, 
resident at Calne.^ 

After the granting of the Charter, the heading of the minutes was 
changed to : — Accordinge to a pattent graunted by the King's Ma*'® 
that now is, in the 11th year of his Raigne." 

The entries in the minutes vary very little. Sometimes the accounts 
are omitted but there is always a record of the officers elected for the 
ensuing year and of the new Commoners admitted. 

During the Civil War the Record goes steadily on, making no reference 
whatever to the exciting local happenings ; not even a hint is given of 
the six changes over that occurred in the first three 3^ears nor of the 
fact that for some years the town was in the hands of a Mihtary 
Governor and a considerable garrison. 

Nothing of importance is recorded until 1667, when the Borough, like 
so many others about this time, was the subject of a writ of " a quo 

1 Jackson S- Aubrey Coll., pp. 35 — 36. 

324 An Old Malmeshury Minute Book. 

warranto " whereby they were required to show by what authority they 
were functioning. They managed to escape satisfactorily on this 
occasion, but only at a cost of over £2 1 , some of which had to be defrayed 
by a sale of trees on the Common and Burgesses' Parts which brought 
in £8 2s. 

Eighteen years later, at the very end of Charles II 's reign, trouble 
overtook them again. Another " a quo warranto "^ was issued against 
the Alderman and capital burgesses by the Attorney General, Sir Robert 
Sawyer, and as they did not appear to defend the suit, in the following 
year, the first of James II, judgement was entered against them by 
default. Their lands were seized and the corporation was dissolved . 

Whereupon, at the instance of some unrecorded person concerned in 
the prosecution, King James granted a new charter, but with a proviso 
in it, giving the King in Council power to dismiss any of the magistrates 
of the borough, " with other things, relating to an arbitrary and 
despotic power." 

As the Alderman elect did not sit for the year 1686, his place being 
taken by Thomas Stumpe, Esq., it is probable that the King exercised 
his powers on this occasion and nominated the Alderman for that year 
in the Charter. Unfortunately this charter cannot be found, but we 
know that it cost the Borough ;^233, which took some finding. It was 
annulled subsequently by a " writ of errour " issued by Parliament in 
the first year of William and Mary. 

The remnant of the old corporation came back to office and proceeded 
to fill up five gaps in the ranks of the capital burgesses. It seems 
probable that the expenses of the annulment were paid by the Rt. Hon. 
Thomas Wharton who now became High Steward, as there is record of 
a petition asking him to defray the expenses of Wm. Adye, a local 
attorney who had acted for the town before Parliament. 

In 1695, John Wayte, who had been Alderman during the period of 
James' charter, was deprived of all Common rights for having been 
concerned " in destroying the liberties of the corporation." Evidently 
the demand for a scape goat had become urgent. 

There is no reference to a new scrape in which the members of the 
corporation had involved themselves in the following year by neglecting 
to subscribe, in accordance with an order by Parliament, to the 
" Association " " for the better securitie of His Majesty's Royal person 
and government," which followed upon the discovery of a plot to 
murder King William on his way to hunt in Richmond Park early that 

Wharton who had now succeeded to his father's peerage, undertook 
to obtain their pardon and reinstatement. He was also instrumental 
in obtaining a new Charter for the Corporation in 1696, which is not 
however referred to in the minutes. 

By 1798, owing probably to a wave of Toryism running through the 

1 Memorandum in the Minute Book dated 1690. 

By Sir Richard H. Luce. 325 

country, Wharton lost his hold over the town. In the following year 
they elected his nephew, Montague, 2nd Earl of Abingdon, High 
Steward, with whom Wharton was not on good terms. The change 
may have been due to the influence of the deputy High Steward, Wm. 
Adye, who seems to have fallen out with his chief. But that is a long 
story, which does not come into this book. 

The town remained Tory for some years and two years later elected 
as its High Steward, The Rt. Hon. Sir Charles Hedges, or Hodge, 
Principal Secretary of State, who was re-elected each succeeding year 
until 1705 when, as a Minute records, " he is discharged from his office 
of High Steward for not defending the rights of this Borough as he 
ought, and the Rt. Hon. Thomas Tord W^harton is elected in his place." 
Wharton remained firmly in the saddle after this until his death in 1715. 
After his death, Sir John Rushout, whose son afterwards became 
Lord Northwick, was elected High Steward, thus starting a family con- 
nection with Malmesbury, which only ended with the family itself and 
the final enfranchisement at the end of the 19th century, of the Manor 
property of which they had been Lords for nearly 150 years. 

Sir John gave way two years later to Wharton's son, the young 
Marquess, who shortly afterwards was created a Duke while still a 
Minor, and soon established a reputation as the greatest rake in the 

It only remains to refer to one or two other entries of interest. 
In 1622, when Robert Arch was Alderman, the annual dinner given 
by the Alderman to his brethren, the capital burgesses, was set on a 
proper footing by an agreement that each of the 12 should pay 5/- to 
the Alderman and that the dinner should be held on the day of the 
Borough Court. This agreement was unanimous with one exception. 

In 1623 a minute records an " agreement and consent " by the whole 
inhabitants then present, that "the Alderman and Burgesses shall 
henceforth hold and enjoy the Schole House" and other premises at 
St. John's, in spite of anything said to the contrary in the Decree. 

In 1625 and on two subsequent occasions, Francis Hobbes, the uncle 
and benefactor of Thomas Hobbes, the philosopher, was Alderman. 

In 1651, by a special resolution it was ordered and agreed, that Mr. 
Robert Harpur, Vicar of the town of Malmesbury, though evidently 
not a Commoner, " should have the right to keep a horse, beast, or mare 
on the common as other commoner doe, and this is the love and free 
gift of the Alderman, Burgesses with the Stewards & the rest of the 
inhabitants of the town to the said Mr. Harpur." 

In 1652, the allowance to the Alderman for his year of office was made 
up to £\0, by proportionate payments from the remaining twelve 

In 1666, Abia Qui, a surgeon in the town who had been admitted a 
commoner ten years before on payment of an "income" of £\, not 
being town born but a resident for over three years in an antient 
house or tenement, was elected High Steward and so remained until 

326 An Old Malmesbury Minute Book. 

just before his death in 1675. The well known epitaph on his tomb in 
the Abbey churchyard runs as follows : — 

" He by whose charter thousands held their breath 
Lies here the captive of triumphant death 
If drugs or matchless skill could death reclaim 
His life had been immortal as his fame." 
In 1678 Sir Thos. Estcourt, jun., who had been High Steward for four 
years was dismissed for not attending in Court to advise the Alderman 
according to his oath. 

It is recorded that John Parker, who was being lined 40/- at a court 
held in Jan., 1680, for a grazing offence on the common, "tendered a 
bottle of strong waters to the alderman and after that sent for beer 
into the court in a rude manner by Mr. Mainby ; and he the said James 
Parker at the same tyme gave evill language in the Court." 

There is only one illustration in the book, a pencil portrait of the 
alderman for the year, Henery Grayle,i done apparently by a clerk of 
artistic turn to while away the tediousness of the court business. 

The old Minute Book has been beautifully repaired and rebound by 
the Record Office and should now be safe for at least another 300 years. 

1 Henry Grayle founded a charity of ;^10 in 1674 for apprenticing 
Malmesbury children. 


7 MAY, 28 HENRY VIII, 1536. 
By The Rev. A. W. Stote-Blandy. 

This interesting document is evidently one of the charters of the 
Abbey of Wilton which was surrendered on March 25th, 1539. It is 
written in abbreviated Latin on a single membrane 12fin. x 6|in., and 
the Convent seal in red wax is in a good state of preservation. It 
bears various endorsements in Latin and English written or scribbled 
at various angles as follows: — "Abbess and Chapter"; " Advowson 
[of Stanton — interpolated] Sarum Diocese " ; "7 May 28 H. 8 Prebend 
and Rectory of Staunton Sarum Diocese [by William Hirste — erased] 
scolare etc."; "from the Abbess and Cov* of W^elton to Legh 
Stondon " ; " Graunt from the Abbess to Leigh of y*" next advowson 
of [next advowson — repeated and erased] Staunton." Some of these 
endorsements are in a much later hand than the first, which is 
contemporary with the deed. The document is stamped " British 
Record Association 54." ^ It is a grant of the advowson or right of 
presentation " for one turn only " of the Prebend or Rectory of Stanton 
St. Bernard made by the Abbess and Convent to Dr. Thomas Legh. 
" Staunton, or Stanton St. Bernard," appears in a Valor of the time of 
Henry VIII at the head of the possessions of Wilton Abbey as a 
" Prebend or Rectory " worth xxxiiij li xvij s iiij d per annum [see 
Hoare's Modern Wilts, vol. ii, p. 105]. It belonged anciently to the 
Abbey, and at the Dissolution passed into the hands of the first Earl of 
Pembroke. He appropriated the tithes to himself, and a Vicarage was 
created. [See ^4 Survey of the Lands of William, First Earl of Pembroke 
(survey made 1567) printed in 1909 for the Roxburghe Club.] Stanton 
St. Bernard is now joined to Alton Barnes and Alton Priors. 

Cecilia Bodenham was the last of the Abbesses of the famous 
Benedictine Convent of Wilton before the Reformation. She was a 
very great lady. Previously to her election as Abbess in 1534, she had 
been Prioress of Keynton. 

As Abbess of Wilton she ranked as a Baroness of England, for 
anciently the Abbesses of Wilton, Malmesbury, Barking and St. Mary's 
in Winchester alone " held of the King iw capite an entire Baronry, & 
were summoned to serve by their Knights in time of war " [see Hoare's 
Modern Wilts, ii, p. 102 f.]. She suffered much in 1535 at the time of 
the Visitation of the Monasteries from the insolence of Thomas 
Cromwell's creatures, of whom her " beloved in Christ " Thomas Legh, 
the grantee of this deed, was one. In fact she wrote to Cromwell com- 
plaining of his behaviour. This document suggests that she tried to 
bribe him, or buy him off with a " fat prebend." If so, she was not 

^ In accordance with the practice of the Association this deed has 
been handed over to the Library of the Wiltshire Arch^ologicai Society 
as representing the county to which the deed belongs. 

328 A Grant by the Abbess of Wilton. 

successful, for less than three years after she and her 31 nuns had to 
surrender the Abbey. Dame Cecilia retired to Fovant with a pension 
of ^100 per annum and a house there with " orchards, gardens, 3 acres 
of meadow, & 1 load of wood weekly from the wood of Fovant." The 
Prioress of Wilton received ^10 per annum, and the nuns' pensions 
varied from £2 to £1 6s. 8d. per annum each. 

Dr. Thomas Legh, the grantee of this deed, is given a very bad 
character in Gasquet's Henry VIII and the English Monasteries [i, 253, 
445 f.]. He was a member of King's College, Cambridge, a Doctor of 
Civil Law, and one of the Royal Commissioners appointed to visit the 
Monasteries shortly before the Dissolution. He visited Cambridge 
University as Cromwell's deputy in 1535, and Wilton Abbey in the 
same year. If one may trust the extant letters of Ap Price, one of his 
fellow visitors and Commissioners, it is easy to see what cause the 
Abbess had to complain of him. He is described as " a young man of 
intolerable elation, who went about with a retinue of twelve servants 
in livery." His " insolent and pompatique manner," and the "over- 
bearing and violent fashion " in which he browbeat and ill-treated 
ecclesiastical dignitaries are noted against him, as also his rapacity in 
demanding fees and bribes from them : and there were still graver 
charges made against him. The costly fashion of his dress evidently 
annoyed his fellow Commissioner, and once when even Cromwell 
admonished him for his behaviour, he made the penitent promise that 
he would " give up his velvet gown, and discharge some of his 
servants ! " 

The " Ordinary " mentioned more than once in the grant was not 
the Bishop of the Diocese, for at the time the Abbess was deprived of 
episcopal aid and direction. On September 18th, 1535, the King 
suspended the jurisdiction of the Bishops, and soon after this the 
Visitation took place. 

For notes on the Prebend or Rectory of Stanton St. Bernard I am 
indebted to my former Vicar, Canon Fletcher, of Salisbury. 

The following only professes to be a rough translation of the deed, 
and for any crudity in it I offer all apologies. 


" To all the faithful in Christ to whom this present writing shall come. 
We Cecilia Bodenham, by Divine permission Abbess of the Monastery 
of Wilton in the diocese of Sarum and the Convent of the same place, 
the true and undoubted patrons of the Prebend or Rectory of Staunton 
in the same diocese, greeting for ever in the Lord. Know that we the 
said Cecilia the Abbess and the Convent of the said Monastery, the 
patrons of the said prebend or parish church, with our unanimous con- 
sent and assent for us & our successors Have given granted and by this 
our present writing have confirmed to our beloved in Christ Thomas 
Legh doctor of laws the first and next advowson or patronal right of 
the prebend or parish Church of Staunton aforesaid when it shall 
happen that the same prebend or parish church shall fall vacant first 

By the Rev. A. W . Stote-Blandy . 329 

& next in what way soever for one turn only. On the understanding 
that it shall be rightly permitted to the said Thomas Legh doctor of 
laws to present (? to the Ordinary of the place — " loci ordinario ") a fit 
person for the said prebend or parish church when first and next it shall 
happen to be vacant [? for presentation] for one turn only and forthwith 
to ask and enquire [ ? for the ordinary of this kind] for the admitting 
and instituting whosoever is so presented to the said prebend or church. 
Provided that it shall not be permitted to us the said Cecilia the Abbess 
and the said Convent to present some person suited to the aforesaid 
prebend or parish church [? to the ordinary of the place] nor to grant 
or alienate the advowson or right of patronage of the same church to 
or from any persons or persons until and until what time the present 
advowson of the said prebend or church made and granted to the afore- 
said Thomas Legh doctor of laws by us the said Cecilia the Abbess and the 
Convent shall take effect. Provided moreover that after the said Thomas 
Legh doctor of laws has presented a person suited to the said prebend 
or parish church first and next in what way soever vacant that then 
and from then the advowson or right of patronage of the said prebend 
or church shall wholly revert to us the said Abbess and Convent 
notwithstanding in any wise the aforesaid gift and grant. In evidence 
of which our present common seal has been appended. Given in our 
chapter house of Wilton aforesaid on the seventh day of May in the 
year of the Lord one thousand five hundred and thirty six and in the 
twenty-eighth year of the reign of King Henry the Eighth." 






By Canon F. H. Manley. 

Canon Jackson in a note which he appends to Aubrey's account of 
Somerford Magna draws attention to the fact that the Prioress and 
nuns of Kington Priory presented on one occasion, viz., in 1324, and on 
one occasion only to the Rectory ; on all other occasions the presentation 
being made by the Lords of the Manor. He gives however no explana- 
tion of this deviation from the ordinary rule and his statement is 
evidently based upon Phillipps' Wilts Institutions. He apparently 
made no effort to look further into the matter by examining the fuller 
details given in the Episcopal Registers at Salisbury. 
, Phillipps' Wilts Institutions has proved itself to be a most useful 
book for compiling lists of incumbents and also for tracing the descent 
of the Manor in many parishes of Wiltshire. Unfortunately, however, 
the contents of this volume do not strictly correspond to the title which 
it bears. He gives us from the year 1296 to 1805, with certain hiatuses, 
under each year in columns, first the name of a parish, with its 
ecclesiastical status, secondly the name of the patron of the living, 
thirdly the name of the cleric presented by the patron to the living, 
these particulars being extracted from the Episcopal Registers, which 
are in charge of the Diocesan Registrar at Salisbury. 

It has been assumed that we have here a list not only of the clergy 
presented to the incumbency of the various parishes in Wiltshire but 
those actually instituted and thus legally in possession of the incumbency 
to which their name is attached. This however is a mistake. 

Quite rece.itly there has been published by the Canterbury and York 
Society a full transcript of the earliest of the Registers now extant of 
the Bishops of Salisbury. This is the Register of Bishop Simon of 
Ohent, which contains a record of the various duties which he discharged 
as Bishop, and in particular details of his appointment of clergy to the 
difterent parishes in his diocese. 

The ordinary procedure was this. On the occurrence of a vacancy 
the patron of the advowson presented to the Bishop some cleric with a. 
view to his institution. The Bishop then gave to the cleric letters of 
enquiry addressed to the archdeacon, who on receipt of these letters 
looked fully into the qualification of the presentee and into the right of 
the patron to present. The report of the archdeacon was laid before 
the Bishop, who then decided whether to institute or not. 

Sometimes there was a doubt about the right of the patron to present. 
Sometimes the person presented was under age or not sufficiently 
educated or otherwise unsuitable. In such cases the presentee was not 
instituted, though possibly he might be on a future occasion. 

By Canon F. H. Manley 331 

Now Phillipps' Wilts Institutions contains really a list of all presenta- 
iions and only in certain cases does the author mention when the presenta- 
tion failed to issue in institution. Thus in not a few of the lists of 
clergy posted in our Wiltshire churches there are included the names 
of those who never actually were in possession of the benefice. 

The first three entries referring to Great Somerford are as follows : — 

Kcclesia Patroiius Cleiicus 

1323. Somerforci Mautiavers Joliaiines Mautravers, miles Adanms de Norton 

13'i4. Sonierfor«l Magna Prioriss de Kyngton Walterus de Hoghton 

1340, Somerford Alat^na Johannes Mautravers sen., miles Thomas de Montealto 

Sometime ago when I was looking at a calendar of law suits at the 
Record Office I saw the entry " John Mautravers versus Prioress de 
Kington " (Chancery Miscellanea 84/1/11) and it struck me at once that 
this suit must have to do with the right of presentation to the Rectory 
of Great Somerford. I attempted to get a copy of this document, but 
should not have been able to make anything of it but for the kindness 
of Mr. G. T. Flower, who with his expert knowledge was able to give 
me the following full account of this law suit. 

" The documents in Chancery Miscellanea 84/1/1 1 consist of a writ and 
a mutilated transcript of proceedings in the Common Bench in the 
month of Michaelmas, 6 Edw. Ill (1332) and on subsequent dates. The 
writ is dated 2 May, 10 Edw. Ill (1337) and is directed to John de 
Stonore. It is a Chancery writ of certiorari and asks for a record of 
certain proceedings whereby John Mautravers, the elder, recovered the 
presentation to the church of Great Somerford against the prioress of 
Kington, as, notwithstanding, a writ de judicio to the bishop of Salisbury 
to admit a parson on the said John's presentation, Master William de 
Erchesfonte^ is unjustly retaining possession of the said church at the 
presentation of the said prioress. 

The record on the De Banco Roll (De Banco Roh, Mich., 6 Ed. Ill, 
M. 273 d.) of which the return to the writ is a transcript, consists of an 
entry of that date with the addition of posteas whereby the record was 
posted up to later dates. It is in good condition and the following is 
an abstract. 

An assize of darrein presentment was summoned concerning the church 
of Great Somerford, claimed by John Mautravers, the elder, against 
the prioress of Kington. John by Clement de Dorneford, his attorney, 
said that John, his father, last presented one Philip Denebaud, his clerk 
who was instituted in the time of Edward I (1272 — 1307) and through 
whose death the church is now vacant. Before that the same John, his 
father, presented Master Stephen Gourneville, his clerk, who was 
instituted in the time of Henry III (1216 — 1272). Before that, John, 
his grandfather, presented John de Holewale, his clerk, who was also 
instituted in the time of Henry III. 

1 In 1340 he resigned the cure of the Chapel of Estcote (Phillipps' 
W . Ins.). This entry seems to show that he retained illegal possession 
of Great Somerford until that date. 

X 2 

332 A Mediwval Dispute as to the Rectory of Somerford Magna. 

The prioress by John de Wernherd, her attorney, said that the 
presentation of the said Phihp ought not to prejudice her because it 
was a usurpation on Mary then prioress in the time of war, in the reign 
of Henry III and not in the reign of Edward I, as John said ; for the 
said Mary had at the previous vacancy presented one Richard de 
Overton, her clerk, who was instituted in the time of Henry HI. 

John Mautravers, while not denying that Philip was instituted in the 
time of war, said that on the preceeding vacancy^-the said Stephen de 
Gourneville was instituted at his father's presentation and not the said 
Richard de Overton. Both parties join issue on that point. 

After postponement for default of jurors, on the Saturday before St. 
Peter ad Vincula, 8 Edward III [30 July, 1334], John de Stonore took 
the assize in his eyre at Salisbury and returned the following verdict to 
the justices of the common pleas. On the same date before the said 
John, Sir Robert de Hungerford being associated with him, the parties 
came in person and the jury said that John, father of John Mautravers, 
the elder, presented Stephen de Gourneville on the vacancy before that 
filled by Philip Denebaud and the said Stephen was instituted in the 
time of peace in the time of Henry III, and that on the vacancy next 
before, John Mautravers, the grandfather, presented John de Holewale, 
instituted in the time of peace in the time of Henry III, and that from 
time before memory ancestors of the said John had the said presentation 
until the death of the said Philip when the said prioress prevented the 
said John by presenting a clerk of her own. They said also that the 
said Richard Overton, presented by the said Mary, was not admitted or 
instituted. Being asked they said that six months had elapsed since 
the vacancy, and that the church was worth ten marks a year. 

Judgment was given that the said John should recover his presenta- 
tion with damages amounting to the value of the church for two 
years ; and he had a writ to the bishop to admit a suitable person at 
his presentation. The prioress was in mercy but the said John freely 
remitted his damages." 

Mr. Flower further remarks, " In the case of Mautravers versus 
prioress of Kington the jury confined themselves to the statement that 
John de Holewale and Stephen de Gourneville were presented by 
various members of the Mautravers family in time of peace, that is to 
say, in the part of the reign of Henry III that was not disturbed by 
rebellion. I think it must be assumed that Philip de Denebaud lived 
to a great age and was the rightful successor of Stephen de Gourneville ; 
but as he was presented in a period of civil disturbance, the court 
would not take cognizance of it, as assizes of darrein presentment were 
enquiries into matters of fact and not of law and evidence as to matters 
of fact in a time of rebellion would be uncertain. The formal phrase 
for all assizes of darrein presentment from the time of Henry II is quis 
advocatus tempore pacts presentavit ultimam personam que mortua est. 
The assize itself was one of three possessory assizes which Henry II 
devised in order to ascertain what actually happened in the reign of 

By Canon F . H. Manley. 333 

Henry I tempore pads, all kinds of usurpations having been made in 
the reign of Stephen, which was regarded as tempus belli. Thomas de 
Montealto may be presumed to have been presented to the bishop in 
consequence of the proceedings in 10 Edward III (1337) in the Chancery 
.suit set out in Chancery Miscellanea 84/1/11." 

The entries in Phillipps' Wilts Institutions show that the dispute 
between the Mautravers family and the Prioress of Kington must ha\e 
remained unsettled from 1323 to 1340 and it seems extraordinary that 
the Prioress should so long have been able to set at defiance the 
decision of the civil court given against her claim. Disputes in respect 
of the right of presentation were common enough in early times, but 
we can hardly imagine that in most cases the rightful patron found 
such a difficulty as he had here in establishing his right. 

If we are to judge by something which happened about a hundred 
years later the good ladies of Kington might not be above using even 
unscrupulous means to support their claim. The story is fully recorded 
in the extant deed of the Priory and has to do with a certain Prioress, 
Amicia, who in consequence of the part she played in the affair, suffered 
the indignity of degradation.^ The Priory was under the jurisdiction of 
the Bishop of Salisbury, but the nuns considered that their Priory being 
a Benedictine foundation ought properly to be under the jurisdiction of 
the Abbot of Glastonbury, and in order to bring about what they 
desired forged documents were obtained from a monk who was willing 
to assist them. These documents purported to be orders issued by the 
Pope authorizing this change of jurisdiction by which henceforward the 
nuns would no longer have been under the rule of the Bishop of 
Salisbury. As soon, however, as the documents were laid before the 
Bishop their true nature was perceived, and on being forwarded to the 
Pope, they were declared by him to be palpable forgeries. 

There can be little doubt that in the case we are considering the 
Prioress based her claim as against the Maltravers family on one of the 
charters in the possession of the Priory, a charter which was invalid. 
This document, printed in the Monasticon II, 887 (ed. 1673), is a deed 
of gift by Richard de Heriet of " Ecclesia de Somerford " to the Priory 
" pro salute animae meae et patris et matris meae et pro anima uxoris 
meae Elae et liberorum suorum." Although no date is attached to this 
document mention is made in it of Herbert, Bishop of Salisbury (1194 
— 1217) and of William de St. Mere I'Eglise, Archdeacon of Wilts, who 
was raised to the see of London in 1199. Thus it must be dated between 
1194 and 1199. 

Richard de Heriet^ was one of the King's justices of the Curia Regis 
(1194—1202) and in the Pipe Roll for Wilts of 7 Richard I and two 
succeeding years his name occurs repeatedly as acting with the Abbot 
of Malmesbury and William de St. Mere I'Eglise in that county. In 

1 Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. iv, p. 59. 

2 Information kindly supplied by Mr. A. Story Maskelyne. 

334 A Medic£val Dispute as to the Rectory of Somerford Magna. 

the following year he was in attendance on the King in foreign parts. 
He took his name from the village of Herriard in Hampshire, near 
Basingstoke, and we find mention of gifts by his son Richard to the 
church of St. Mary, Winteneye (Hartley, co. Hants). His daughter 
Maud became later heir to her brother and married Richard de Sifrewest, 
who so acquired Herriard and other property of the Heriet family in 
Southampton and Wilts. 

The first of the Maltravers family associated with Great Somerford 
was a Walter Maltravers who in the latter years of the reign of Henry 
H is found sharing certain properties in W'ilts and Hants with Richard 
de Heriet. Walter Maltravers forfeited his lands by rebellion in 1193 
being a partizan of John and Richard de Heriet obtained them from 
Easter, 1194. Walter Maltravers' lands in Wilts were in Somerford and 
Bishops Cannings and in the Pipe Roll of 6 Richard, Mich. 1194, we 
find " Ricardus de Heriet r. c. de c. m. pro habenda terra que fuit 
Walteri Maltravers. Sicut jus suum ex parte uxoris suae Sec," and he 
was still being charged with his fine in 1200 (Pipe Roll, 2 John, p. 157). 
As Walter Maltravers lost his lands for supporting John we must con- 
clude that he or his heir (the date of his death is uncertain) must have 
got them back soon after John's accession and that Richard de Heriet's 
gift to Kington Priory w^as in consequence revoked. 

The actual relationship between Richard de Heriet and Walter 
Maltravers is not clear, but it was one apparently which arose from 
marriage. Walter Maltravers' property later came to John Maltravers, 
probably his nephew, and on his death in 1216 to another John 
Maltravers, at that time a minor, who is the first John Maltravers 
mentioned in the suit we have been considering. W^hile it thus appears 
that Richard de Heriet's gift of the " Ecclesia de Somerford" to 
Kington Priory never materialized, it can hardly be doubted that the 
small property in this parish which the nuns held came from this source. 
For in the return of Fees in 1242 — 3 we are told, " The Prioress of 
Kington holds in Somerford one fifth of a Knight's fee of Geoffrey de 
Syfrewast and Geoffry of the Earl of Salisbury and the Earl of the 
King, of the Baronry of Celtre (Chiltern) " and the Syfrewast family 
were the heirs of the Richard de Heriet property. 

The above investigation seems to show that the correct successsion 
of Rectors of Great Somerford during the period under consideration is 
as follows : — 

Cleric Date of Inst" Patron 

John de Holewale Temp. Hen. III. John Mautravers 

Stephen Gournevale Do. John Mautraver 

(s. of the above) 
Phihp Denebaud Temp. Edw. I. John Mautravers 

from 1323 when Philip Denebaud died to 1340 no Rector instituted 
Thomas de Montealto 1340 John Mautravers 

(s. of the above) 



By the late Rev. W. Goodchild, 

When writing upon this subject in the Magazine, vol. xlvi, p. 8, 
Mr. H. S. Toms did not know and would not have naturally suspected 
that Thomas Aldwell's map of Cranborne Chase is a very unreliable 

It is called "A Mappe or Plot of Cranbourne Chase, lying in 
Dorsetshire, Wiltshire, and part of Hampshire, by virtue of a Commission 
out of His Highness' Court of Exchequer, 1618." This Map was 
prepared with the object of deceiving the Court of Exchequer and other 
persons concerned, in times when Judges and Jurors were nearly always 
open to bribes, and it was nearly impossible to obtain justice except by 
meeting fraud with fraud. 

The Map was, some of it, made in 1618, but it was altered at later 
dates, and General Pitt Rivers' reproduction of it published in his 
History of King John's House, does not indicate these alterations of the 
original Map. It notices for instance the marriage of Anne Wyndham 
to the Hon. J. E. Arundell, about 150 years after the Map was first 

The Chase of Cranborne belonged for many years to the Clares, Earls 
of Gloucester. If regarded as a Chase it was confined to narrow bounds, 
including little more than Woodyates, Handley Dean, part of Gussage, 
and Ashmore, all in Dorset. But when King John married Isabella, the 
heiress of W^illiam, Earl of Gloucester, in 1186, his father, King 
Henry IV, had been for six years treating the Chase as his escheat — 
not as a Chase — but as a Royal Forest, claiming very extensive rights, 
as Royal Purlieu, over a great range of country that stretched from 
Shaftesbury to Salisbury, and from Wardour to Wimborne Minster. 
His successors, Kings Richard I and John followed their father's example. 
In the Charter of Forests, of 1225, it was ordered that " AA\ woods 
which have been made forest by king Richard, our uncle, or by king 
John, our father, unto our first coronation, shall be forthwith 
disafforested, unless it be our demesne wood." But it was not easy to 
determine what exactly was the king's demesne wood, or on what terms 
the Earls of Gloucester held the Chase of Cranborne from the king. 
The Earls with royal sanctions continued to appoint Foresters, Verderers, 
and Listakers over an extensive district in Dorset, Wilts, and Hants. 
In the parish of Berwick St. John, where the Lady of the Manor had 
been for 500 years the Abbess of Wilton, King Edward IV turned out 
the woodward of the Abbess, and put in his ranger, who made enclosures, 
which robbed the commoners of Berwick St. John of a large portion of 
their pasturage. 

336 Larmer, Wermere, Ashmore, and Tollard Royal. 

The Chase was often in the king's hands, sometimes through forfeitures, 
and sometimes through minorities of the Earls of Gloucester. It came 
eventually to the Dukes of York, and in that way became the property 
of King Edward IV, and remained royal property until the end of the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

In 1603 the Chase was granted to Sir Robert Cecil, who was soon 
afterwards made Earl of Salisbury, as a reward for the large share that 
he had had in securing the Crown of England for James VI of Scotland. 
But the new king of England had an extravagant and greedy court, and 
found himself obliged to levy heavy fines and illegal taxes to satisfy 
his creditors. And a favourite source of these illegal fines was connected 
with trespasses of various kinds on the purlieus of the royal forests. 

In connection with Rockingham Forest, near Market Harborough, 
the Earl of Salisbury was fined ^20,000, the Earl of Westmorland 
^19,000, Lord Newport ^3,000, Sir Christoper Hatton's representatives 
^12,000, and Sir Louis Watson ^4,000. These fines were probably not 
exacted in full. But they were likely to make the Earl of Salisbury 
wary when he found that the gifts of Stuart sovereigns might be some- 
times pretexts for ruinous extortion. 

Lord Salisbury therefore bought the Manor of Berwick St. John from 
the Earl of Pembroke, who had received it at the dissolution of Wilton 
Abbey. This step gave him power to do much as he pleased with the 
waste land and woodlands of that parish ; and especially gave him 
possession of the building and appurtenances of the two " Walks," 
Rushmore Walk and Staplefoot Walk, which are contained in it. 
Without those two " Walks " the Chase would have been shorn of some 
of its most attractive features. We know that on several occasions 
King James himself came to Cranborne Chase, and hunted there in 
1607, 1609, 1620, and 1623, and that he, on one of these occasions, 
killed two bucks in William Morgayne's Walk, which was at Rushmore. 
It may be assumed therefore that the additions made in Aid well's Map 
in Wiltshire and in Hants to the original grant of the Chase had his 
sanction even if they made some tampering with the old plans of the 
Chase necessary. 

Lord Arundell of Wardour and some other landowners in the neigh- 
bourhood of the old Chase objected to what was being done, and took 
the matter into the Court of the Exchequer. They produced another 
map, made at the same time as Aldwell's by Richard Hardinge, of 
Blandford, a much more correct map ; but it was of course disregarded. 
Hallam writes [Constitutional History of England, Ch. viii) : — 

"Still greater dissatisfaction attended the King's (James I) 
attempts to revive the ancient laws of the forests — those laws of 
which in olden times so many complaints had been heard, exacting 
money by means of pretensions, which long disuse had rendered 
dubious, and showing himself to those who lived on the borders of 
those domains in the hateful light of a litigious and encroaching 
neighbour. The Earl of Holland held a Court almost every year, 
as Chief Justice in Eyre, for the recovery of the king's forestal 

By the late Rev. W. Goodchild. 337 

rights, which made great havoc with private property. No pre- 
scription could be pleaded against the king's title, which was- to be 
found indeed by the inquest of a jury, but under the direction of 
a very partial tribunal. The Earl of Southampton was nearly 
ruined by a decision that stripped him of his estate in the New 
Forest. . . . By this means the boundaries of Rockingham 
Forest were increased from six miles to sixty." 
William, second Earl of Salisbury, naturally desired to retain the gift 
of Cranborne Chase, as it had been held for 140 years under the Crown. 
He very probably had King James' sanction for using what was said to 
be in 1616 the Inner Bounds of the Chase, and may very well have been 
ignorant that any other bounds had been in use 400 years earlier. It 
was a matter of special importance to Lord Salisbury that Rush more 
Lodge and Staplefoot Lodge, in the parish of Berwick St. John and in 
Wiltshire, should not be subtracted from the Chase. And the long 
possession of these Wiltshire parts of the Chase seemed to give him a 
better title than any ancient documents. But he tried as an additional 
precaution to see whether it might not be possible to make out 
that the boundaries of 1616 did in reality correspond with the 
boundaries that were in use 400 years earlier. This was the reason for 
the making of Aldwell's map. In the days of the Stuart kings causes 
were commonly decided, not in favour of the most righteous claims, but 
of the ability to spend most money in bribes — bribes to the Queen, 
bribes to the Lord Chancellor, bribes to the Judges, and bribes to the 
Jurors. While if any jurors brought in verdicts that displeased the 
king they were fined or imprisoned. 

In the year 1280 the boundaries of Cranborne Chase, then belonging 
to Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester, were said to be Cheteleshevede, 
Grymmesdich, Henelegh, La Denne, Gussich Sci' Andr'*", Branden, 
Stubhampton, Head of Rythersdene, the King's Highway leading from 
Blaneford to Shafton, Thenesdenne, Head of Westwode, Rugwyke 
.(Ridgway, now the Ox Drove, leading to Salisbury), the Bounds of 
Wilts between Ashmore and Feme, Staunton (elsewhere called Stone 
Dene), Mortegresmore, Stiching Oke (elsewhere Sing Oke), Sandeputte, 
Head of Longcrofte, Werme*', Bukedon, Boundaries of Dorset and Wilts, 

Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester, was married to Joan, daughter of King 
Edward I, and as a member of the royal house claimed boundaries 
much wider in extent ; and from that time onwards, either as royal 
purlieu or as crown property, the bounds of the chase were said to 
extend into Wilts and Hampshire. Special Chase courts were held, and 
in these courts all offences connected with Chase law were tried. 

The imaginary Inner Bounds, which appear on Thomas Aldwell's 
Map, start after Stanton or Stone Dean ; the next place is Mortegres- 
moor (perhaps a piece of Moorland that had belonged to King John 
when he was Earl of Mortaigne), but Thomas Aldwell misread the name 
and changed it into Mortegresgore ; then came Stiching Oke. (This is 
a name which occurs elsewhere in a charter of King Edward the 

338 Larmer, Wermere, Ashmore, and Tollard Royal. 

Confessor. It means a prickly oak or perhaps a holly. But whether 
oak or holly, it could not grow where Mr. Aldwell has placed it in an 
exposed position 900 feet above the sea with nothing to live on but 
chalk and flints) ; the next landmark is Sandeputte (Sandpit) . There 
may be sand below that chalk down, but it is not less than 400 feet 
deep. The real position of "Sandeputte" is in Sandpit Copse, at a 
much lower level. The geological department of the Ordnance Survey 
cannot: date that particular sand, but it is perhaps, some of it, marly 
sand forced upwards from greensand below in patches by the weight of 
superincumbent chalk). The " Sandeputte " is followed by the Head 
of Longcroft. Longcroft, like Cerberus, is credited by Mr. Aldwell 
with three different heads in three different places. But the real head 
of Longcroft is on the border of Parnham common, in Dorset, although 
in later years the name has been given to another Head of Longcroft 
to make it conform to Aldwell 's Map. Warme' (so printed in the 
Placita de Quo Warranto) comes next. It is, I think, rightly prolonged 
by Mr. Toms into Warmere, and is another name for Larmer, or 
Larfresmere, as Aldwell's Map suggests. A "Were" is a "dam," 
"weir " in later Enghsh. (The word is used in a charter of 955 with 
regard to a great pond which formerly existed at the head of Water 
Street in the parish of Berwick St. John) . Mere is, as Mr. Toms says, 
generally in A.S. a pond. (It is also often a sea, Meregot is a pearl, 
i.e., a sea pebble ; Merecist is a sea-chest ; Mereswin is a porpoise, i.e., 
a sea pig.) But it is improbable that Ashmore was named from its 
pond. More likely it was originally Ersemor, a Moorland of coarse 
grass. It is mentioned in a charter of 956 as " Earsmores Heaved," 
the Head of the Moor of coarse grass, Ashcombe and Ashgrove which 
are near to Ashmore, are generally spelt Ersecumb and Ersegraf in old 
manuscripts. Erse is only another form of rush, and the rush meant 
is the sedge in this case, 

Mr. Aldwell is probably correct, as I have already said, in identifying 
Laffresmere (Larmer) with Wermer. They are two names for the same 
boundary ; one is Rushy Pond, the other is Dammed-up Pond. But 
Mr. Aldwell has put this pond far away from its proper place. It 
should probably be very near to Tollard Royal Park. 

Mr. Toms mentions the late General Pitt Rivers' attempt to get at 
the derivation of the name Larmer, which appears in the form 
Lafresmere in the Wilton Abbey Charter of 955. The word Laver or 
Lafre was applied to all sorts of rushes, Juncceae, Typhaceae, 
Alismaceae, etc., and also to the edible seaweed (" Laver ") found on 
the north Devon Coast, near Combe Martin {Porphyra laciniata). It 
was also used in Anglo-Saxon for gold-leaf, and livergrund was used in 
Middle English for places where laver will grow. 

The original Larmer (Lafresmere or Wermere) may very probably be 
placed at a well-known spot, where four parishes join (Tollard Royal, 
Berwick St. John,'Tollard Farnham, and Handley). A pond is always 
formed there in wet weather, as the drainage of Tinkley bottom there 
meets the drainage of Bugden (Buckden) Vale, and in wet seasons a 

By the late Rev. W . Goodchild. 339 

good deal of water is commonly collected there as springs break out 
north and west of it. This may well be the original Larmer or Wermer. 
The gate of the Larmer pleasure ground is less than half a mile distant. 
The witch elm known as the Larmer tree, and mentioned in the same 
Anglo-Saxon Charter as mearctreowe (boundary tree), is not too far 
distant to have received its usual name from the far better known 
Larmer, where the four parishes join. But some of the older people 
who live in that district, although knowing the name Larmer, prefer to 
call the neighbourhood of the tree " Elmer " (the Elm Tree Boundary) 
rather than Larmer. But of course the Chase Courts were always 
recorded as being held at Larmer, a site at no great distance and better 
known . 

I believe that Mr. Toms is right in saying that in all or nearly all of 
the earlier notices of Rushmore the name is spelt with some variant of 
of Ruysshemere rather than Rushmore, and it is not impossible that 
the name was originally a variant for Lafresmere. But I am inclined 
to think that in the case of Rushmore, another Rushy Pond is concerned. 
This is a pond, now called Munday's Pond, which was the original pond 
of the Berwick St. John commoners. It is mentioned in two of the 
Anglo-Saxon Charters in 955 and in 956 — in one as Ealcan Seathe, in the 
other as Elchene Seath ; the meaning is in both charters " The Elks 
Pit," that is the place where the wild animals could obtain water and 
where they could roll on their backs to free themselves from vermin. 

Mr. RoUe, Rector of Berwick St. John, who rode round the boundaries 
of his parish in 1760 says — " To Tinkley, where is some appearance of a 
well now filled up, for the use of cattle, which, 'tis said, used to be drove 
hither heretofore from Berwick, instead of to Berwick Combe." The 
late General Pitt Rivers had this restored and made into a useful pond. 

Buckden (now Bugden) is the last of Mr. Aldwell's efforts of imagin- 
ation ; he puts it in more than one place, but at a considerable distance 
from the portions of the vale that are now called Buckden, It should 
be placed below Woodcutts Common, north of Minchington Down, a 
former possession of the Abbess of Shaftesbury. 




Transcribed by C. R. Everett. ^ 

In the Green. £ 

Mr. Stephen Blake 

Mrs. Cook or Tent* Hugh 


Mr. Thomas Swaddon 
Ann Jaffry sen'' for Mrs. 

Hars wells 

Henry Fieldowne for 

John Bears 








Mr. Henry Chiver for the ^ 

William Mortimer 
Mr. Samuell Stevens 
John Townsend 
William Dark for his 

Landlord 4 

Widd Ann Jaffry Jun'' 1 9 
William James or his 





Henry Fieldowne for the 

son John 


White Hart 



Mary Messenger, Widd. 


Edward Slade 


Gabriel Still 


Edward Hawkins 


Ann Forman, Widd. 


Dorethy Scott, Widd. 


John Cook or Ten* John 

Ann Brooks, Widd. 





Israel Noyes & for peakO 



John Beare 





Ann Somers, Widd. 


Joseph Orrell 



Humphrey Boddman 

Mary Franklin, Widd. 





David Waterman als 

John Forman for David 





An Jaffry sen"^ Clothier 



John Doleman 


Edward Slade for Morti- 

Thomas Fowler 




Walter Doleman 


William Langton 


Robert Mortimer 


Arthur Robinss for Long 





James Taylor 


Mrs. Crump for Mr. Hugh 

W' alter Nickles 




David Townsend 


John Wallis Sen'^ 


Thomas Fowler for 


Robert Vivaish 


house he lives in 


John Neat or Tent* 

Mathew Fowks 


Stephen Orrell 


Hollbrook Tenan* 


John Scott or Tent* 

Roger Seager 


Thomas Duck 


Samuel Seager 


Arthur Robinss 


Merkes Bull & for Weeks 


Ann Jaffry Sen'' Clothier , 


Church Street. 

Humphry Bodman J 



John Pillis or Ten* Jon- 

John Keat 


athan Palmer 


Henry Tucker or 


The heirs of Mr. John 



Parker or their Tenan*' 



John Keale & for Weeks 


1 Copied February, 1929, by the kind permission of W. E. Bigg, Esq., 
Diocesan Registrar at Salisbury, from a small book containing six 
pages, bound in paper, preserved in the Diocesan Registry at Salisbury. 

By C. R. Everett, 


Market Place. i 



Mr. Arthur Eastmead 



Mr. William Weeks & 

for Phillipses 
John Haskins 



Mary Davis for her 

Joseph Siinpkins 
Sir George Hungerford or 
Ten^ Thomas Morrell 




Mr. Benedict Browne or 

Ten^ Mrs. An Nutt 



Mr. Robert Sheppard 
Robert Lawiance for his 





Cash Street. 

The heirs of Walter 
Norborne Esq. dec'^ or 
their Ten^« Mr. Richard 
Stokes or Mr. Robert 

Thomas Lanne 

Mr. Robert Sheppard 
for the Mill 

Anthony Billett or Ten* 
Wm. Baylie 

Patford Street. 
Gabriel Langrish 
Humphry Townsend 
John Ladd 

Ann Jaffry Jun^ClothierO 
Edward Sharp 
Mr. Richard Stokes 
Jonathan Nickholls 

Cozen Streett. 

Mrs. Browne or Ten* 

Mary Brooks, Widd. 

Esua Savige for Odies 

Robert Baldwin 

Mr. Gifford or Ten* 

Robert Curd for 

Thomas Keale 
Phillip James 
John Keale or Ten* fo] 

Browns house 
Francis Barnes 
Anthony Brooks 
Mrs. Katherine Forman 
. or Ten* Wm Davis 

Beyond Bridg. £ 

Mrs. Ann Nutt 

Anthony Brooks or Ten* 
Robt Norman for 
Woodman's house 
Precilla Daish or Ten* 
Mr. Arthur Eastmead 

for Formans 

Mr. Watton or Ten* 
Edward Slade for 

Mr. William Hay ward 
Thomas Looker 

Mr. Robert Sheppard or 
Ten* Richard Barheld 
for ye Crown 

Humphrey Barnard or 


Mr, Robert Sheppard for 










1 8 






Arthur Forman 



John Neat 



Walter Flay 



John Norman Jun. 




Barnabas Horsington 



Ann White Wid. 



Oliver Hartman 




Thomas Peeters 



Daniell Nerkes 



Jane Harding Widd. 



Mary Brooks for The 



Pidgion Close 



Joseph Serient 



Mr. Sallway or Ten* 




William Jones 


Wm. Jones for the house 

he lives in 



Robert Card 




Oliver Harman or Ten* 


Henry Fieldowne 



Katherine HoUoway 





Thomas James 



John Goddard 



The Ten*^ in Xpian Sea- 


gery house y* was 


Walter Forman 



W'illiam Peirce 



James Cook 




Edward Carter 



Robert Norman Jun. 



Mary Peirce, Widd. 



Calne Parish Church Rate. 




Thomas Morrell 




Edward Lad 


John Henstidg for 


Landlord, Ponting 


OUver Harman 




John Henstidg 


Eastman Street. 

John Bishop 


Robert Dyer 



Sir George Hungerford 

or Ten* John Bishop 6 

Mr. Robert Maundrell 
or Ten* Mrs. Mary 

Robert Dyer for pigs 

Walter Doleman 

Thomas Morell als 

Weaver 4 

Mrs. Horton or Ten* 

Thomas James 3 

Edmund Phillips 1 8 

Johnson Weeks or Ten* 

for Pranders 9 

John Eyles for Forman's 
ground at Bevvers- 
brook 6 

2 8 


i s d. 
Mr. Robert Maundrell or 

Ten* John Hiscox 8 

John Bayhe Sen 6 
Katherine Hollaway for 

S*«bury 1 3 
John Baylie Jun'' for Mr. 

^ Hocketts 2 
]^rs. Horton or Ten* 

Anthony Fry 2 6 
Mr. Richard Forman or 

Ten* Joseph Orrell 4 

Edward Hollaway 8 

Richard Browne Jun 12 

William Barrett 2 

John Ponting als Powns 2 

John Cook 3 
Joseph Orrell for Mr. 

Ducketts 6 
Thomas Horton for Mr. 

Ducketts 4 

Thomas English 10 
Richard Browne Sen for 

Barthemees 10 
Henry Tucker for Hand- 
coke 8 
Richard Browne Sen'' for 

his houses 2 

Stephen Orrell 2 

Robert Burchell 2 

Andrew Mortimer 4 


Mrs. Hungerford or Ten* 

Edward Raynells 2 

Mrs. Margaret Smith 6 

Richard Wakecomb 2 
Henry Smith or Ten* 

Edward Baylie 1 

Wilham Hood for EmettsO 6 

William Browne 8 

Joseph Orrell 4^ 

Edw ard Reynolds 12 

Widow Reeves or Ten* 6 

Dorcus Browne, Widd. 2 

Mrs. Margaret Smith 4 
Richard Hicks for John 

Whelers 4 

Quainerford . 
Henry Chiver Esq. 
William Weld Esq. 

1 5 



Mr. John Mitchell 8 

Mrs. Ann Orrell or Ten* 

John Hughs 6 

William Smith & The 

ExorsofMichellHood 3 
Stephen Hiscox 10 

Mr. Robert Stevens or 

Ten* John Hughes 2 
John Hughs & Oliver 

Harman for Ponting 8 
Mickell Hood, Exor for 

Landingtons 10 

John Hicks for Mr. 

Duckett 1 6 

W^m. Smith & the Exors 

of Mickell Hood o 1 6 

Mary Fry for the Mill 1 6 
Roger North & William 

Smith 1 

By C. R. Everett. 



Samuell Hiscox for the 


John Hughs 

Widd Cadle 

Joseph Orrell 

John Hughs for Town- 
Thomas Hughes 
John WiUis 
John Hiscox 
John Hughs of the 


Richard Hicks, Widd. 





3 6 

£ s. d. 
Anthony Brooks for 

Rogerses butts 4 

Anthony Brooks for 

Scotts 4 

John Norman for Mr. 

Mitchells ground 3 

Alee Woodman Widd. 1 
Mathew Woodroof or 

John Bishop 2 

Mrs. Ann Orrell or Ten^ 

Roger Peirce 1 10 

Henry Tucker & for 

Orrell 's ground 2 4 


Sir Giles Long or Ten* 

Edward Harris 7 6 
Mr. William Maundrell 

' for Jeffreys 8 

Judy Jaffry Widd. 2 4 

Mathew Neat for Scotts 4 6 
Barnabas Horsington or 

Ten* 2 

Mr. William Maundrell 3 3 

Widd Haskins or Ten* 2 

Wm.CostarforSomersesO 8 
Mr. Samuell Bourne or 

Ten* 4 
Henry Tucker for pte of 

Eyleses 6 

Thomas Bodman 2 

William Cos tar . 2 

Joseph Hiscox 1 

Jonathan Sloper 

Thomas Ashly for Hopes 

Widd Robins or Ten* 



Henry Beare 
Richard Phelps 

Bromham or 

Wm. Pountney 
Mr. Peirce or 

Joseph Hiscox for 


John Cook for Mr. 

Mitchell's ground 
Mr. Bourne for pte of 


John Pouting 

William Lamphere 

Thomas Ashly 



1 8 








S*" John Earnle Kn* 

Madam Johnson or 

Charles Cozen 
Charles Cozen 
James Golding & Wm. 





Henry Blaak Esq. 10 

Mr. John Orrell 3 6 
Mr. Rob* Sheppard or 

Ten* Edw. W^hite 2 6 

Richard Rogers 2 2 
Robert Davis for Mr. 

Ducketts 2 8 
Mr. Tho : Scott or Ten* 

Roger Peirce 5 

Wihiam Clifford 4 

John Stevens 2 

Francis Smith 2 

Mr. Robert Mortimer 19 
Robert Davis for 

Hanams 8 

Stephen Orrell 12 

Robert Davis 4 

John Hayward 4 


Richard Broome 2 

Johnson Weeks for Lock 

hill 4 6 

Mr. Sherwin & p.tners & 
Ten* Humphry Tug- 
well 1 10 


Calne Parish Church Rate. 

Cowedy. £ 

Mr. Jonathan Rogers & 
Ten* John Hancock 

Mr. Nathaniel Webb for 
Little Mead 

Mr. John Bayntuns 
Trustees for the copes 


Mr. Beneclidick Browne 

or Ten* Joseph Russell 
Mr. Rob* Sheppard for 

Marchan^' Close 

Rob* Norman Sen"" & 

Ten* Esua Savige 

Foot Ansloe Esq or Ten* 

Edw. Slade 

David Langton for Red 


Wm. Orchard for his 


S'' George Hunger ford 

or Ten* Andrew Angel 
Edw. Gale for I^ongdom 


Edward Gale 

Robert Gale 

Widd Gale or Ten* John 


Robert Chivers or Ten* 

s. d. S'' Georg or Tent*;^ 

Francis Peirce for The 
^ g Mill 

Robert Emett for The 
.. Q farme 

David Langton for 


Joseph Whithock or 

Ten* Thos. Dixson 
John Taylor 

John Stevens for his 


William Butt for Odies 
John Watts or his 


Peter Emett 

Mr. Thos. Swaddon or 

Ten* Wm. Orchard 
Joseph Russell for the 


S'' Georg Hungerford 

for The Copse 

S' Georg or Ten* Wm. 

Dobs for Horsingtons 
Sir Georg or Ten* Tho. 

Selfe for the Swerns 
Anthony Newman 

Wm. Hellier or Ten* 
Rob* Hort for Norman's 


6 William Butt 

8 Robert Hort or Ten* 

1 3 

6 6 




3 4 


























Benj D'Aranda, Vic. 

Ste. Orrel] \ nx. u 

T c- 1 • r- Churchwardens. 

Jos Smipkms J 

W. Weekes 

Tho : Fowler 

John Forman 

Arthur Forman 

Step. Blake 

William Browne 

Roger Seagar 

John Baily 

Sept. 14. 95. 

Hanc ratam quantum in nobis est 
et jure regni peculiare confirmamus. 

Edw. Spencer Officiall 

Gab Still 
John Haskins 
Walter Forman 
William Mortimer 
John Beare 
John Townsend 
John Keat 




By A. Shaw Mellor. 

Among the documents and records preserved in the Archives of the 

Parish Council of Box, Wilts, there are many which would prove a mine 

of information to the local historian, both as regards the various 

happenings in the parish, and as regards the doings of the members of 

many local families. But there are some of them which are well worth 

perusal also by anyone who takes an interest in the everyday life of our 

forefathers in rural England, and I have ventured to make extracts 

from a few of these documents in the hope that the reader will derive 

both instruction and occasional amusement from them, as I myself 

have done in working through them. 

The following is a list of the more ancient records : — ■ 
Bound Volume of Overseers' Accounts from May 3rd, 1767 to March 

14th, 1784. Quarto. Binding missing. 
Bound Volume of Churchwardens' Accounts from May 6th, 1724 to 

August 10th, 1809. Quarto. Binding missing. 
Bundle labelled " Box : Miscellaneous Papers " containing :— 
Letters re Turnpike and other Roads in Box, 1813 to 1816. 
Notices, Receipts, Accounts, Summonses, Letters, 1756 to 1831. 
Justices' Orders re Rogues and Vagabonds, 1820 to 1825. 
Correspondence on Poor Law Settlements and Churchwardens' 
Accounts, 18th and early 19th centuries. 
Bundle of Poor Law Certificates of Settlement, 1680 to 1780. 
Bundle of Poor Law Examinations as to Settlement, 1702 to 1818. 
Bundle of Poor Law Bastardy Orders, etc., 1717 to 1815. 
Bundle of Statements of Cases on Appeal, etc., 1669 to 1814. 
Bundle of Bonds to save the Parish harmless in respect of Newcomers, 

1658 to 1752. 
Bundle of Waywardens' Bills, 1827 to 1829. 
Bundle of Removal Orders, 1669 to 1700. 
Bundle of Papers relating to Militia Substitutes and Volunteers, 1778 

to 1818. 
Bundle of Indentures and Bonds of Apprentices, 1650 to 1801. 

The Volume of Overseers' Accounts deals almost entirely with the 
poor. It consists mainly of entries of sums paid out for relief, sickness, 
births and burials, clothing, and maintenance ; also for the upkeep of 
the Poor House and the Smallpox House. Below are some specimen 
items : — 

Spinning turns to ye Poor house 7 

2 Spanish Bags to cover the old women in the work 

house 2 

Wm. Bull's caution money into Bath Hospital 3 

Legal charges in respect of Orders of Removal and 

Appeals to Quarter Sessions 5 5 















346 Box Parish Records. 

Fetching some goods from ye Smallpox house 

Expences going to Bath to get a place for Bet Tiler 

Robt. Wescott being hurt by a Quarry 

To repair a loom 

Geo. Wiltshire's dau : having a lame arm 

Postage of a Letter from St. Olaves Southwark 8 

Paid Edwd. Salter (to be off) 1 

Expences attempting to suppress bad order on 

Revel Sunday 6 

Gunpowder and Shot, when Chimneys were on fire 

in ye Poor house 11 

Dr. Brewer for Innoculating Thos. Hayward and 

Family at Corsham parish 1 

Paid the Jury on a Boy that was drowned 
Paid the Bailiff of the Hundred for do: 
Jane Wiltshire extra : being at Bradford to learn to 

Spin Shoemakers' thread 
Dan: Arlett's Bill for Tiles, etc., on ye Blindhouse 1 

A perusal of these Accounts shows the terrible prevalence of Smallpox 
during this period ; it also shows that Inoculation for Smallpox was by 
no means confined to the upper classes. The method of dealing with 
chimneys on fire appears somewhat drastic ; it is to be hoped that it 
was successful. It is also to be hoped that Edwd. Salter did go "off " 
after receiving his shilling ! 

The following Memorandum in the Accounts is of interest : — 

August 18th, 1771. It is agreed by us whose names are hereunto 
subscribed, that if any person or persons who receive relief from 
the Parish is known or found drinking foreign Tea, such person or 
persons shall not receive any future relief until they entirely leave 
it off, neither shall any person living in the poorhouse, be suffered 
to hve there, if they dont also leave off drinking Tea. 
(Signed) John Ford John Neat Wm. Brown Geo. Mullins 

Stephen Bridges Robert Raynolds Edwd. Lee John Vezey 
Here is an account of a Vestry Meeting which appears under date 
May 12th, 1788. 

At a Vestry Meeting held this day — ■ 

Agreed that Joseph Bancroft and his Family shall not be any 
longer relieved, but by Justices' orders. 

Ordered that the Overseers may collect 8 Rates. 

Ordered to have Mr. Vezey's directions concerning Paul Little 
and Family and to peruse such instructions. 

Ordered that the Overseers wait on Esqr. Awdry and inform him 
that Thos. Shell refuses to obey his Order of Bastardy. 

Ordered that Mr. Vezey be employed to recover a note forfeited 
by Wm. Angle & Son — for not maintaining his wife. 

Ordered that ye Overseers apprehend Rich: Arlett by warrant 
from Mr. Johnson — and sent home or as ye Justice see right. 

By A. Shaw Mellor. 347 

Ordered that Ann Cookey be placed at Bath for four or li\'e 
weeks, and then married to Phihp Baker by Licence. 

Ordered to Summons Isaac Hilher at Kingsdown to be examined 
to his Parish. 

Ordered to desire the Justices at ye petty Sessions to send their 
Order to such Parish officers &c. as ought to suppress on Sundays, 
playing at Ball or Fives, Trap, Stool Ball, Chuck, and such like 
plays, consequently a resort to Public Houses after ye games are 

Same day agreed to by us. 

(Signed) Wm. Rogers Geo : Mullins. Churchwarden 

Wm. Pinchin 

Wm. Gibbons John Wiltshire 

Wm. Brown Wm. Gibbs Overseers 

Wm. Cottle 
The Volume of Churchwardens' Accounts contains entries of payments 
for many purposes. It also contains the appointments of Wardens 
during the period, and the names of the Overseers and of many 
parishioners. Some of the chief items in the Accounts are : — 
Rent of Church House. 

Payments to Tything-man for ' ' Goale and Marshal- 
sea money." 
Repairs to and oil for the Bells ; bell ropes. 
Visitation fees, with charges and expenses. 
Register and other books. 
Bread and W^ine for Holy Communion. 
W^ashing Church linen and Surplices. 
Payments for keeping dogs out of the Church. 
Repairs to Church fabric and Churchyard walls. 
Making the Rates. 
Horsehire on going before the Justices with people 

warned out of the Parish. 
Vagrant money. 

Payments to travelling men and women in necessity. 
Carpenter for putting up and repairs to the Stocks. 
Men to keep guard at Revel I 

To men who helped John Bancroft when the Quarr 

fell in upon him 1 

Gave 14 Soldiers' Wives (or Company Keepers) 

with their children 
Cutting the Limes in the Churchyard , 
Paid several men that came through our Parish 

with passes 
For mending Becket's Well 
Beer for the Ringers at the Coronation of King 

George the third 
For a Brazier and charcoal 
Advertizing the Suppression of Box Revel (1779) 

Y 2 










348 Box Parish Records. 

Drawing a Terrier (whicli was delivered to the 
Bishop) on Parchment and copying the same 
into Register 8 

Taking the Fire Engine out of and back into ye 

Church about 100 times in ye year 6 

Paid Mrs. Flower for eating and drinking at the 

time of Perambulating in 1792 15 6 

Oak boughs 29th May 1793 10 

Paid for dinner for the people who were confirmed 112 6 
The following entry occurs under date 19th June, 1787: — Geo: 
Mullins received of the Arch Deacon in ye Vestry Room ye following— 

General Directions. 
You are to go the Bounds of the Parish once in ten years. You 
are to make Casements in the Windows, where wanted for the 
Admission of Air. You are to remove the Earth from the Found- 
ation of the Church or Chapel where it can be done without 
interfering with the Graves already made ; but in future not to 
permit a Grave to be dug within two yards of the Foundation of 
the Church ; not any person to be buried in the Church, except 
where a Brick Arch is turned over the Grave. 
Ar : Coham. A.D. 
Below is a complete account of one of the Wardens for a year :^ 
The Accts. and Disburcements of John Ford Junr. Churchwarden of 
the said Parish made up and stated to the Parishioners September the 
8th 1747. 

Paid for Cutting the Trees in the Church Yard 
,, Mr. Spurrins Huntsman for a Fox 
, , for Ale for the Ringers ye day of Thanksgiving 
,, the Church House Rent 

,, for Beer for the Ringers the 5th of Novr. 1 

,, Cha. King for 2 Foxes 
,, Uriah Fear for a Fox 
„ Cha. King for 2 Foxes 

,, Court Fees with Expences at Visitation 1 

,, Edmund Oaland for a Fox 
,, for 4 New Bell Ropes 

,, David West for Work done in the Church 
,, for Beer that was had when the Bells was 

,, Uriah Fear for a Fox 
,, Edw. Castle for Whiping ye Dogs out of the 

,, Cha. King for 7 Foxes 
,, for Mending the Pulpitt 
,, Cha. King for 4 Foxes 
,, Cha. Brown for 4 Foxes 
,, Thos. Gibson for a Fox 
























By A. Shaw Mellor. 349 

Paid Cha. King for 3 Foxes 

,, Edw. West for Mending the Church yard Wall 

,, Thos. Gibson for a Fox 

,, David West for Mending ye Bells 

,, Mr. Spurrins Huntsman for 2 Foxes 

,, John Henny for a Fox 

,, Cha. King for 4 Foxes 

,, for Washing the Church Linnen 

,, for Mending the Surplices 

,, for Bread for ye Communion 

,, for Cleansing the Communion Plate 

,, for Cleansing the Passage from the Church 


,, for Making the Rates & Entring ye Accounts 

,, for Oyl for ye Bells 

,, for Wine for the Communion 

,, for Mending the Church Windows 

,, Court Fees & Expences at Visitation 

,, for Sparrows Heads 

,, Robert Davis's Bill 

,, for an Act of Parlament against Swearing 

Reed, by 2 Rates amounting to 
Reed, of ye late Churchwardens 

Reed, in all 

Ballance due from the Parish to John Ford Church- 
warden 19 11 

We allow this acct. ' 

(Signed) J. Morris, Vicar Lionel Lee 

John Neat Wm. Pinchin 

John Ford Wm. West 

Some of the items in these Accounts are of special interest. There 
are still several pollarded Lime trees in the Churchyard, but of no 
great. age ; they were probably planted to replace dead trees. With 
regard to Becket's W^ell, there is some doubt as to its position, but it 
was most likely of the nature of a trough to receive the water from the 
copious spring near the Church, which is still running. Apparently 
the Fire Engine was stored in the Church and taken out temporarily 
for Services. The Oak boughs on May 29th, of the purchase of which 
there are many entries, were in conmemoration of the day of the 
restoration of Charles II, on which day Oak apples or Oak boughs were 
worn or carried in memory of his hiding from his pursurers in an Oak 
tree on September 6th, 1651. 

The payments for foxes were part of the scheme that was in use at 










































350 Box Parish Records. 

this time for the suppression of vermin. There was a regular Scale in 
force in this Parish as follows : — 

Fox I Polecatt 4 

Hedgehog 4 Martin Catt ■ 1 

Sparrows, doz. 3 Young Fox 6 

Choaffs, Choafs (Jackdaws), doz. 3d. 

The "Martin Catt" mentioned was probably Mitstela martes (Pine 
Marten), now extinct in Southern England, as is also the wild Polecat, 
although this survives as the tame Ferret. 

In connection with the slaughter of foxes as recorded in the Accounts, 
it is somewhat surprising to find such a large number dealt with year 
by year. The number varies, but, after making a careful count from 
1724 to 1770, I find that the average yearly number for that period was 
24, the highest number, 57, occurring in the year 1737 ; from the year 
1770 the number rapidly diminishes, and after 1781 there are no more 
payments for foxes. 

I mentioned these facts to the Marquess of Lansdowne, who suggested 
an explanation which, I have little doubt, is the correct one. It is that 
there were no regular packs of fox-hounds, as such, until the middle of 
the eighteenth century, the chief beast of the chase until then being the 
stag; of course the fox was hunted to some extent, but probably 
casually and on a small scale by local Squires and others. In the 
Volume on "Hunting" in the Badminton Series, by the late Duke of 
Beaufort and Mowbray Morris, it is stated that until about the middle 
of the eighteenth century foxhunting by no means held the pride of 
place amongst sportsmen that it now holds. In 1743 the Badminton 
Kennels only had one couple of foxhounds, the remainder being 
deerhounds and harriers : it was not until 1762 that this Hunt turned 
itself solely to fox. " Before 1750, and in many parts of the Kingdom 
for long after, every country Squire no doubt kept a few couple of 
houndS; and, on occasion, he and his neighbours would unite their force, 
and so form a respectable pack." It is probable that the Mr. Spurrin, 
wdiose huntsman appears in the Accounts in 1747, was such an one. 

What more likely then, that from about the year 1770 foxes in the 
Parish of Box began to be regarded no longer as vermin, but as beasts 
of the chase, and from the year 1781 were preserved as such ? 

Advertising the Suppression of Box Revel in 1779 does not appear to 
have had much success, for among some of the later documents appears 
the following lawyers' bill : — 

The Churchwardens and Overseers of Box Parish 

to Atherton & Gabriel. Drs. 


Oct. 12. Carriage of Parcel from Mr. Mullings stating 
that it was wished we should conduct the Trials 
of the Defendants upon Indictments already 
instituted g 

,, 14. Attending taking Instructions for Brief against 
John Tylee and 6 others for a Riot and for an 

By A. Shaw M ell or 


13 4 


13 4 

assault upon John Eyles while executing his 
Office of Constable 

Preparing Brief in Eyles's Case (5 Sheets) 

The like in Emmett's Case (3 Sheets) 
Oct. 15. Attending these Prosecutors and Henry 
Shewring advising as to the Evidence for all the 

Letter to Mr. Mullins to get him and Thomas Tuckey 
to attend 

Instructions for Brief against Isaac Hall upon an 
Indictment for Riot and assaulting Henry 
Shewring as Special Constable 

Preparing same (2 Sheets) 
,, 16. Journey to the Quarter Sessions at Marlbro' 
when found that Tylee and others were not 
indicted for a Riot in John Eyles's Case — and 
that Isaac Hall had not been apprehended — the 
Briefs were therefore only delivered in the two 
former cases and the Evidence appearing defective 
to prove an assault upon Eyles it was thought 
adviseable to prefer a fresh Indictment against 
the same persons for a Riot — return home on 18th 

Horse hire and Horse Expenses 

Fee to Counsel to move to quash the first Indictment 
but after some discussion with the Court it 
remained for Trial — the Parties being left at 
liberty to prefer a fresh Bill for the Riot 

Fee to Counsel to move 1 gua. 
to his Clerk 2/6 

Drawing new Special Indictment with 4 Counts 

Fee to Counsel — to settle same and Clerk 

Paid Clerk of Indictments thereon 

Paid Swearing Witness 1/-, and to Bailiff 6d. 

Paid for Subpoena and Copy 

Paid Court Fees 

It is to be hoped that this was the last Riot at Box Revel ; there is 
nothing to show whether the Revel was continued after 1822 or not. 

But from information supplied by Mr. H. A. Druett, the present 
headmaster of Box School, it would appear that the Revel was held in 
the years 1864 and 1865, as shown by the following entries in the school 
records : — 

" July 11th 1864. Box Revels, — a kind of Fair held in the Village — 
a tea-party and various other festivities going on — these affected the 
School numbers — present in the morning 96 — afternoon 88." 

" July 10th 1865. Attendance small owing to Box Revel — a tea- 

6 8 

1 3 




1 3 









28 16 

352 Box Parish Records. 

party and other festivities that were going on — present in the afternoon 
but 57." 

Among the letters deaUng with the Overseers' business is one dated 
April 23rd, 1824, from a local medical man, who was evidently a com- 
petent practical Psychologist : — 

To Mr. Wm. Pinchin as Overseer of the Parish of Box. 

In compliance with your order, I visited Isaac Bancroft today ; 
m}^ first enquiry was into the state of his health, which appeared 
perfectly good— then, as many extraordinary things had been told 
of his moral conduct, such as stealing boldly in the open day, and 
offering the same for sale, at the same time, if asked how he came 
by it, owning he had stolen it, loosing his Fiddle, and other things 
equally unreasonable : I was led to examine into the state of his 
mind, he answered every question I put readily and rationally, but 
candidly said he did not like work, nor would he work, an 
acknowledgement many would not hesitate to make, if they could 
be supported without — My experience on Insanity has not been 
great, but from what I could make out of him, I am not prepared 
to say he is insane. 

From Sir, 

Your obedient servant. 
Corsham. Richd. H. Alexander. 

There are many Certificates of Settlement of persons belonging to 
other Parishes, whose circumstances were so poor that they were being 
supported, or might have to be supported, by their Parish. Such 
persons, if they entered the Parish of Box without a Certificate, would 
very soon find themselves escorted over the Parish boundary to their 
own Parish, after a rigorous examination by the Justices as to their 

Here is a transcription of one of these Certificates : — 

To the Churchwardens and Overseers of the poore of the Pish of 
Box and to all others whome it may concerne these. Whereas the 
bearer hereof Ambrose Dyer of our Pish of Melkesham in the County 
of Wiltes Scribler haveing marryed a wife lately out of ye said 
Pish of Box one Jane Weast, and being desireous to live with his 
said wife and worke for their maynteynance in ye said pish. To 
the end therefore that hee may soe doe without lett hindrance or 
any trouble and yet remayne as an inhabitant of our pish of 
Melkesham. Wee the Minister Churchwardens and Overseers of 
the poore of the Pish of Melkesham aforesaid whose hands are 
hereunto Subscribed and Scales affixed Doe hereby declare unto 
you that the said Ambrose Dyer now is an inhabitant of our said 
Pish of Melkesham and soe wee shall, alwayes accomt him to be, 
and likewise Jeane his wife And Notwithstanding their dwelling in 
ye said pish of Box We doe hereby pmise unto you and yor 
successors in yor sevcrall offices That either the said Ambrose 

By A. Shaw Mellor. 353 

Dyer and Jeane his wife shall return e or be returned and be here 
pvided for as Inhabitants of ye Pish of Melkesham, without putting 
any of ye (lacuna) of Box to any charge trouble or expence 
whatsoever concerning them In witnes whereof wee have hereunto 
set or hands and scales the ffower and Twentieth day of May in 
the Two and Thirtieth yeare of the Reigne of or Sovarygne Lord 
Charles the Second King over England Anno Doni 1680. 
(Signed) Peter Priaulx Vicar, ibid. John Phillipes 

Rob. Jenkins Samuell Love 

Jacob Selfe Churchwardens 
The word " scribler " in the above Certificate is the designation of 
one engaged in the occupation of carding wool for cloth weaving. 

There are many reports of examinations as to Settlement, of which 
the following is a specimen : — 

WILTES. The examinacon of Elizabeth Rogers Spinster — - 
taken at Box the 16th day of February Anno Dmi 1702 before 
George Speke Petty and Thomas Goddard Esqrs. two of her 
Majties Justices of the peace for the said County, who uppon her 
Afirmacon saith That to the best of her knowledge she was borne 
in the pish of Bidestone in the County of Wiltes where she were 
edicate for the space of nine or tenn yeares and afterwards went 
and dwelt with her uncle James IMatrevers att Hilberton in the 
said County of Wiltes for the space of three or four yeares from 
whence shee removed and lived a Servt. with William Farnell 
of Wine Street in the pish of St. Peter in the Citty of Bristoll Sop 
boyler for the space of three yeares and uppvvards from whence She 
came to the pish of Box in the aforesaid County of Wiltes without 
any Certifiycate warrant or other athority to make her a Settled 
inhabitant there 
Capt fuit her afhrmacon die 
et aijjio suprdict via nobis 

(Signed) Geo. Speke Petty Elizabeth Rogers 

Tho. Goddard 
Until comparatively late times a Parish was the unit for Poor-Law 
Relief, and, in the eighteenth century at any rate, if any person was 
apprehended as a rogue and vagabond, the chief aim of the officials 
concerned was to establish the Settlement of the said person, and, if 
the Settlement was in another Parish, to send the individual back to 
the Parish of Settlement with as little delay as possible. If the distance 
was considerable, the journey was arranged in stages, the Constable of 
each Parish en route being charged to convey the person to the next 
stage. Here is a transcription of a document concerned wdth the con- 
veyance of a rogue and vagabond from the Parish of Great Neston in 
Cheshire to her native Parish of Box : — 

COUNTY OF CHESTER I The Examination of Ann Smith the 

to wit /wife of Will. Smith a soldier taken 

upon Oath before me Willm. Glegg Esquire, one of his jNIajesty's 

354 Box Parish Records. 

Justices of the Peace for the said County this 3rd day of November 

This Examinant being examined to the Place of her last legal 
Settlement was born and also was a hired Servt. for Eight years to 
Edward Spencer of the Parish of Box in the County of Wilts and 
She believes she hath not done any Act or Deed to gain a Legal 
Settlement Elsewhere at any time since. 
Taken and Sworn the Day and her 

Year above-mentioned, before me Ann X Smith 

(Signed) Wm. Glegg mark 

COUNTY OF CHESTER i To the Constable of the Township 
to wit J of Great Neston in the said County ; 

and also to all Constables and other Officers whom it may concern 
to receive and convey ; and to the Church-Wardens, Chapel- 
Wardens, or Overseers of the Poor of the Parish of Box in the 
County of Wilts or either of them, to receive and obey. 

WHEREAS Ann Smith the wife of Willm. Smith a Soldier was 
apprehended in the said Township of Great Neston as a Rogue and 
Vagabond wandering and begging there ; and upon the Examination 
of the said Ann Smith taken upon Oath before me Wlllm. Glegg 
one of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the said County of 
Chester (which Examination is hereunto annexed) it doth appear 
that her legal Settlement is in the Parish of Box in the County of 
Wilts, These are therefore to require you the said Constables to 
convey the said Ann Smith to St. Thos. Ward in the City of Chester 
that being the Place in the next Precinct, through w^hich she ought 
to pass, in the direct way to the Parish of Box aforesaid, to which 
she is to be sent, and to deliver her to the Constable or other 
Ofhcer of such Town, in such next Precinct, together with this 
Pass, and the Duplicate of the Examination of the said Ann Smith 
taking his Receipt for the same. And the said Ann Smith to be 
thence conveyed on in the like manner, to the said Parish of Box 
in the County of Wilts there to be delivered to some Church -Warden, 
Chapel-Warden, or Overseer of the Poor of the same Parish to be 
there provided for according to Law ; and you the said Church- 
Wardens, Chapel -Wardens, and Overseers of the Poor, are hereby 
required to receive the Person and provide for her as aforesaid. 
Given under my Hand and Seal the 3rd day of November 1755. 
(Signed) Wm. Glegg. 

CITY OF CHESTER I To the Constables of St. Thomas's Wd. 
to wit J Convey the within named Vagrant to 

Boughton in the County of Chester. Given under my Hand 

the 4th day of November 1755. 

(Signed) Jno. Page. Mayr. 

COUNTY OF CHESTER I To the Constables of Boughton 
to wit / Convey the within named Vagrant 

to Whitechurch in the County of Salop. Dated the 4th day of 
November 1755. 

By A. Shaw Mellor 355 

SALOP '^ Convey the within named Vagrant to Great 

to Witt J Chatwell in the Connty of Stafford. Dated 
November ye 5th 1755. 

STAFFORDSHIRE -^^ To the Constable of Great Chatwell in the 
to Witt J said County. Convey the within named 

Vagrant to Wolverley in the County of Worcester. Datted 
Novr. ye 7th 1755. 

(Signed) Edw. Littleton. 

W^ORCESTERSHIRE. To the Constable of W^olverley. 
Convey the within named Vagrant to the Parish of St. Nicholas in 
the City of Worcester. 10th Novr. 1755. 

(Signed) Ed. Shillingtleet. 

CITY OF W^ORCESTER. To the Constable of St. Nicholas in 
the City of Woster. Convey the within named Vagrant to the 
Parish of St. Peters in the County of Worcestr. To be forwarded 
by the Constable as the Pass Directs. 

Given undr. my hand this 10 Novr. 1755 

(Signed) John Floyer, 

COUNTY OF WORCESTER. To the Constable of St. Peters 
Convey the within named Vagrant to the Constable of Twining in 
the County Glocester the 10th day of November 1755. 
(Signed) W\ Bromley. 

CITY OF GLOUCESTER I To the Constable of the North 

to wit J Ward of the said City. 

Convey the Vagrant mentioned in the annexed Pass to the 
Constable of the Hamlet of Littleworth in the County of Gloucester 
that she may be further Conveyed as the Pass Directs. 
Given under my Hand this 12th day of November 1755. 
(Signed) Jas. Herbert. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE -1 To the Constable of the Hamlet of 

to wit / Littleworth in the said County. 

Convey the Vagrant mentioned in the Annexed Pass to the 
Cpnstable of the Parish of Long Newton in the County of Wilts 
that she may be conveyed forwards as the Pass Directs. 
Given under my Hand this 12th day of November 1755. 
(Signed) Wm. Bell. 

WILTS \ To the Constable of Long Newton. To Convey the 
To W^it i said Vagrant Ann Smith to the Parish of Box in this 
County, the Place of her legal Settlement. 

Given under my Hand this Fourteenth day of November 1755. 
(Signed) Charles Coxe. 
I can find no other record of the adventures of Ann Smith after her 
well organized journey from Chester to Box. Did she ever see her 
soldier husband again ? Of one thing we may be certain, that she was 
not received with open arms by the overseers of her parish ! 

356 Box Parish Records. 

The documents relating to Militia Substitutes and Volunteers are 
chiefly concerned with the liability of the parish to provide one or more 
Militiamen, as chosen by lot, to form the County quota for service. In 
the year 1778 it would appear that if a parishioner was chosen by lot, 
and did not wish to serve, he could provide a substitute, whose charges 
must be paid as to one half by himself, and as to the other half by the 
parish. The following order deals with one of these cases : — 

Subdivision of Chippenham and Cain and borough of Cain in the 
hundreds of Chippenham and Cain in the County of Wilts. 

To the Churchwardens and Overseers of the poor of the parish 
of Box in the said Subdivision of said County. 

Whereas Thomas Lea of the said parish of Box Tayler was duly 
chosen by Lott in our presence to serve in the Militia for the parish 
of Box aforesaid And whereas the said Thomas Lea hath provided 
a fit person to serve as a Substitute for him which Substitute was 
the Sixth day of June last sworn and inrolled as a private Militia- 
man in the Regiment of Militia of the said County of Wilts then 
embodied and in actual service We therefore three of his Majesty's 
Justices of the Peace one whereof at the least is a Deputy 
Lieutenant in and for the said County of Wilts do hereby order and 
require you by a Rate to be by you for that purpose made accord- 
ing to the form of the Statute in such case made to raise and levy 
the sum of forty shilhngs being by us adjudged to be as near as 
may be one half of the current price then paid for a Voluntier in 
the said County of Wilts and that you do pay the said forty 
shillings or cause the same to be paid to the same Thomas Lea 
hereof fail not. 

Given under our hands and seals this third day of October in 
the Year of our Lord 1778. 

(Signed) Jas. Montagu 
\ Thomas Hedges 

J. Awdry 
There are many Indentures and Bonds for binding apprentice poor 
children of the Parish, in order to relieve the ratepayers of the cost of 
their support, and to try and ensure them a future means of livelihood. 
Here follows a specimen :■ — 

This Indenture made the Nineteenth day of January in the 
Eight and Twentieth yeare of the Raigne of our Soveraigne Lord 
Charles the Second by the Grace of God of England Scotland 
France and Ireland King Defender of the Faith Anno Dom. 1676 
betweene Zachariah Harris and William Bassett Churchwardens of 
Box in the Countie of Wilts And Thomas Stevens and Thomas 
Baylie Overseers of the Poore of Box aforesaid @f the one pte And 
William Marsh of the same pishe Husbandman on the other pte 
Witnesseth that the said Churchwardens and Overseers have by 
these prsts putt placed and bound forth Mary West being a poore 
Fatherlesse and Motherlesse Child of the said pishe Apprentice 
with the said William Marsh his execrs admrs or assignes to dwell 

By A. Shaw Mellor. 357 

from the clay of the date hereof untill shee shall attaine and be of 
the full age of One and Twentie yeares according to the Statute in 
that case made and provided for and dureing all which Terme She 
the said Mary West shall him the said William Marsh his execrs 
admrs or assignes well and faithfullie serve and in all thinges 
behave herselfe honestlie and orderlie as becometh such a Servant 
And the said William Marshe for himself his execrs admrs and 
assignes doth hereby promise to finde to his saide Apprentice 
Meate drinke Apparell Lodging and all other necessaries meete and 
convenient for a Servant of her condicon dureing the said Terme 
In Wittnes Whereof the pties aforesaid to these pnte Indentures 
have Interchangeably sett their hands and Scales either to other 
the day and yeare First above written. 

Signed sealed & delived the mark & seall of 

(Undecipherable) William Marshe X 

Those readers who desire further information concerning the affairs 
of a Wiltshire parish during the 17th and 18th centuries should consult 
the excellent article on the subject in the Magazine, Vol. 46, page 312, 
by F. H. Hinton, entitled " Notes on the Records and Accounts of the 
Overseers of the Poor of Chippenham 1691 — 1805." 



Presidential Address by Frank Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A., at the 
hungerford meeting of the society, july 31st, 1935. 


The study of Mediaeval Paving Tiles, generally known as " Encaustic " 
or " Inlaid Tiles " is one which has received but little attention. The 
literature on the subject is small and for the most part is confined to 
the publications of Archaeological Societies, where tiles are generally 
incidental to the description of some Abbey or Priory. Two special 
books on the subject — Nicholas Examples of Decorative Tiles, 1845, and 
Henry Shaw's Speciinens of Tile Pavements, 1858— are the best known 
works on the subject generally. Moreover since these excellent books 
appeared, there have been so many discoveries that the collections in 
Churches, Museums, and in private hands, now need to be carefully 
compared and studied in relation with one another, the patterns 
catalogued, and the dating material of each fixed as far as possible, 
together with its source of inspiration. There is one curious circum- 
stance which of itself alone furnishes a tempting line of enquiry. How 
is it that these tiles are the only form of pottery, made in this country 
in mediaeval times, which can claim any outstanding artistic quality ? 
Pottery in general from Norman to Tudor times was rough and often 
ungainly in shape and decoration. It seems almost incredible that so 
great skill should have existed in one branch of the potter's art without 
some corresponding influence on the more widely distributed craft of 
making vessels for daily use. How is it that so complicated an industry 
arose in this country at a time when the general level of pottery was at 
so low an ebb ? The reply to this question would seem to be, first, 
that the tiles were made exclusively by the Monastic Orders and, 
secondly, that the actual art of making them was imported from the 

Method of Manufacture. 

Early tiles are usually squares of red pottery from Sins, to 8ins. long, 
and of a thickness which varies from fin. to a full inch at times. The 
crude clay itself was first rolled upon sand into a sheet to compress the 
material. Where compression has not properly taken place, there are 
holes and cracks in the finished product which make it weak and brittle. 
This "body " was then pressed into square moulds, which very often 
were shaped to give a bevelled edge to the tile. The square of clay was 
then allowed to dry slightly before being pressed by the wooden stamp, 

The Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts. 


which resembled a "butter print." One of these prints is in the 
Winchester Museum. The maker of " tile prints " had to be a skilled 
craftsman, particularly where armorial or alphabetical designs had to 
be made. In one case from the Repton Kiln a complete alphabet reads 
on the tile from right to left. Often diagonal cuts were made in the tile 
after printing, to perrtiit of the tile being broken into two triangular 
pieces to fill corners. The hollows made by the print were next filled 
with white slip composed of china or pipe clay. Here great care was 
required, for it was essential that the clay used for the slip should have 
the same shrinkage in the kiln as the body of the tile. The surface of the 
tile was then scraped with a sharp edge to give it a clean finish. 

Fig. 1. — Tile Stamp in Winchester Museum. 
Reproduced with permission from Sussex Arch. Colls., Ixxv, 26. 

Occasionally and at a later date in their history, tiles were decorated 
with a painted or stencilled slip, which, while permitting greater free- 
dom of design, failed to produce the same bold effect. The final process 
was -to dip the tiles in a metallic glaze (the lead in which acted on the 
iron and salt in the clay), and then fire them. Firing had various 
effects upon the finished tile. The lead glaze produced a yellowish tint 
upon the w,hite pipe clay, which greatly added to the eftect of the 

360 The Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts. 

finished article. Oxide of iron in the clay gave a greenish shade to the 
body of the tile. There was likewise a special green glaze into which 
copper salts were introduced ; but green tiles as such very seldom have 
patterns upon them. 

The Tilemakers. 
There seems to be no doubt that the secret of the manufacturing 
processes of Inlaid Tiles was held by a limited number of workers, and 
that these were monks, probably Cistercians. The monastic tile-maker, 
after enriching his own Abbey with pavements, would doubtless be em- 
ployed elsewhere by the direction of his superior. In some cases the 
tiles w^ere made in the Abbey kiln, or the monk might take his stamps 
with him and use the local clays of the district to which he was sent ; 
this would account to some extent for the appearance of identical 
patterns at widely distant places. That these workers were monks is 
evident from the often quoted passage relating to the Abbot of Beaubec 
in Normandy in 1210 : — 

" Let the Abbot of Beaubec who has for a long time allowed his 

monk to construct for persons who do not belong to our Order, 

pavements which exhibit levity or curiosity, be in slight penance for 

three days, the last of these on bread and water. And let the 

monk be recalled before the feast of All Saints and never again be 

lent excepting to persons of our Order, with whom let him not 

presume to construct pavements which do not extend the dignity 

of our Order." {Thesaurus Novus Anecdotorum. E. Martene and 

V. Durand, 1717, IV. col. 1308.) 

Considering, however, what an extensive industry the manufacture 

of tiles must have been (185,000 were bought for Westminster alone at 

6/8 a hundred), it is surprising that there are not more documentary 

references to it. One might expect almost that the Abbey would have 

had its official " tiler." On the other hand, even if the Abbey had a 

kiln it would not necessarily have been always working. Still, English 

kilns must have been fairly common, although but little is known about 

them as yet. Lord Ponsonby gives a list of only twelve kilns which 

have been proved by excavation. ^ Of these Great Malvern, Great 

Saredon (XVIth century), Droitwich and Chertsey are the most 

important. The late Sir Arthur Church in his English Earthenware 

(page 14) is responsible for the statement that tiles were made in Wilts, 

but does not specify the locality of the kilns. It is possible that 

Malmesbury, where tiles are singularly rich and abundant, and have a 

decided individuality, may have been a centre. Against this it may be 

urged that Malmesbury is only some four miles from the Gloucestershire 

borders, and that the Malmesbury tiles have considerable affinity to 

those of Gloucestershire. The late President, Sir Harold Brakspear, 

speaking of Stanley Abbey, ^ which will always be associated with his 

Suss. Arch. Colls. Ixxv, 25. ^ w.A.M., xxxv, 579. 

By Frank Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A, 361 

name, was of opinion that the tiles at that Abbey were made at Nash 
Hill between Stanley and Lacock. Other Cistercian Abbeys on the 
Wilts borders, which might have had kilns were Kingswood (Gloucester), 
Bindon [Dorset) of which Henry III was patron, and Beaulieu (Hants) . 
None of these sites however has been explored with a view to finding 
the kilns which may have existed. A printer's error is also responsible 
for some misunderstanding on the subject of the Wiltshire kilns. In 
Shaw's Tile Pavements (Introduction) there is a reference to the dis- 
covery of a tile kiln in the parish of St. Mary, Wilton. This should 
read " the parish of St. Mary, Witton " (near Droitwich). There is no 
reason at all why tiles should not have been made in the county. There 
is an abundance of clay specially suitable for the purpose. Pipe clay is 
also to be obtained fairly readily, so that it would never be surprising 
to learn that more than one Wiltshire kiln had been discovered, but at 
the present time there is no direct evidence supported by definite 
excavation, that kilns existed in the county, and Nash Hill would seem 
to be a promising site to investigate. 

Backs of Tiles. 

In addition to the evidence of pattern on the face of the tile, which 
will be dealt with later, the back of the tile may afford some indication 
of its history. Very often there are no distinguishing marks on the 
back of the tiles at all. Other tiles, however, both decorated and plain, 
have one, four, or five depressions on the back to act as keys in bedding. 
Sometimes they are broad and shallow ; sometimes they are narrow and 
deep. Sometimes they are a series of stabs in the clay, and it is 
interesting to note that they are far more plentiful in the south of 
England than in the north. These depressions were made in some 
cases roughly with the thumb or finger, in others carefully by a tool, 
such as a knife or pointed piece of wood. Tiles of identical pattern 
have been keyed by both methods, which indicates either that different 
workmen were employed or that they were made at different dates. (See 
PL I .) It has been suggested that these depressions were made to prevent 
" warping " in firing, but warped tiles exist which bear these key marks. 
Another suggestion is that they helped in the drying of the clay before 
firing. This was most important, as moisture w^ould produce cracks or 
"scaling." These are interesting speculations, but it would seem far 
more likely that the purpose of depressions on the backs of tiles was to 
steady them in bedding, if the composition of the floor was loose or 
sandy. {Suss. Arch. Colls. Ixxv, 32.) 

Date of the Tiles. 

It has already been stated that the manufacture of tiles probably 
came to this country with the Regular Monastic Orders. Bearing this 
in mind, it seems only likely that they should have come to England 
in connection with the great revival of Church Building which took 
place in the 13th century. The earliest actual reference is that which 



The Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts. 

concerns Westminster Abbey in 1237 — 8. It is an order that the King's 
little Chapel should be paved with pictorial tiles (tegula picta decenter 
paveari).! This date would place the existing specimens from the 
Chapter House at vSalisbury Cathedral well among the early examples. 
They may certainly be described as of the 13th century. One of the 
best known tiles in Wilts is that of a Crusader in armour charging a 
Saracen. It is to be found at Great Bedwyn, ^ Amesbury,^ Clarendon 
Palace, Romsey and elsewhere. (Fig. 2.) The Knight is wearing the square 
topped helmet which was introduced somewhere about 1186. Other 
early examples have been found at Clarendon, Ivychurch, and Salisbury 
Cathedral. The Church of the Cistercians at Stanley Abbey (which 
had a tiled floor of the 13th and 14th century) was hallowed in 1266. "^ 

Fig. 2. 

Moreover from the evidence of the patterns upon them, these tiles appear 
to be almost contemporary with the development of Heraldry, since 
many of the pavements exhibit early forms of Armorial Bearings. The 
arms of Clare and the Lions of England are found among 14th century 
tiles at Stanley Abbey, ^ and Bradenstoke Priory ;^ those of Hussey and 
de Camville at Amesbury and possibly the cognisance of Eleanor of 
Castille, first Queen of Edward I. The practice of laying these 
pavements continued until the 16th century, of which period Lacock 
Abbey contains a fine range, but by that time the art was beginning to 
lose its early directness and simplicity, and to exhibit foreign influences. 

Designs upon the Tiles. 

These are of course very varied, and to a certain extent confined to 
the spheres of influence of the Abbeys and Priories from which they 
emanated. They may be roughly classified into the following 
categories :■ — 

1. — Heraldic . These very naturally have attracted the greatest 
attention, since they can be referred to the patrons and benefactors of 

1 Rot. ClawB,. 22 Hen. HI m. 19. 
3 Wilts Notes and Queries, iii, 442 
5 lUd., 559, fig. 11. 

Gents Mag. July 1845. 

4 W.A .M., XXXV. 552. 

^ W.A.M., xliii, 4 

By Frank Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A. 


religious houses or Churches, In Wilts, for example, the Arms of Clare 
frequently occur. But it should not be forgotten that a fine stamp, 
even if armorial, would be used because of its pictorial beauty, and thus 
it is not uncommon to find armorial tiles bearing the coat of arms of 
men in no way connected with the district. Armorial tiles of the 16th 
century are also to be found at Lacock. 

2. — Pictorial Designs. These are rare, and may almost be said to be 
confined to the classic examples produced by the Chertsey kilns, which 
are in a class by themselves. Outside this class, perhaps the best 
example is the two-tile border pattern mentioned already of a Crusader 
charging a Saracen, which is supposed to represent the combat between 
" Coeur de Lion " and Saladin. This is found at Great Bedwyn, 
Romsey, Clarendon Palace, and Amesbury Abbey. The tiles are an 
unusual size, being an oblong of 9 by 6-| inches. (Fig. 2.) 

3. — Animals. This class contains an amazing assortment of forms: 
lions, fish, mythological monsters, and in particular, birds. It has been 
suggested that birds have a symbolic significance, and refer to the com- 
prehensiveness of the Church, " the birds lodge in the branches thereof." 
(Fig. 3.) 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

4. — Emblems. Here again there is great variety. Religious mono- 
grams and the Fleurs de lys predominate. Apart from its heraldic 
significance, the Fleur de lys was the emblem of the Virgin, and tiles in 
Fady Chapels often bear this design. The vine, too, naturally has a 
religious allusion and occurs in many variants. 

5. — Floriated Forms. These are usually conventional spravs, laid 
diagonally on the tile. The use of four of these tiles would naturally 
produce a floriated cross. (Fig. 4.) 

6. — Geometrical. Interlaced circles, chequers, chevrons, trellises, 
gyronny and the like are combined in many \'arieties also the icsica 

2 z 

364 The Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts. 

piscis, a pointed oval and the simplified form of the early Christian fish 

7. — Letters. These are often found on separate tiles, so that inscrip- 
tions could be built up from them. They are not very common in 
Wilts and are not very early in period. A fine Lombardic alphabet 
belongs to Stanley Abbey .^ 

The distribution of the various patterns is interesting. The counties 
of Wilts, Hants, and Dorset are richest in simple designs which are 
applicable to any Church, while the armorial tiles are comparatively 
scarce. In the west of England the armorial tile is more frequent. 
They are to be expected on the western and northern borders of Wilts. 
In the south and south-east, simple decorated tiles are more plentiful. 
There is a general and noticeable similarity between the pavements in the 
Cathedral Churches of Salisbury and Winchester, and Bea alien Abbey. 
These similarities would seem to indicate a common source for 
the tiles in certain districts and consequently either a common kiln 
or one set of workmen moving from place to place. In the case of 
Salisbury and Winchester Cathedrals, the patterns are not only similar, 
but tracings show that they have come from the same matrix. But it 
is necessary to lay some stress upon the difference between similarity 
and identity, for quite frequently the same pattern has been used by 
two or more individuals with sometimes small variations which are 
sufficient to show that the workman was not above copying a popular 
design for himself. One such pattern lends itself to ilkistration very 
happily. It represents two birds addorsed regardant upon a diagonal 
spray.2 (See PI. V, 13 and 21.) 

This was one of the patterns utilised in the floor of the Chapter House 
at Salisbury, and also in the Augustinian Priory at Ivychurch, at 
Amesbury, and elsewhere in the immediate neighbourhood of Salisbury. 
A comparison between the Chapter House and Ivychurch tiles and 
some of those from Amesbury, reveals the fact that at Amesbury two 
stamps have been used ; for while some of the Amesbury tiles have the 
appearance of doves, others might almost be taken for parrots. Some- 
what larger tiles bearing this design in a more ornate form have been 
found at Basing House, Hants. The same pattern is found at Exeter, 
Winchester, Beaulieu (two versions), and Jervaulx (Yorks), and Mr. 
A. D. Passmore reports one from Wanborough. 

As already stated these tiles with a spray placed lozengewise ^ were 
laid in fours to form a Cross and the decorative value of the tile cannot 
be appreciated until four are seen together. Moreover the laying of the 
design diagonally on the tile affords the largest possible space for the- 
development of a design. (See PI. V, 16, 20, 24.) 

1 W.A.M., XXXV, 579, fig. 13. 

" Wilts Notes and Queries, iii, PI. II, 443. 

'^ Wilts Notes and Queries, Vol. iii, PI. II, 16, 20, 24. 

By Fvank Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A. 365 

In some cases even more elaborate patterns consisted of nine or 
sixteen tiles. In both there was a central design and distincti\'e 
-patterns for the tiles enclosing it. There is a fine 16-tile example (PI. II. 
fig, I) quoted by Shaw in his Tile Pavejiieiits at Great Bedwyn, and 
-another notable one at Mahnesbury Abbey. The general arrangement 
of this was a circle enclosing a quatrefoil, which originally contained 
four armorial shields ; at some subsequent date these tiles were taken 
out and a new armorial shield of a female griffin rampant with the 
letters W.W. and W.C. in Lombardic character inserted in their place. 
It is supposed that the griffins may have been the device of the Abbey 
and that the letters may refer to individual Abbots. One of these tiles 
has also been found at Donhead St. Mary. 

There are four very handsome " foursome " patterns at Stanley 
Abbey,, two of which display a quatrefoil, one a castellated building 
possibly the heraldic bearing of Eleanor of Castrile and the last, four 
shields bearing the three chevrons of Clare. ^ 

An early tile found in the south of the county is that of a lion or a 
griffin enclosed within a floriated circle. (See PI. V, 15, 19, 22.) It may 
be said that all dragons, wyverns, and griffins belong to the earlier 
series of tiles. The griffins heraldically face to dexter, while the lions 
face both ways. In the Chapter House at Salisbury the two designs 
were used as a foursome, the lions facing the griffins. 

Sporting subjects are not infrequent. At Britford there is a hound 
in full chase, the deer which we presume he was hunting may be found 
at St. Nicholas's Hospital, barely a mile away and also at Amesbury. 
(PI. VI, 7, 8.) 

At Stanley are some very spirited border tiles, each of which shows a 
stag pursued by two dogs through a thicket in which birds are perched 
on the trees . ^ There is a fine mounted archer found at Britford . 

Two 14th century border tiles from Malmesbury deserve mention. 
They represent a squirrel which is armorial, and a monkey, holding in 
his hand a phial, ^ probably a satirical reflection upon the medical 
profession. These two subjects have been borrowed from the sister art 
of " Stained Glass " and may be found in the windows of York Minster, 
and are fully described in the late Dean Cust's Heraldry of York Minster. 

The Chapter House Tiles at Salisbury. 
The Chapter House was built between the years 1263 and 1284. 
Consequently it is possible to date the floor as being of the 13th century. 
It is also strongly related in its component tiles to those of Winchester 
Cathedral and Romsey Abbey. The structure is an octagonal one and 
presented certain difficulties to the workmen in consequence. It is very 
fortunate that a record of the patterns was made by the Rev. Lord 
Alwyn Compton before the " Restoration." Though much worn and 
in many places disarranged, enough remained at that time to show the 

1 W.A.M., xxxv, 579, fig. 12. ^ ]\\a.M., xxxv, fig. 13. 

3 B. M. Cat. Eng. Pottery, 1903, 32. A 247, fig. 15. 


The Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts. 

original arrangement of every panel, except two of the smallest. Care- 
ful drawings and measurements were made. These enabled Shaw to 
reproduce a complete restoration of the lloor in his Tile Pavements, 
Pis. XXIII and XXIV. The artist divided the floor into four quarters. 
The main floor was enclosed by a border of square green tiles laid 
lozengewise, and filled in with halves of white tiles. Within this were 
L-shaped sections each filled with either " foursome " panels or more 
elaborate designs of single tiles separated by narrow border tiles. Six 
distinct panels were emplo3^ed in which there were six separate patterns 
of square tiles and four forms of border tile. (Fig. 5 and Plate III.) 

Fig. 5. After Shaw. Plate XXIII. 

A. A panel of four tiles of birds addorsed, divided by black border 

tiles with " primrose " tiles at the corners. 

B. A panel of four quatrefoil tiles, divided by black border tiles, 

with " primrose " tiles at the corners. 

C. A panel of four floriated crosses enclosed in a border of 

" primrose " tiles. 

D. A panel of four tiles of birds addorsed, set as a foursome, 

enclosed in a border of stars. 

E. Lion and Griffin, in floriated circle, set alternately. 

F. Floriated spray, set as a " foursome." 

The patterns in the Chapter House at Salisbury are also found in 
Stanley Abbey ; the Grey Friars, Salisbury ; Britford ; Clarendon ; 
Ivychurch ; St. Nicholas, Salisbury ; Amesbury and in several places 
in Hampshire. 

By Frank Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A 367 


Both the Augustinian Priory of Ivychurch and the Royal Palace of 
Clarendon, had floors with some tiles similar to those in the 
Cathedral Chapter House. It is perhaps significant that Henry III 
was responsible for the earliest known pavement of this class in his 
Chapel at Westminster and it is therefore possible that he may have 
introduced similar pavements at Ivychurch and Clarendon. That at 
Westminster is dated 1237. Henry III visited Salisbury when at 
Clarendon on more than one occasion, notably in 1258. During his 
visits to Clarendon Henry III carried out extensions to the existing 
buildings, and among others built a new Chapel there. In all these 
later works at the. Royal Palace, mention is made of the paving. The 
Chapel which was commenced in 1 228, may have been floored with inlaid 
tiles. These were found in considerable numbers when the early excav- 
ations took place about 1820. Sir Richard Colt Hoare refers to them in 
Modern Wilts. (V Alderbury, 162.) " The floors of some of the rooms 
were paved with glazed tiles for the most part square and triangular of 
different colours and variously ornamented, some of them exhibiting 
dragons, griffins, flowers, etc." Very few tiles seem to have survived 
from the first excavations. There are none at the British Museum, or 
in this Society's Museum at Devizes. Some are preserved in the 
Salisbury Museum. During the recent excavations under Dr. Borenius, 
further specimens have come to light. The patterns include lions in 
fforiated circles, .facing to dexter and sinister, gryphons, the usual 
pattern of birds addorsed regardant, and some very interesting small 
tiles about 3|^ins. scj^uare. One of these bears a grotesque animal like a 
wyvern or possibly a cockatrice and the other a "fret." The latter 
has been scored diagonally before baking, so as to provide two triangular 
tiles for filling a corner and for bordering.^ 

Amesbury Abbey. 

This has yielded a fine series of tiles running to nearly fifty designs 
shown in Plates IV, V and VI [Wilts Notes and Queries, iii, Plates I, II 
and III.) These designs correspond with those on tiles from the following 
sites, seventeen of which are in Wilts. Stanley Abbey has ten patterns in 
common with Amesbury. Britforcl has seven patterns in common with 
Amesbury. St. Nicholas, Salisbury, and Breamore Priory have five 
each. Salisbury Chapter House, Great Bedwyn, and St. Margaret's, 
iMarlborough, have four each in common with Amesbury. The Grey 
Friars, Salisbury, St. John's Isle, Salisbury; Enford; Winterbourne Earls, 
Wimborne Minster have three each in common with Amesbury. Old 
Sarum, Ivychuich, Clarendon Palace, Damerham, and Wahborough 
have one design each in common with Amesbury. There are fifteen 
special designs at Amesbury, not so far found elsewhere. 

Stanley Abbey has ten patterns in common with Amesbury. The 
question arises — did all the tiles come from Stanley Abbey Kiln ? or 

Ant. J., xvi, 67. PI. XIV. 


The Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts. 



' V 



Plate I. — Examples of Keys on the back of Tiles. 
(Reproduced by permission from Sussex Arch. Coll., Ixxv, 33. 

By Frank Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A. 


FHoa^ 'rh€i hotl^€ or «Ji!,t,Aq> <;A^YW^^ B:f^r;S7V)ly 

Plate IT. After Shaw's Tile Pavements. 


The Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts. 















Plate III. After Shaw's Tile Pavements, Plate XXIV. 

Bv Frank Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A 


E.K. del. 
Plate IV. — Pavinj^' Tiles found on site of Amesbnrv Abbey in I860. 
From Wilts Notes 6^ Oiienes, III.) 


The Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts. 







24 \ 

E.K. del. 
Plate V. — Paving Tiles found on the site of Amesbury Abbey, 1860. 
(From Wilts Notes 6- Queries, III.) 

Bv Frank Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A 


E.K. del. 
Plate VI. — Paving Tiles found on the site of Amesbury Abbey, 1860. 
(From Wilis Notes &> Oueries, Vol. III.) 


The Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts. 


Plate VII. 

were they made at Amesbury ? It is almost impossible to resist the 
conclusion that some at all events were made at Amesbury, where clay, 
both white and red, is available, by monks or lay brothers from Stanley 
Abbey, who brought their prints with them. Moreover the number of 
similar tiles at Salisbury, Clarendon, Britford, etc., suggests the 
possibility of workmen from these pavements being likewise employed 
and bringing their prints with them, unless we take the alternative 
possibility that all the " Salisbury and neighbourhood " tiles were made 
at Amesbury and carted to their destination. The possibilities, affect- 
ing both manufacture and distribution may be summarised as follows : 
First, that an entire pavement might be imported from an ancient 
Abbey where the kiln was in operation, or where a stock of tiles was 
stored . 

Secondly, repairs and additions might also have been imported. 

Thirdly, a kiln might have been erected on the spot either for a com- 
plete floor or for repairs and additions and worked by travelling monks 
or tilemakers. 

By Frank Sievsns, O.B.E., F.S.A. 375 

The patterns on the Amesbury tiles are mostly "foursome," of the 
pattern illustrated^ (fig. 4) . There are four different forms of Fleur de lis 
cross, three forms of the bird on spray pattern, four floriated sprays. 
three forms of griffin all facing to sinister, two lions, one dexter and 
one sinister, a magnificent lion's head, also found at Marlborough, a 
charming pattern of four delicate frets (which was the device of Hugh 
de Audley), together with eight forms of border tile. 

Two interesting tiles of individual reference to the Church where they 
were found, come from Chitterne All Saints. One bears the arms of 
Simon Sydenham, Dean of Salisbury 1418 to 1431, viz., a chevron 
between three rams proper, two and one. This tile was exhibited at 
the Society's Meeting at Malmesbury in 1862.- The other bears a Cross 
Moline, the Arms of William Alnewyke, Archdeacon of Sarum 1420 to 
1426. It was in the time of these two clergy that the Church was enlarged 
by the Dean and Chapter of Sarum, who are the alternate patrons of 
the living. 

Lacock Abbey. 
- Some mention must also be made of the Lacock tiles, six panels of 
which exist in the brick floor of the vaulted room at the east of the 
cloister at Lacock Abbey. Sir Harold Brakspear was of opinion that 
the Renaissance tiles were made for Sir William Sharington. Drawings 
of them by the late Mr. Kite are preserved in the Society's collection. 
This is fully confirmed in Gotch's Early Renaissance Architecture in 
England, 1901, 38. " In addition to the Renaissance work in the tables, 
there is some tile paving which displays amid foliage, the vases and 
dolphins that form the staple of Italian ornament, the initials of 
Sharington and his third wife Grace (Faringden), his arms, gules between 
two flaunches argent and azure, two crosses formee in pale, and his 
crest, a scorpion." As Sir William Sharington died in 1553, and it was 
during the life of his third wife that the tiles were made, they may 
fairly be dated aboat 1550.^ The story of these tiles is told in a letter 
from Mr. Charles Talbot, then living at the Abbey, to Mr. Kite, dated 
September 1868. In one of the Early English rooms, a recess in the>^ 
sill of a window had been blocked up. When this was opened it was 
found that the material used was either complete or fragmentary tiles, 
with the exception of some odd pieces of stone spouts and gutters. In 
addition to those bearing the arms of Sharington impaling Faringden, 
there were some undoubtedly earlier examples. Furthermore there 
were some in a box and the writer of the letter adds " there is a potato 
bouse floored with them. These are not in their original position, but 
have been relaid in that place." (Plate YLL) 

Of the Sharington armorial tiles, there are the arms of the name and 
also one impaling Faringden (three unicorns passant). An earlier tile 

1 Wilts Notes and Queries, iii, 440. 2 w.A.M., viii, 11. 

3 W.A.M., xii, 227. 

376 ■ The Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts. 

shows the arms of Clare within a floriated quadrant, the arms of England 
and France quarterly, laid lozengewise ; three swans, two and one ; a 
hart between three phaeons, and the arms of Edward the Confessor. 
These are in sharp contrast with the Renaissance tiles, with their 
dolphins and vases and are certainly earlier, probably late 14th or early 
I5th century work ; and there are other still earlier tiles in the Sacristy,^ 
some of which are identical with the x\mesbury and Chapter House 

One tile in particular is of interest (PI. VII, 4). It is decorated with a 
geometrical pattern to form a quatrefoil, when laid as a "foursome." 
It bears the following inscription on two sides : — MARC : MATHE : 
LUCAS ; JOH. Beneath this A.D. MCCCCLVI. Then on the curve 
of the quatrefoil MISEREMINI : MEI : MISEREMINI, and on 
the bottom edges, SALTEM : VOS AMICI : MEI : QUIA: MANUS 
DNI : TETEGIT : ME. (Job. XIX, 21). Here at all events is a 
tile which bears its date, 1456, as well as a long inscription and it is 
only 5:^ins. square. A similar tile from Bayham Abbey in Sussex 
is in the British Museum. ^ This is an excellent example of 
cthe wide range of an individual pattern. There are the remains 
also at Lacock of what must have been a fine nine tile pattern ; 
of a circle, enriched with pears and bold foliage, enclosing a smaller 
circle also with clusters of pears ; which would appear to be of the 
latter part of the 15th century. Thus Lacock presents as it were an 
epitome of the progress of tile making from its early simple forms in 
the 13th century to the rather full blown and sophisticated style of the 
16th century. It is possible that the wear of years told heavily 
upon the tiles and they had therefore to be replaced from time 
to time in the prevailing fashion of the day. 

Another group of tiles which are very individual in design is that 
preserved at Heytesbury House and exhibited to the Society at their 
meeting in 1893.^ They seem to have no definite history other than 
that they were taken up from the floor of a boothole in the house 
sometime in the early 19th century. The broken tiles were thrown 
away. As however many of the tiles are armorial, it is possible to 
arrive at some conclusions concerning them. Without doubt they refer 
to the Hungerford family, which had a chantry in Heytesbury Church 
founded by Walter, Lord Hungerford, the High Treasurer in 1421. 
This W'alter was, according to Canon Jackson, the first of his family to 
use the " garb " or wheatsheaf, between two sickles, and one of the tiles 
bears this device lozengewise between four ornamental quatre foils, [Op. 
at., PI. II, 9.) It has all the character of 15th century workmanship. Sir 
Harold Brakspear, w^ho made a special study of these tiles, was of opinion 

1 II/.^.M., xxxi, 220, fig. 4. ^ B.M. Cat.31. A. 286, fig. 19. 

3 W.A.M., xxvh, 241, with 2 plates. 

By Frank Stevens, O.B.E., F.S.A. 377 

that they were removed from the Church in the 18th century, when the 
mortuary vault of the A'Court family was constructed. A specially 
large tile, six inches square (the others are only barely five inches) bears 
the handsome coat of Bishop Wyvil of Salisbury (1329 to 1375) and is 
therefore earlier, but the work is not so finished and therefore would 
justify an earlier date. A singularly beautiful 16-tile pattern bears in 
the centre the arms of Heytesbury, quarterly with those of Hungerford, 
laid lozengewise. The border is a typical Renaissance one of a circular 
running vine pattern, with bold roses in the corners. A similar set of 
border tiles is to be found in William Canynge's house, Redcliffe Street, 
Bristol ; and the centre tiles bearing the arms of Heytesbury and 
Hungerford likewise appear in another border in the same house. The 
date is about 1480. (PL II, No. 2.) 

Another 16-tile pattern displays an octofoil, within a circle of oak 
leaves, the corners being filled by stars and a floral spray. One of the 
corner tiles of this pattern has been found at I>acock. Yet another 
16-tile pattern has an eagle displayed in each corner with a circular 
conventional wreath ; the four centre tiles are missing. The complete 
pattern is found at Canynge's house, Bristol. ^ A single tile of a 16-tile 
pattern bears part of an inscription "DEO GRATIAS." (PL II, No. 
3.) The complete pattern repeated in the circle four times is at 
Winchcombe Church, Gloucester. ^ An unusual tile is white with a red 
device, of the well-known Hungerford sickles interlaced, within a 
circular cable. These are veritable sickles with saw edges, and not the 
modern form of reaping hook. This also appears in William Canynge's 
house. Another displays the very decorative Hungerford supporter, a 
raven collared and chained. 

These few very inadequate notes may serve, I hope, to awaken some 
interest in the rich field that lies before the student of these rather 
neglected tiles. A survey of the county might serve to link patterns 
together in such a way as to indicate the sphere of influence of certain 
kilns, and perhaps lead to their discovery. They stand alone as products 
of the potter's art, at a time when pottery making was only a peasant 
industry in this country, and to-day, in comparison with the modern 
machine-made reproductions, have a character of force and design, an 
infinite variety of pattern and lay out, which later methods have entirely 
failed to reproduce. 

In conclusion I have to acknowledge my indebtedness to many 
distinguished antiquaries, whose work has greatly contributed to the 
compilation of this review. In particular, I would like to add my 
tribute to the late Sir Harold Brakspear's unfailing accuracy in all 
matters dealing with Monastic records ; to the late Mr. Edward Kite 
for his careful draughtmanship of the tiles at both Amesbury and 

1 Shaw's Ornamental Tile Pavements, 16, PL xlii to xlvi. 

2 Op. at., PL 47. No. 2. 


378 The Inlaid Paving Tiles of Wilts. 

Lacock ; and to Messrs. George Simpson & Co., of Devizes, for per- 
mission to use the illustrations from Wilts Notes and Queries, Vol. iii. 
I am under special obligation to Lord Ponsonby of Shulbrede, for the 
general scheme of this paper, since it was owing to his work and his 
record of the Shulbrede tiles in the Sussex ArchcBological Collections, Ixxv, 
that this review was attempted . Thanks are also due to the Editor of the 
Sussex Arch. Collections for the loan of blocks. I have further to 
acknowledge with gratitude the drawings for plates made by my wife. 

[The Society is indebted to Mr. Stevens for the cost of the blocks 
illustrating this paper. ^ — Editor.] 





SARUM. 1220—1850. 

By C. R. Everett, F.S.G. 

Sherborne House, in the Close of Sarum. 

The extensive pile of buildings on the west side of the Close referred 
to in the records of the Dean and Chapter as Sherborne House or Place, 
but, after the visits of King James I to the mansion, often called the 
" King's House," claims the attention and study of the antiquary and 
of all visitors to the Close for its unique associations and architectural 
features. In these notes it is hoped to collect and to put on permanent 
record some account of the buildings and of the associations attached 
to them. 

Sherborne House, as seen to-day, in parts dates from Elizabethan 
times, others are of more recent construction. It is only in so far as 
the foundations may have survived, together with bits of old construction 
worked in with the new here and there, that it links up with the remote 
past and the buildings first erected on a portion of the site, which 
were built at the same time as the Cathedral opposite. The mansion 
can be described as having been evolved from the Prebendal Hall. 
Offices and Court of Sherborne Monastery, known, as stated, for 
several centuries as Sherborne House or Place. Therein its Abbots 
kept their " residences " until the Reformation, when the Prebend, one 
of the most ancient in the Church of Sarum, was dissolved and its 
endowment confiscated by the Crown. The Prebends of Sherborne and 
Loder were, it is believed, the only ones to possess residentiary houses 
in the Close for the use of their representatives, that of the latter being 
situated on the north side of the churchyard, having the Close Wall, 
when it came to be built, on its northern side. 

Sherborne Prebendal House : its Situation and Surroundings. 

The Prebendal Mansion stood alongside of, but not in line with, the 
house in 1297 appropriated for the permanent use of the Deans of 
Sarum, occupying a prominent position on the west side of the Close, 
with an uninterrupted view of the Cathedral. Behind these mansions 
their respective grounds extended to the great river of Avon. Between 
them were several houses, including the four partly charged with the 
keeping of the Obit of Simon Mycham, sometime Dean of Sarum, 
who died in 1297 : on their sites have stood buildings clown to con- 
temporary times. Two are mentioned in a Deed, dated 6th June, 1290, 
wherein Robert de Romesya, a perpetual Vicar, granted to Robert de 
Gernemutha Yarmouth), a fellow Vicar, a certain area belonging to 

2 A 2 

380 Notes on the Prehendal Mansion of Sherborne Monastery. 

his court, had from the Dean and Chapter, with the houses thereon 
built in the said area or court, situated in the Close, having on the south 
the court of the Abbot of Sherborne. This piece of ground measured 
on the south side 86 feet in length, and on the north side in length 
84 feet ; in breadth at the eastern end 33 feet and, at the west end, in 
like manner in breadth 36 feet. The annual payments by way of rent 
were five shillings, and two and a half pounds of wax for light in the 
Chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Cathedral Church. This is. 
the earliest direct reference extant to any of the houses on the north 
side of the Abbot of Sherborne's mansion. Their exact position is made 
more clear in a later Grant, dated 25th March, 1324, by Walter de Lake, 
Vicar, of the same houses, wherein is reserved a certain wall, which, 
beginning at the old Chapel, continues as far as the ditch (fossatum) 
which reaches as far as the bank of the Avon. This ditch is now un- 
traceable ;. still, its position is definitely indicated, although much later, 
in a Grant, dated 5th March, 1599 — -1600, demising to Thomas Sadler, 
a close once occupied by an early canonical house. In this it is declared 
to be " the proper and peculiar ditch of the said Thomas Sadler and 
parcel of that ground which he holdeth by virtue of a lease, dated 16th 
May, 11 Elizabeth (1569), under the rent of six shillings and eight pence, 
and situated betwixt the ground, being now in the occupation of Dr. 
Hyde, on the south side and the ground of the said Thomas Sadler on 
the north," i.e., the site of Sherborne House. Where the Chapel stood, 
of which there is no mention elsewhere, can only be surmised. Like- 
wise, the length of the wall running from the north southward to the 
said ditch ; yet, as the area under discussion encompassed all the erections 
referred to, it could only have extended a few yards. 

The Building of Sherborne House. 
The Dean and Chapter's Muniments contain few references to 
Sherborne Monastery and its Abbots, while its Prebendal mansion is 
only mentioned incidentally. There exists no description of it, nor was 
a " View " ever taken, as in the case of the residentiary houses, from 
time to time, to ascertain the repairs needed. But it was no doubt 
constructed on the simple lines customary in the thirteenth century, 
and in accordance with the limited requirements of the period, consist- 
ing of a hall of moderate dimensions open to the roof, with, perhaps, a 
small upper room or two approached by a stair, or exterior ladder, and 
the usual detached offices for the purpose of kitchen, buttery, bakery, 
storage, etc. The dimensions of the hall of the Sub-Chanter's mansion 
close by were 38 feet by 14^ feet, and it may be reasonably conjectured 
that those of Sherborne House were approximately the same. All the 
buildings mentioned above were, in accordance with custom, enclosed 
wholly, or partially, in a small court. 

King Richard HI and Sherborne House. 
This then was Sherborne MDnastery's Prebendal mansion, its dimen- 
sions moderate, its appearance unpretentious. In strong contrast to 
the magnificent pile of buildings it developed into later, its proportions 

By C. R. Everett, F.S.G. 381 

were those of a cottage. This reflection recalls the oft-repeated story 
that King Richard III, on a visit to Salisbury, stayed there. It is, 
however, unlikely that such modest lodgings would have sufficed for 
him and his retinue, especially with Clarendon Palace, still habitable, 
within easy reach, and that of the Bishop nearer still. 

Sherborne House and its Status as a Residentiary Mansion. 
Sherborne House reinained a Prebendal residence until the Reforma- 
tion. Then, leased to lay -people, as will be seen, it lost its ecclesiastical 
character and underwent fundamental changes within a comparatively 
short time, other buildings being incorporated with it and additions 
made. The Prebendal House, as such, has long since passed away ; 
perhaps, only portions of the foundations and of the exterior walls, 
perpetuate its memories. Before the Dissolution, the Abbots of 
Sherborne Monastery, its representatives, as stated, occupied the 
mansion, being expected, like all the other non-residentiary Canons, to 
keep their periods of residence in the Close. At other times, the house 
might be unoccupied or, perhaps, let to a visiting Prebendary, or to 
some Dignitary needing temporary accommodation. This, it would 
seem, did not invariably meet with the Dean and Chapter's approval as, 
in 1397, it was decreed that anyone inhabiting the houses of the Abbot 
of Sherborne should not receive, by virtue of the same, the distribution 
of a Residentiary Canon occupying a canonical house. And, again, in 
1486, on a certain Thomas Wisbeck being admitted to residence, it was, 
by special grace, decreed that he might live in any canonical house, 
those of Loder and Sherborne being excepted. The object in view was 
to prevent either of these two mansions attaining the status of a 
Residentiary house and thereby entitling the Canon occupying it to a 
share in the communa, or common fund. This decree was particularly 
apposite in the case of Sherborne House when the attempts to have the 
Abbot of Sherborne Monastery for the time being admitted a Residentiary 
are recalled. 

Sherborne House after the Reformation. 
The Reformation, as is well known, was accompanied by the general 
suppression of the Monasteries, Chantries, etc. With the alterations 
in religious ritual and ceremonial, the services in the Cathedral under- 
went great changes, while the whole life of the Close, both social and 
economic, was also affected. The Canons Residentiary, wdth their 
Vicars, were reduced in number : the Chantry Priests, with no Chantries 
to serve, were deprived of their emoluments, or the greater part of 
them, and their habitations sold over their heads to strangers. In 
consequence, the accommodation in the Close for the clerical staff 
exceeded requirements : some of the vacant houses were allowed to fall 
into ruins while others were let to lay people : the authorities" were, no 
doubt, glad to relax the old ordinances which forbade the grantinf^ of 
lands or houses to other than Clerics. This disregard of an ordinance 
repeatedly emphasised in the past was frankly admitted in 1634 by the 

382 Notes on the Prehendal Mansion of Sherborne Monastery. 

Dean and Chapter on the occasion of Archbishop Laud's Visitation of the 
Cathedral, when they acknowledged that " diu'rs lay persons inhabite 
such houses as were auntiently inhabited by Canons, Vicars, Chauntry 
priests, and offic'rs of the Church, and some new buildings have been 
from tyme to tyme there erected." Among the Canonical residences 
was the Prebendal mansion of Sherborne Monastery. This, with its 
Prebend, had been dissolved in 1539, its possessions, including its 
mansion in the Close, being sold later. The Dean and Chapter, com- 
pelled at that time to acquiesce in the dissolution of the Prebend and 
the loss of its endowment, seem to have taken possession of the Prebend 
house and to have successfully contested the claim made by the 
Augmentation Office. This conclusion seems clear from after events. 

Sherborne House and its Ownership : Grants by the Dean. 

AND Chapter. 

In the course of the prolonged dispute over the title to the mansion, of 
which little is known, legal proceedings, actual or threatened, took place. 
Both of the parties, to give practical expression to their claims, demised 
Sherborne House for terms of years. The Dean and Chapter's first 
known grant was in 1559 — probably there were earlier — when they 
demised to John Hooper, of New Sarum, gentleman, their tenement or 
mansion house with one close of pasture wherein the said tenement doth 
stand. In the description of the situation it is said to abut on the 
highway on the east, extend to the great river on the west, adjoin 
the Sub-Chanter's house on the north and, on the south, to abut on a 
close. Also was demised to him, as should be carefully noted, one other 
tenement, said to adjoin the aforesaid mansion house (five years later 
described as late in the tenure of John James, clerk), for the term of 
eighty years, paying rent for the two tenements twenty-six shillings and 
eight pence. 

In 1564 the Dean and Chapter made a similar lease of the mansion 
and adjoining tenement to Hugh Powell, then of Great Dorneford, co. 
Wilts, gentleman, for the same term as previously. Also, in 1569, they 
granted to him the close of pasture mentioned above as abutting on 
the south of Sherborne House. Eight years later he sought the Dean 
and Chapter's permission to assign the residue of the said term ; which 
request was acceded to in recognition of " great expense and charges 
expended, laid out and dispersed in repairing the said tenement and 
other new buildings there by him edyfyed." And also, it should be 
observed, " in consideration of t^e defence and maintenance of our 
right and interest in the said tenement in sewets of law." This last 
sentence clearly confirms the statement that the Augmentation Office 
endeavoured to enforce its claim to the property when it was in the 
tenure of Hugh Powell and in his actual occupation, viz., between 1564 
and 1572, by process of law, which would appear to have left the issues 
involved undetermined. 

Hugh Powell, in 1564, held the Office of Registrar of the Bishoprick 
by Letters Patent, dated 22nd December, 1562. He also held the same 

By C. R. Everett, F.S.G. 383 

office of the Dean and Chapter by Letters Patent, dated 1st January, 
1562 — 3. No doubt the John Powell who was, in 1550, with Jeronimo 
Barnebe, granted the Registrarship, was akin to him. 

Sherborne House or Place : its Identification. 
Before passing on, it may be noted as curious that the Dean and 
Chapter in their Grants of Sherborne House never so style it therein : it 
is, however, included in the Communar's account under "Rents 
received "as " Sherborne Place," and, as the situation is very definitely 
described, the identity of the mansion is never in doubt. 

The Augmentation Office's Grants. 
The proceedings of the Court of Augmentation must now be reviewed. 
This office, it may be well to explain, was set up in 1535 for the 
administration of the estates of dissolved Monasteries, Chantries, etc., 
on behalf of the Crown, and for the custody of their Muniments. At 
the Public Record Office are preserved a very large collection of docu- 
ments, but many others have been lost or destroyed ; this has been a 
great handicap to the attempt to ascertain the full story of the Office's 
dealings with the confiscated property in the Close of Sarum. None 
have been found, unfortunately, up to the present, concerning the 
Sherborne Prebendal House before 1571 . In that year the Augmentation 
Office made a Grant to George White, Ar., as follows : — 

" A farm of one tenement, messuage or mansion house, commonly 
called Sherborne House, lying and being within the Close of the 
Canons of the Cathedral Church of St. Mary, Salisbury, in or near 
the City of New Sarum, co. Wilts, with two acres of pasture, dove- 
cote, and with all and singular gardens and all else belonging to the 
said tenement, now or lately in the tenure of Hugh Powell, gentle- 
man. The said tenement and pasture on the eastern side abutting 
on the King's highway, and on the western side on the great river : 
on the south on the lands of the Dean and Chapter, and on the north 
having the house of the Succentor and also on lands of our 
Sovereign Lady the Queen. Of the yearly value, per annum, six 
shillings and eight pence." 
In 1575 the Office again demised the mansion, on that occasion, with 
other property, to Lord Cheney. The original Grant, preserved at the 
Record Office, bears the brief yet significant note, "a part of the con- 
cealed lands." From this comment certain inferences, as will be seen 
presently, are deducible. No other Grants of Sherborne House have 
been traced. 

The Augmentation Offi^ce in 1571 included in its Grant to George 
White of Sherborne House a second tenement, or messuage, in the 
Close together with a certain garden, or orchard, described as "lately 
parcel of the possessions of a certain Chantry, lately dissolved, and 
lately, before its dissolution, founded in the Cathedral Church, now or 
late in the tenure of Hugh Powell." The situation is given as follows : — 
On the eastern side, abutting on the highway : on the west, the dwelling- 
house of the Succentor (Sub. Chantor) : qi\ the south, the house, or 

384 Notes on the Prehendal Mansion of Sherborne Monastery. 

tenement, called Sherborne House, and, on the north, abutting on lands 
of our Lady the Queen. This Chantry house may have been the 
residence of the Chaplain serving the recently founded Audley Chantry 
Chapel : its identification, however, as such, is complicated by the 
description of the situation given, which, apparently, applies to another 

Sherborne House : Concurrent Grants. 

The Grants above quoted show that both the Dean and Chapter and 
the Augmentation Office demised Sherborne House on varying terms 
which were, at one period, concurrent, resulting in two parties being 
entitled to the premises at the same time, which must have been 
embarrassing in practice. Each of the claimants also demised with the 
mansion a second tenement, described as adjoining it, which was not, it 
is thought, the same. 

Sherborne House : its Extension and Reconstruction. 

There were tenements on the north and north-east sides of the 
Prebendal mansion which, in discussing its extension and reconstruction, 
must be considered and taken into account. These included two 
(probably three) of the four tenements partially charged, since 1297, 
with the keeping of the Obit of Symon Mycham, once Dean of Sarum, 
referred to earlier. They lay together, and it has been possible to 
compile a fairly complete list of the Chantry Priests, Vicars, etc., who 
inhabited them previous to the Reformation. In 1415, John Medenham, 
late Chaplain of the Chantry of Henry Blontesden, Canon, granted the 
house closely adjoining the mansion of the Abbot of Sherborne to 
Robert Pentrigg and William Caundell, Chantry Priests, the house on 
its north being then tenanted by Sir John Brent, Chaplain. Between 
1450 and 1540, these houses — with, perhaps, others — were occupied by 
the Chaplains of the Chantry of Lord Walter Hungerford : also at one 
time or another, by the Priest of the Second Morrow Mass, the Chaplain 
of Blontesden's Chantrv, other Chantry Chaplains, Vicars, and the 
Beadle. The annual charge, twenty shillings, spread over the four 
houses mentioned, was invariably devoted before the Reformation to 
the keeping of the said Obit. 

The Sub-Chanter's Mansion and the Chantry House on its 

East Side. 

In the year 1440 a tenement on the north of the Prebendal House 
was set apart by the Dean and Chapter for the permanent residence of 
the Sub-Chanter or Succentor. It was an old house, charged with the 
Obit of Walter de Lake, a Vicar living in 1324 : its previous occupants 
are untraced. In the Grant it is described as being situated betw^een 
the houses of the Chaplains of Lord Walter Hungerford 's Chantry on 
the south side and the little house near the Deanery on the north side,. 
Immediately east of the Sub-Chantry was the Chantry House demised 
by the Augmentation Office in 1571 to George White with Sherborne 
House, It might have been one of the four charged with the Obit of 
Symon Mycham. 

VCmcS UOVSE AaEA »rx.l5rfl ceoKtj 

iV'Oic imAl* orjlvy 

A=Deanery. B = Small House. C = DE Chouse. 

D = Audley Chantry Ho. E = Chantry Ho. F = Sub Chantry 

G-G = Hungerford & Chantry houses. H = Sherborn8 Place, 

J = Canonical Ho. 


O !^ 



.^?^i mjsi 


4 -Am., f 

S* SIHHIt-' ISi.JtStlKni 4--., > - Y^ 

-„';■■:■ ,/-"^p 

^ I 





By C. R. Everett, F.S.G. 385 

The Audley Chantry Priest's House. 

The Audley Chantry Priest's house, just mentioned, was, as stated, 
east of the Sub-Chantry and fronting the highway : on its north side 
was a tenement belonging to the Dean and Chapter. The Augmentation 
Office, by Grant dated 28th June, 1577, demised it (with other properties) 
to Robert Paddon, gentleman, on easy conditions, the house being 
described as in great decay and costly to repair ; the term was for forty 
years, and the rent, thirteen shilhngs and four pence. Subsequently, 
on the 25th September, 1610, it was granted to Francis Phillips for ever. 
The ownership for the next forty years is in doubt, but, in 1652, it was 
in the possession of John Punchardon, of Whiteparish, co. Wilts, who, 
by his will (proved in the P.C.C. on the 13th June, in that year) 
bequeathed it (with other property) to his second wife, Margaret 
Ponchardon, for her widowhood and, after her decease, to his grand- 
daughters, Thomasine Saintbarbe, Jane Roberts, and Christian Roberts, 
and the longest liver of them. In 1690 the said Jane Roberts, the 
survivor, by her will (proved P.C.C. on the I9th July in that year) leaves 
her neice, Mary Saintbarbe, widow, " my house in the Close wherein 
she now dwelleth, known by the name of 'The Chantry,' for her life, 
and after her decease, to her children, John and Mary Saintbarbe." 
Later on the house came into the possession of the Hearst family, 
indirectly perhaps through the marriage in 1700 of William Hearst with 
Mary Roberts, daughter of Ponchardon Roberts, brother of the before 
mentioned Jane and Christian Roberts. Their son, Edward Hearst, of 
the Close, by his will (proved P.C.C. 26th November, 1767) left the 
house in question to his daughter, Caroline. This lady married in 1768 
Henry Penruddock Wyndham, of St. Edmund's College, Salisbury, 
being described on that occasion as a " young lady of merit and large 
fortune." Within the next few years the Chantry House, with the 
adjacent one belonging to the Dean and Chapter on its north side, was 
demolished, both being replaced by a brick erection on some part of 
the old sites, out of character, both in style and appearance, with the old 
buildings in their vicinity and a permanent disfigurement to the Close. 
An Unidentified Tenement. 

To this list should, perhaps, be added a tenement also lying in the 
vicinity of, and north of, Sherborne House, at present unaccounted for. 
After 1 559 the Communar's accounts contain en tries of rents received from 
it during the following fifty years. During this period it was occupied 
at different times by Christoper Benett (later Master of the Close Grammar 
School), Hugh Powell (the lessee of Sherborne House), and Anthony 
Parry : the reserved rent being six shillings and eight pence. 

The Sub-Chanter's Mansion : its Demolition and Site. Sherborne 
House and the Tenement Leased with it. 
The foregoing list of tenements includes, as shown, the Sub-Chanter's 
mansion and the Audley Chantry Priest's house : the site of the former, 
with the new buildings thereon, now forms part of the Training College 
for Schoolmistresses. It was demolished early in the second half of the 

386 Notes on the Prehendal Mansion of Sherborne Monastery. 

last century, after the pulling down of the house on its north side which 
stood inconveniently near the Deanery. Both buildings were of ancient 
construction and their demolition is regrettable. 

The late Mr. John Harding describes in an interesting article in the 
Wiltshire Archaeological Society's Magazine, vol. xxix (1897), the 
demolition of the Sub-Chanter's mansion and the discoveries then made, 
including the identification of the original hall, running north and south, 
the measurements of which have already been given. The north wall 
of this hall is said to form part of the boundary wall next to the Deanery 
garden ; accordingly, in that case, the approximate site of the mansion 
can be fixed, a most important factor when considering the extension, 
after the Reformation, of Sherborne House, and the ground available 
for the purpose. The first step in that direction appears to have been 
the demising with it, as has already been recorded, of another tenement 
(an elastic term, often including both buildings and lands) ; but, 
although it is described as adjoining the mansion, the point of contact 
is omitted. In 1559, this second tenement was granted to John 
Hooper: in 1564 to Hugh Powell, when it was stated to be " late in 
the occupation of John James, Clerk." The latter had, on the 16th 
February, 1563- — 4, been collated to the Prebend of Stratford -sub-Castle, 
and had been appointed Sub-Dean on the following 24th March, so his 
tenure of the house was short. The omission of all reference to the 
situation is explainable on the assumption that the house was then 
regarded as being an integral part of the Sherborne House premises, the 
boundaries of which would include it. The Parliamentar}^ Survey, 
taken in 1649 — 1650, gives support to this view by treating the two 
tenements as one. 

The identity of the buildings comprising this second tenement is 
suggested by what is known and set out in these notes concerning the 
houses situated north of Sherborne House. In 1440, it will be recalled, 
the houses then inhabited by the two Chaplains of Lord Walter 
Hungerford's Chantry (and others) were described as lying between the 
Sub-Chanter's mansion and that of the Abbot of Sherborne ; but, in 
1559 and after, this was no longer so, Sherborne House and the Sub- 
Chanter's mansion then being said to adjoin one another. What had 
become of the Chantry houses ? The obvious and, apparently, only 
answer to this question is that they were now represented by the said 
tenement. This seems to be the only way of accounting for them. 
Further, accepting this conclusion, it follows that the buildings con- 
tained in this " tenement " must have been destroyed to make room 
for the Elizabethan extension, their site being the only ground available 
for the purpose, or else incorporated in it. It is likely too that the site 
of another Chantry Priest's dwelling was utilised in the same way. 

The expansion northward of the Prebendal mansion has now been, it 
is to be hoped, satisfactorily explained. It was, however, restricted in 
that direction, the Sub-Chanter's house, with its garden, blocking the 
way ; consequently, when Thomas Sadler enlarged the mansion he did 
so on the south of the Prebendal hall. 

By C. R. Everett, F.S.G. 387 

The Court of Augmentation and Tenements in the Close. 

Before concluding this account of the Sherborne Prebendal mansion 
up to, and immediately beyond, the Reformation, the attitude of the 
Court of Augmentation towards it and also the Chantry's Priest's houses 
in the Close, call for a few additional comments. Its records include 
the sale of such dwellings throughout the country, although it would 
appear that they were not invariably part of the endowment: At 
Salisbury it is fairly certain that some, at least, of the Chantry Priest's 
residences were, at one time at any rate, the property of the Dean and 
Chapter, or of the Corporation of Vicars, and under their control : 
nevertheless, the Augmentation Office, it is known, disposed of the 
majority to lay people, and there is no reason why, under the circum- 
stances, the remainder should have escaped the same fate. The houses 
of the Chaplains of Lord Walter Hungerford's Chantry, situate, as 
shown, on the west side of the Close, would be included among the 
latter : their sale as such is untraced, yet it is incredible that their 
existence was unknown. This may have been the case for a time ; but, 
eventually, through the activity of informers, it would have been 
discovered. The likelihood of this happening has already been seen in 
the case of Sherborne House and the Chantry dwelling demised with 
it, both being described in the official records as " concealed lands." 
On the other hand it will be remembered that the Dean and Chapter 
retained possession of the Prebendal mansion and that in its extension, 
as it has been sought to show, the site of these Chantry Priest's dwellings 
was, wholly or partly, utilised for the purpose. This could only have 
been accomplished by the Dean and Chapter successfully maintaining 
their title to the premises, or as the outcome of an arrangement with 
the Augmentation Office. 

Sherborne House : Grants by the Dean and Chapter. 
It is now proposed to continue the consideration of the Dean and 
Chapter's Grants of Sherborne House after the Reformation, with the 
recording of its history and associations, down to modern times. 

The Sadler Family and Sherborne Housp:. 
In 1572, as will be remembered, Hugh Powell obtained the Dean and 
Chapter's permission to assign the long lease of Sherborne House 
granted by them to him eight years previously to some unknown person, 
the assignee's name being omitted ; nor is it mentioned subsequently. 
It is thus in doubt when, and to whom, the lease passed, or under what 
conditions ; but, in 1588, the year after his death, Elinor Powell, his 
widow, was still occupying the mansion. This is made clear in a 
Chancery Deposition^ made in that year by a certain Robert Vaughan, 
then aged nineteen, who deposed that, with his master, John Mitchell, 
collector for the New Street Ward, New Sarum, of a Subsidy of Tenths 
and Fifteenths granted to the Queen, he went to Mistress Powell's 
house, and stayed in the hall while his master went into the parlor tO' 

1 Exch. Depositions. E. 134. Wilts. 31 Eliz. Hil., 10. 

388 Notes on the Pvehendal Mansion of Sherborne Monastery. 

the said Mistress Powell. When his master came forth again he told 
him, this deponent, that she had given him this tenth and fifteenth, 
and will'd him to make a cross upon her name in the book, which he did 
accordingly. The right of this collector to collect these subsidies in the 
Close had, it should be added, been disputed, the outcome being legal pro- 
ceedings. It is accordingly likely that, although the circumstances are 
unknown, Elinor Powell, resided continuously, or nearly so, at Sherborne 
House both before and after the death of her husband, Hugh Powell, who 
died in 1587, having resigned the office of Principal Diocesan Registrar 
three years earlier. He belonged to a branch of the Powell family of 
Brecknockshire — of which county he was, in 1581, High Sheriff — which 
is believed to have settled in the neighbourhood of Salisbury in the 
early part of the sixteenth century. In his will (proved in the P.C.C. 
2nd December, 1587) he desired to be buried m the Cathedral near his 
father (Howell Powell), and also directed that a window with his 
father's arms should be put up there if not already erected by himself. 
He bequeathed to Elinor Powell, his wife, a life interest in tenements 
and lands, including the Mill, in Fisherton Anger, Wiltshire, held of the 
Manor, and in 1560 inherited from John Powell, his brother. This lady, 
in 1596, having remained a widow for nine years, married Thomas 
Sadler, whose wife had died the year before : their respective ages were 
then about fifty-three and thirty-five. This difference in years was, 
perhaps, in the husband's estimation offset by the interest his wife held 
for her life in the considerable property mentioned above, which he 
enjoyed in her right for over twenty-five years. Elinor Sadler died on 
30th January, 1622, aged nearly eighty years, and, at her own request, 
was buried under her pew in the Cathedral, where, with great devotion, 
she had, as recorded on her memorial tablet, served God daily nearly 
fifty years. The inscription too testifies to the estimation in which she 
was held for her Pietie, Sanctitie and Charitie. This memorial, it should 
be added, was, as recalled by Thomas Sadler in his will twelve years 
afterwards, erected by him in remembrance of that revered respect he 
had for so good a wife and grave a matron. 

This memorial to Elinor Sadler and, incidentally, to her two husbands, 
represents a female figure in black dress and ruff kneeling at a prayer 
desk beneath an arch : on either side are Corinthian columns of varie- 
gated marble ; over the eastern pillar are the initials H.P.E. ; over the 
western one T.S.E., and between in gilt on black ground, three shields 
of arms over. The inscription, in addition to recording the deceased 
lady's good qualities, draws attention to her being lineally descended 
from "the Auntient and WorshipfuU Family of the Saintbarbes of 
Ashington, in Somersetshire, and Cosen-german to that thrice worthie 
Lady Walsingham, who was mother to the noble Countesse of Essex." 

In seeking some explanation for the prominence thus given to the 
Saintbarbe connection, it is, as is well known, an old trick to over- 
emphasise in one particular in the hope of diverting attention from 
another. Hence, it is reasonable to suggest that the true inwardness of 
the elaborate and eulogistic allusion to the Saintbarbe family was made 

By C. R. Everett, F.S.G. 389 

with such an end in view, and, that the phrase "lineally descended" 
was used deliberately ; for while it means that the descent was direct it 
camouflages the fact that it was on the maternal side. Had Elinor's father 
been a Saintbarbe there would have been no necessity for such a 
subterfuge. Accepting this line of reasoning, the inescapable con- 
clusion seems to be that Elinor's father belonged to a family socially 
inferior to the Saintbarbes, of which the less said the better. And one 
way of doing this was to emphasise the Saintbarbe descent and its 

This memorial inscription, and the question of Elinor Sadler's descent 
from the Saintbarbe family with her parentage, were, early in the 
present century, the subject of discussion among local genealogists. 
The Saintbarbe pedigree printed by Sir Richard Colt Hoare^ gives her 
as one of the daughters of Thomas Saintbarbe and married successively 
to her two husbands, Hugh Powell and Thomas Sadler. This pedigree 
was, as he states, communicated to him by the then head of the 
Saintbarbe family, so was a modern production, whatever the nature 
of the sources from which it was compiled. On the other hand, in the 
contemporary Herald's Visitation taken in 1623 (Dr. Marshall's Edition), 
Elinor is shown as a daughter of John Corriott of New Sarum : there 
can be no doubt as to which deserves the most credence. John 
Corriott did not belong to an armorial family, but he was a citizen of 
repute and substance, holding, in 1554. the office of Mayor. He died 
four years later, leaving a large family. 

It is impracticable here to follow the discussion respecting Elinor 
Sadler's parentage, which was at that time, and may still be, undeter- 
mined. Her close relationship to the Saintbarbe family is certain ; both 
her husbands impaled the arms of that family, and there is other 
evidence. The late Mr. A. R. Maiden (whose profound knowledge 
and intimate acquaintance with the Cathedral, the Close, and the 
histories of the families that have resided there, will be recalled by his 
contemporaries) corresponded with a Mr. Eothrop Withington, a well- 
known American genealogist, on the subject. That gentleman was very 
insistent that Elinor was one of the five daughters of Saintbarbe, 
younger son of Richard Saintbarbe of Ashington, and cousin-german to 
Lady Walsingham. Another of this Thomas Saintbarbe's daughters, 
Alice, was the wife of Christopher Batt, a prominent citizen of Salisbury, 
and grandmother of Christopher Batt, founder of Salisbury, in 
Massachusetts, from whom it is of interest to note, Mr. Withington was 
himself descended, both through his father and mother. 

Mr. Withington 's definite opinion on the subject of Elinor Sadler's 
parentage ignores, as Mr. Maiden also notes, the Corriott family. This 
cannot be done ; the evidence that John Corriott's children were her 
brothers and sisters is overwhelming, and must either be accepted or 
explained away. Hugh Powell, her first husband, in his will mentions 

1 Modem Wilts, Frustfield Hundred, page 10. 

390 Notes on the Prehendal Mansion of Sherborne Monastery. 

his five brothers-in-law, John Corriott and George (^orriott, John Lynch 
(his executor, described by Ehnor Sadler in a Chancery Deposition ^ 
in 1633 as her " brother-in-law "), Nicholas Hill (who, in 1570, married 
Dorothy Coryat), and Robert Bower (who, in 1575, married Margaret 
Coryat, and, in 1605, refers in his will to his " sister Sadler "). Hugh 
Powell, himself of ancient lineage, would surely, had his wife been 
paternally descended from the distinguished Saintbarbe family, have 
recognised the relationship in his will. 

In order to reconcile Elinor Sadler's relationship to both the Corriott 
and Saintbarbe families and, at the same time, account for her first- 
cousinship to Lady Walsingham, only an hypothesis of half-relationship 
is possible. Thomas Saintbarbe 's wife — or the wife of one of his four 
brothers — -being Elinor's mother — might have remarried, on her hus- 
band's death, John Corriott ; then their children would be Elinor's 
half-brothers and sisters. This, however, could not well have happened 
because Elinor was born in 1543 and, while three of the Saintbarbe 
brothers long survived that year, the other two are said to have died 
childless. Thomas Saintbarbe, in particular, did not die until 1572, 
four years after, let it be noted, the death of John Corriott. This pro- 
cess of elimination moreover greatly narrows the search for Elinor' 
parentage on the Saintbarbe side. Either she was the daughter of a 
Saintbarbe who does not figure in the family pedigree, and of whom 
nothing is known, or her mother must have been sister to the five 
Saintbarbe brothers mentioned and, like them, a first-cousin to Lady 
Walsingham. And, after all, this is the solution of the problem 
suggested in the memorial inscription and by the facts that have been 
brought to light. 

And now to return to Thomas Sadler, At, or soon after, his second 

marriage he would have taken up his residence at Sherborne House 

He had then, as will be seen presently, by lawful means obtained the 

Grant of the premises made in 1564 to Hugh Powell. This, three years 

later, he surrendered to the Dean and Chapter, receiving a fresh one for 

the unexpired term. This Grant contains much of interest, making 

veiled allusions to the dispute over the title and acknowledging his help 

in support of their claim, recognised in the conditions of the Grant. It 

recites those of the old Grant adding, significantly, that the yearly rent 

of twenty-six shillings and eight pence has been for the space of many 

years past, through the indirect dealings of some, wrongfully detained 

from the Dean and Chapter, and then continues : — " And for as much 

as Thomas Sadler, of honest and goodly inclination towards the 

Church and Chapter, having lately by lawful means obtained and 

gotten the said Deed so granted of the premises, as also the right 

title and interest of the term of years yet to come, is contented 

and well-pleased, upon certain reasonable conditions in these 

presents expressed, to continue the true payment of the said 

twenty six shillings and eight pence according to the true intent 

C. 21, L. 14, 19. 

By C. B. Everett, F.S.G. 391 

and meaning of the said Deed indented of purpose thereby to restore 
to the said Dean and Chapter to their possession an ancient right 
of inheritance of and in the premises. Now, this , Indenture 
Witnesses that the said Dean and Chapter grant to the said Thomas 
Sadler the premises in the said Deed mentioned for the whole term 
of years therein limited and unexpired against themselves and their 
successors, and all other persons claiming the premises." 
The Grant under consideration was evidently made when Thomas 
Sadler had already been in possession of Sherborne House for at least 
a year or two, as at this date, the extensions and other changes planned 
by him were in a fair way towards completion. These are known to 
have been on the south side of the ancient hall : the extension on its 
north, in the Elizabethan style, has been attributed to his predecessor. 
In any case he was responsible for a great deal, as the Grant bears wit- 
ness, reciting how " since the premises came into his possession in very 
necessary and convenient manner he had bestowed great sums of money 
to the value of CC marks to the necessary repa